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Encyclopedia > Crash test dummy
Crash test dummies have saved many thousands of lives.
Crash test dummies have saved many thousands of lives.

Crash test dummies are full-scale replicas of human beings, weighted and articulated to simulate the behavior of a human body, and instrumented to record as much data as possible on accident variables such as speed of impact, crushing force, bending, folding, or torque of the body, and deceleration rates during a collision. In modern times, they remain indispensable in the development of new makes and models of all types of vehicles, from family sedans to fighter aircraft. This article focuses on the role of crash test dummies in preventing injury to automobile occupants. Image File history File links Focus1. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... In general, data consist of propositions that reflect reality. ... Speed is the rate of motion, or equivalently the rate of change of position, many times expressed as distance d moved per unit of time t. ... In physics, the force experienced by a body is defined as the rate of change of momentum with time. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Moment (physics). ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the gradient of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... For other uses, see Collision (disambiguation). ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) This article is about the means of transport. ... A Toyota Camry, a recognizable sedan The Ford Five Hundred, a full-sized sedan The 3-box design, indicative of a notchback sedan, as illustrated on a full-size luxury sedan. ... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Karl Benzs Velo (vélo means bicycle in French) model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race 2005 MINI Cooper S. An automobile (also motor car or simply car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ...

Contents

The need for testing

On August 31, 1869, Mary Ward became what is believed to be the first recorded victim of an automobile accident, when she was thrown out of a motor vehicle and killed in Parsonstown, Ireland.[1] Some years later, on September 13, 1899, Henry Bliss entered the history books as North America's first motor vehicle fatality when he was hit stepping off a New York City trolley. Since that time, in excess of 20 million people worldwide have lost their lives to motor vehicle accidents. August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Scientist Mary Ward Mary Ward (b. ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Henry Bliss in 1873 While Bridget Driscoll was the first person killed by an automobile in the world, Henry Hale Bliss (1831? to September 13, 1899) is the first person killed in a car accident in the United States. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. ...


The need for a means of analysing and mitigating the effects of motor vehicle accidents on human bodies was felt very soon after the commercial production of automobiles began in the late 1890s, and by the 1930s, with the automobile a common part of daily life, the number of motor vehicle deaths was becoming a serious issue. Death rates had surpassed 15.6 fatalities per 100 million vehicle-miles and were continuing to climb; vehicle designers saw this as a clear indication it was time to do some research on ways to make their products safer.


In 1930, the interior of a car was not a safe place even in a low-speed collision. Dashboards were made of rigid metal, steering columns were non-collapsible, and protruding knobs, buttons, and levers were ubiquitous. Seat belts were unheard-of, and in a frontal collision, passengers hurled through the windshield stood very little chance of avoiding serious injury or death. The vehicle body itself was rigid, and impact forces were transmitted directly to the vehicle occupants. As late as the 1950s, car manufacturers were on public record as saying vehicle accidents simply could not be made survivable; the forces in a crash were too great and the human body too frail. In mathematics, the interior of a set S consists of all points which are intuitively not on the edge of S. A point which is in the interior of S is an interior point of S. The notion of interior is in many ways dual to the notion of closure. ... A dashboard from a 1940s car The dashboard of a modern car, a Bentley Continental GT A Hayabusas dash A modern Formula 1 car has all its gauges mounted on the steering wheel A dashboard or dash board in an automobile is a panel located under the windscreen and... Automobile windshield. ... // The following data show the automobile manufacturers which produce or have produced automobiles, and some data on their relative sizes. ...


Cadaver testing

Detroit's Wayne State University was the first to begin serious work on collecting data on the effects of high-speed collisions on the human body. In the late 1930s, there were no reliable data on the response of the human body to extreme physical insult, and no effective tools existed to measure such responses. Biomechanics was a field barely in its infancy. It was therefore necessary to employ two types of test subjects in order to develop initial data sets. Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Wayne State University is located in Detroit, Michigan, in the citys Cultural Center. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The first test subjects were human cadavers. They were used to obtain fundamental information about the human body's ability to withstand the crushing and tearing forces typically experienced in a high-speed accident. To such an end, steel ball bearings were dropped on skulls, and bodies were dumped down unused elevator shafts onto steel plates. Cadavers fitted with crude accelerometers were strapped into automobiles and subjected to head-on collisions and vehicle rollovers. With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... A 4 point contact ball bearing A ball bearing is a common type of rolling-element bearing, a kind of bearing. ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... A set of lifts in the lower level of a London Underground station. ... A depiction of an accelerometer designed at Sandia National Laboratories. ...


