FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Crataegus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Crataegus
iCrataegus
Common Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna)
Common Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Maloideae
Genus: Crataegus
Tourn. ex L.
Species

See text Image File history File links Common hawthorn. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... Genera Amelanchier - serviceberry, juneberry Aronia - chokeberry Chaenomeles - Japanese quince Cotoneaster - cotoneaster Crataegus - hawthorn Cydonia - quince Eriobotrya - loquat Eriolobus (Malus pro parte) Heteromeles - Toyon Malus - apple, crabapple Mespilus - medlar Osteomeles Photinia Pyracantha - firethorn Pyrus - pear Rhaphiolepis - Indian hawthorn Sorbus - rowan, whitebeam, service tree Stranvaesia - (Photinia pro parte) The Maloideae, or the... Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (June 5, 1656 – December 28, 1708) was a French botanist. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

Crataegus (Hawthorn) is a large genus of in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. The name hawthorn was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the Common Hawthorn C. monogyna, but is now applied to the entire genus, and also to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis. Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... Insert non-formatted text here The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planets surface (or celestial sphere) that is north of the equator (the word hemisphere literally means half ball). On the Earth, the Northern Hemisphere contains most of the land and population. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Binomial name Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ... Species About 15 species, including: Rhaphiolepis ferruginea Rhaphiolepis fragrans Rhaphiolepis indica Rhaphiolepis integerrima Rhaphiolepis kerrii Rhaphiolepis lanceolata Rhaphiolepis major Rhaphiolepis salicifolia Rhaphiolepis umbellata Rhaphiolepis is a genus of about 15 species of evergreen shrubs and small trees in the family Rosaceae, native to warm temperate and subtropical eastern and southeastern...


They are shrubs and small trees growing to 5-15 m tall, characterized by their small pome fruit and thorny branches. The bark is smooth grey in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. The fruits are sometimes known as "haws", from which the name derived. The thorns grow from branches, and are typically 1-3 cm long. The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, and in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. The leaves themselves have lobed or serrate margins and are somewhat variable shape. A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... An apple is an example of a pome fruit. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ...

Common Hawthorn (close up of flowers)
Common Hawthorn (close up of flowers)

The number of species in the genus depends on taxonomic interpretation, with numerous apomictic microspecies; some botanists recognise a thousand or more species, while others reduce the number to 200 or fewer. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1067, 144 KB) Common hawthorn flowers. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1067, 144 KB) Common hawthorn flowers. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... In botany, apomixis is asexual reproduction, without fertilization and without meiosis. ...


Hawthorns provide food and shelter for many species of birds and mammals, and the flowers are important for many nectar-feeding insects. Hawthorns are also used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Hawthorns. Orders Many - see section below. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... Clivia miniata A cluster of flowers (Clivia miniata) A Blue Summer Flower. ... Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrates that are taxonomically referred to as the class Insecta. ... A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Super Families Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Micropterigoidea Heterobathmioidea Eriocranioidea Acanthopteroctetoidea Lophocoronoidea Neopseustoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Hepialoidea Nepticuloidea Incurvarioidea Palaephatoidea Tischeriodea Simaethistoidea Tineoidea Gracillarioidea Yponomeutoidea Gelechioidea Zygaenoidea Sesioidea Cossoidea Tortricoidea Choreutoida Urodoidea Galacticoidea Schreckensteinioidea Epermenioidea Pterophoroidea Aluctoidea Immoidea Axioidea Hyblaeoidea Thyridoidea Whalleyanoidea Pyraloidea Mimallonoidea Lasiocampoidea Geometroidea Drepanoidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidae Hedyloidea Noctuoidea Families About... Hawthorns (Crataegus spp. ...


In Celtic lore, the hawthorn plant was used commonly for rune inscriptions along with Yew and Apple. It was once said to heal the broken heart. A Celtic cross. ... Genera Taxaceae sensu stricto Taxus Pseudotaxus Austrotaxus — Cephalotaxaceae Torreya Amentotaxus Cephalotaxus The family Taxaceae, commonly called the yew family, includes three genera and about 7 to 12 species of coniferous plants, or in other interpretations (see Classification, below), six genera and about 30 species. ... Binomial name Malus domestica Borkh. ...


Many species and hybrids are used as ornamental and street trees. The Common Hawthorn is extensively used in Europe as a hedge plant. Several cultivars of the Midland Hawthorn C. laevigata have been selected for their pink or red flowers. Hawthorns are among the trees most recommended for water-conservation landscapes. An ornamental plant is a plant that is grown for its ornamental qualities, rather than for its commercial or other value. ... In gardening a hedge is a row of woody plants, generally of one species, used to demarcate spaces. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...