Albert King's 1995 Journal of Trauma article, "Humanitarian Benefits of Cadaver Research on Injury Prevention", clearly states the value in human lives saved as a result of cadaver research. King's calculations indicate that as a result of design changes implemented up to 1987, cadaver research has since saved 8500 lives annually. He notes that for every cadaver used, each year 61 people survive due to wearing seat belts, 147 live due to air bags, and 68 survive windshield impact.[2] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An airbag is a flexible membrane or envelope, inflatable to contain air or some other gas. ... Automobile windshield. ...


However, work with cadavers presented almost as many problems as it resolved. Not only were there the moral and ethical issues related to working with the dead, but there were also research concerns. The majority of cadavers available were older Caucasian adults who had died non-violent deaths; they did not represent a demographic cross-section of accident victims. Deceased accident victims could not be employed because any data that might be collected from such experimental subjects would be compromised by the cadaver's previous injuries. Since no two cadavers are the same, and since any specific part of a cadaver could be used only once, it was extremely difficult to achieve reliable comparison data. In addition, child cadavers were not only difficult to obtain, but both legal and public opinion made them effectively unusable. Moreover, as crash testing became more routine, suitable cadavers became increasingly scarce. As a result, biometric data were limited in extent and skewed toward the older white male. Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek Ä“thikos, the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group and covers the analysis and employment of concepts such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into White people. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ... At Disney World, biometric measurements are taken of the fingers of multi-day pass users to ensure that the pass is used by the same person from day to day. ...


Volunteer testing

Some researchers took it upon themselves to serve as crash test subjects. Colonel John Paul Stapp USAF propelled himself over 630 mph (1010 km/h) on a rocket sled and stopped in less than a second.[3] Lawrence Patrick, a now-retired Wayne State University professor, endured some 400 rides on a rocket sled in order to test the effects of rapid deceleration on the human body. He and his students allowed themselves to be smashed in the chest with heavy metal pendulums, impacted in the face by pneumatically-driven rotary hammers, and sprayed with shattered glass to simulate window implosion.[4] While admitting that it made him "a little sore," Patrick has said that the research he and his students conducted was seminal in developing mathematical models against which further research could be compared. But while data from live testing was valuable, human subjects could not withstand tests which went past a certain degree of physical discomfort. To gather information about the causes and prevention of injuries and fatalities would require a different kind of subject. John Paul Stapp, M.D., Ph. ... A rocket sled is essentially a small railroad car with rockets attached. ... Lawrence Patrick may well be considered the father of the crash test dummy. ... A rocket sled is essentially a small railroad car with rockets attached. ... Simple gravity pendulum assumes no air resistance and no friction of/at the nail/screw. ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ...


Animal testing

By the mid-1950s, the bulk of the information cadaver testing could provide had been harvested. It was also necessary to collect data on accident survivability, research for which cadavers were woefully inadequate. In concert with the shortage of cadavers, this need forced researchers to seek other models. A description by Mary Roach of the Eighth Stapp Car Crash and Field Demonstration Conference shows the direction in which research had begun to move. "We saw chimpanzees riding rocket sleds, a bear on an impact swing...We observed a pig, anesthetized and placed in a sitting position on the swing in the harness, crashed into a deep-dish steering wheel at about 10 mph."[5] Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Genera Ailuropoda Helarctos Melursus Ursus Tremarctos Arctodus (extinct) A bear is a small mammal in the family Ursidae of the order Carnivora. ... This article is about the pig genus. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...