Selected species
  • Crataegus aemula - Rome Hawthorn
  • Crataegus aestivalis - May Hawthorn
  • Crataegus altaica - Altai Hawthorn
  • Crataegus ambigua - Russian Hawthorn
  • Crataegus ambitiosa - Grand Rapids Hawthorn
  • Crataegus anamesa - Fort Bend Hawthorn
  • Crataegus ancisa - Mississippi Hawthorn
  • Crataegus annosa - Phoenix City Hawthorn
  • Crataegus apiifolia - Parsley-leaved Hawthorn
  • Crataegus apiomorpha - Fort Sheridan Hawthorn
  • Crataegus aprica
  • Crataegus arborea - Montgomery Hawthorn
  • Crataegus arcana - Carolina Hawthorn
  • Crataegus arkansana - Arkansas Hawthorn
  • Crataegus arnoldiana
  • Crataegus arrogans - Dixie Hawthorn
  • Crataegus ater - Nashville Hawthorn
  • Crataegus austromontana - Valley Head Hawthorn
  • Crataegus azarolus - Azarole Hawthorn
  • Crataegus biltmoreana
  • Crataegus boyntonii
  • Crataegus brachyacantha
  • Crataegus calpodendron - Black Hawthorn
  • Crataegus canbyi
  • Crataegus champlainensis
  • Crataegus chlorosarca
  • Crataegus chrysocarpa
  • Crataegus coccinoides
  • Crataegus collina
  • Crataegus columbiana
  • Crataegus compta
  • Crataegus crus-galli - Cockspur Thorn
  • Crataegus cuneata - Japanese Hawthorn
  • Crataegus cupulifera
  • Crataegus dahurica
  • Crataegus diffusa
  • Crataegus douglasii - Black Hawthorn
  • Crataegus dsungarica
  • Crataegus dunbarii
  • Crataegus ellwangeriana
  • Crataegus erythropoda
  • Crataegus flabellata
  • Crataegus flava - Yellow-fruited Hawthorn
  • Crataegus fontanesiana
  • Crataegus heldreichii
  • Crataegus henryi
  • Crataegus heterophylla - Various-leaved Hawthorn
  • Crataegus holmesiana
  • Crataegus hupehensis
  • Crataegus intricata - Thicket Hawthorn
  • Crataegus jackii
  • Crataegus jonesiae
  • Crataegus laevigata (syn. C. oxyacantha) - Midland Hawthorn
  • Crataegus mackenzii
  • Crataegus macrosperma
  • Crataegus marshalli - Parsley-leaved Hawthorn
  • Crataegus maximowiczii
  • Crataegus mercerensis
  • Crataegus missouriensis
  • Crataegus mollis - Downy Hawthorn
  • Crataegus monogyna - Common Hawthorn
  • Crataegus nigra - Hungarian Hawthorn
  • Crataegus oliveriana
  • Crataegus orientalis
  • Crataegus pedicellata
  • Crataegus pentagyna
  • Crataegus peregrina
  • Crataegus phaenopyrum - Washington Hawthorn
  • Crataegus pinnatifida - Chinese Hawthorn
  • Crataegus pruinosa - Frosted Hawthorn
  • Crataegus pubescens (syn. C. stipulacea) - Mexican Hawthorn
  • Crataegus punctata - Dotted Hawthorn
  • Crataegus puntamiana
  • Crataegus rhipidophylla (syn. C. rodiformis or C. curvisepala)
  • Crataegus rivularis
  • Crataegus saligna
  • Crataegus sanguinea - Redhaw Hawthorn
  • Crataegus spathulata
  • Crataegus submollis
  • Crataegus succulenta - Fleshy Hawthorn
  • Crataegus tanacetifolia
  • Crataegus triflora
  • Crataegus uniflora
  • Crataegus viridis - Winter King Hawthorn or Green Hawthorn
  • Crataegus wattiana
  • Crataegus wilsonii

Binomial name Crataegus aestivalis (Walter) Torr. ... The Various-leaved Hawthorn, Crataegus heterophylla Flugge is a small tree of about 3m in height, sometimes up to 10m; often semi-evergreen in character, with unusually variable leaves for a hawthorn. ... Binomial name Crataegus laevigata (Poir. ... Binomial name Crataegus mollis (Torr. ... Binomial name Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ... Binomial name Crataegus pubescens Loudon Mexican Hawthorn or Tejocote (Crataegus pubescens; syn. ...

Uses

Culinary use

The fruits of the species Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese Hawthorn), which are tart, bright red, and resemble small crabapple fruits, are used to make many kinds of Chinese snacks, including haw flakes and tánghúlú (糖葫芦, literally "sugar gourd", consisting of candied hawthorn fruits on bamboo skewers). This latter food is popular with children in northern China, where it is a traditional winter snack [1][2]. The fruits, which are called shānzhā (楂) in Chinese, are also used to produce jams, jellies, juices, alcoholic beverages, and other drinks [3]. In South Korea, a liquor called sansachun (산사춘) is made from the fruits.[4] Species Malus angustifolia - Southern Crab Malus baccata - Siberian Crabapple Malus bracteata Malus brevipes Malus coronaria - Sweet Crabapple Malus domestica - Apple Malus florentina Malus floribunda - Japanese Crabapple Malus formosana Malus fusca - Oregon Crab, Pacific Crab Malus glabrata Malus glaucescens Malus halliana Malus honanensis Malus hupehensis - Chinese Crabapple Malus ioensis - Prairie Crab... A roll of haw flakes and a haw flake Haw flakes (Simplified Chinese: 山楂饼; pinyin: shān zhā bǐng) are a Chinese sweet that is made from the fruit of the hawthorn. ...


The fruits of Crataegus pubescens are known in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten raw, cooked, or in jam during the winter months. They are stuffed in the piñatas broken during the traditional pre-Christmas parties known as posadas. They are also cooked with other fruits to prepare a Christmas punch. A piñata during a Mexican celebration in a german amusement park The piñata is a bright candy-and-toy-filled container (generally suspended on a rope from a tree branch or ceiling) that is used during celebrations. ... Posadas is a nine-day holiday beginning December 16 and ending December 24. ...


In the southern United States fruits of three native species are collectively known as Mayhaws and are made into jellies which are considered a great delicacy. Species Crataegus aestivalis Crataegus opaca Crataegus rufula et al Mayhaw is the name given to the fruit of three species of hawthorn that are common in wetlands throughout the southern United States. ...


The leaves are edible and, if picked in the months of April and May, they are tender enough to be used in salads.[1]

Medicinal use

The dried fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida (called 山楂 or shān zhā in Chinese) are used in naturopathic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as a digestive aid. A closely related species, Crataegus cuneata (Japanese Hawthorn, called sanzashi in Japanese) is used in a similar manner. Other species (especially Crataegus laevigata) are used in Western herbal medicine, where the plant is believed to strengthen cardiovascular function [5]. In recent years, this use has been noted and adopted by Chinese herbalists as well [6]. Hawthorn is also used as an aid to lower blood pressure, and treat some heart related diseases. Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ...

Clinical trials

Several clinical trials have assessed the ability of hawthorn to help improve exercise tolerance in people with NYHA class II cardiac insufficiency compared to placebo. One trial, at (300mg/day) for 4 to 8 weeks, found not difference from placebo. The second trial, including 78 subjects (600mg/day) for 8 weeks, found "significant improvement in exercise tolerance" and lower blood pressure and heart rate during exercise. The third trial, including 32 subjects (900mg/day) for 8 weeks, found improved exercise tolerance as well as a reduction in the "incidence and severity of symptoms such as dyspnea and fatigue decreased by approximately 50%" [2].


In the HERB-CHF (Hawthorn Extract Randomized Blinded Chronic HF Study) clinical trial, 120 patients took 450mg of hawthorn extract twice daily for 6 months in combination with standard therapy and a standardized exercise program. "No effects of hawthorn were seen on either quality-of-life endpoint (Tables 1 and 2), or when adjusted for LVEF" [3].


One study, consisting of 1011 patients taking one tablet (standardized to 84.3mg procyanidin) twice daily for 24 weeks, found "improvements in clinical symptoms (such as fatigue, palpitations, and exercise dyspnea), performance and exercise tolerance test, and ejection fraction" [4].

Other uses

The wood of some hawthorn species is very hard and resistant to rot. In rural North America it was prized for use as tool handles and fence posts.

References and external links

Commons logo
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Crataegus
  1. ^ Richard Mabey, Food for Free, Collins, October 2001.
  2. ^ Bauman HHSFJL (2002). Hawthorn. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 16:1-8
  3. ^ Aaronson K: HERB-CHF: Hawthorn Extract Randomized Blinded Chronic Heart Failure Trial. In, 2004
  4. ^ Sweet JMRBV (2002). Hawthorn: Pharmacology and therapeutic uses. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 59: 417-422
  • Photos of Chinese haw berries
  • Key to Crataegus of Western North America
  • Medicinal uses of Hawthorn in Armenia
  • Edible uses of hawthorns at Plants For A Future
  • Crataegus phaenopyrum images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu

  Results from FactBites:
 
Trees of Wisconsin: Crataegus mollis, downy hawthorn (206 words)
There are about 40 species of Crataegus in Wisconsin, 17 of them are considered to be trees, and they are difficult to distinguish from one another.
Crataegus mollis, shown here, is one of about 6-8 relatively common species.
Most species of Crataegus appear to prefer open sun or light shade and none seems to thrive under full canopy in the long run, although they may persist in moderately shaded sites for at least 10 years.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m