One important research objective which could not be achieved with either cadavers or live humans was a means of reducing the injuries caused by impalement on the steering column. By 1964, over a million fatalities resulting from steering wheel impact had been recorded, a significant percentage of all fatalities; the introduction by General Motors in the early 1960s of the collapsible steering column cut the risk of steering-wheel death by fifty percent. The most commonly used animal subjects in cabin-collision studies were pigs, primarily because their internal structure is similar to a human's. Pigs can also be placed in a vehicle in a good approximation of a seated human. A modern road cars steering wheel Steering wheels from different periods A steering wheel is a type of steering control used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ...


The ability to sit upright was an important requirement for test animals in order that another common fatal injury among human victims, decapitation, could be studied. As well, it was important for researchers to be able to determine to what extent cabin design needed to be modified to ensure optimal survival circumstances. For instance, a dashboard with too little padding or padding which was too stiff or too soft would not significantly reduce head injury over a dash with no padding at all. While knobs, levers, and buttons are essential in the operation of a vehicle, which design modifications would best ensure that these elements did not tear or puncture victims in a crash? Rear-view mirror impact is a significant occurrence in a frontal collision; how should a mirror be built so that it is both rigid enough to perform its task and yet of low injury risk if struck? Salome and the Beheading of St. ... A dashboard from a 1940s car The dashboard of a modern car, a Bentley Continental GT A Hayabusas dash A modern Formula 1 car has all its gauges mounted on the steering wheel A dashboard or dash board in an automobile is a panel located under the windscreen and... The rear-view mirror of a Mazda 626. ...


While work with cadavers had aroused some opposition, primarily from religious institutions, it was grudgingly accepted because the dead, being dead, felt no pain, and the indignity of their situations was directly related to easing the pain of the living. Animal research, on the other hand, aroused much greater passion. Animal rights groups such as the ASPCA were vehement in their protest, and while researchers such as Patrick supported animal testing because of its ability to produce reliable, applicable data, there was nonetheless a strong ethical unease about this process. For other uses, see Pain (disambiguation). ... American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (usually referred to as the ASPCA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing the abuse of animals. ...


Although animal test data were still more easily obtained than cadaver data, the fact that animals were not people and the difficulty of employing adequate internal instrumentation limited their usefulness. Animal testing is no longer practiced by any of the major automobile makers; General Motors discontinued live testing in 1993 and other manufacturers followed suit shortly thereafter. General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ...


Dummy evolution

Sierra Sam tested ejection seats.
Sierra Sam tested ejection seats.

The information gleaned from cadaver research and animal studies had already been put to some use in the construction of human simulacra as early as 1949, when "Sierra Sam" was created by Samuel W. Alderson at his Alderson Research Labs (ARL) and Sierra Engineering Co. to test aircraft ejection seats and pilot restraint harnesses. This testing involved the use of high acceleration to 1000 [[km/hSuperscript text2]] (600 mph) rocket sleds, beyond the capability of human volunteers to tolerate. In the early 1950s, Alderson and Grumman produced a dummy which was used to conduct crash tests in both motor vehicles and aircraft. Sierra Sam Full permission granted to use. ... Sierra Sam Full permission granted to use. ... US Air Force F/A-22 Raptor ejection seat test using a mannequin. ... Simulacrum (plural: simulacra), from the Latin simulare, to make like, to put on an appearance of, originally meaning a material object representing something (such as a cult image representing a deity, or a painted still-life of a bowl of fruit). ... Samuel W. Alderson Samuel W. Alderson (1914 - 2005) is best known for his invention of the crash test dummy, a device which, during the last half of the twentieth century, was widely used by automobile manufacturers to test the reliability of automobile seat belts and other safety protocols. ... US Air Force F/A-22 Raptor ejection seat test using a mannequin. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...

The mass production of dummies afforded their use in many more applications.
The mass production of dummies afforded their use in many more applications.

Alderson went on to produce what it called the VIP-50 series, built specifically for General Motors and Ford, but which was also adopted by the National Bureau of Standards. Sierra followed up with a competitor dummy, a model it called "Sierra Stan," but GM, who had taken over the impetus in developing a reliable and durable dummy, found neither model satisfied its needs. GM engineers decided to combine the best features of the VIP series and Sierra Stan, and so in 1971 Hybrid I was born. Hybrid I was what is known as a "50th percentile male" dummy. That is to say, it modeled an average male in height, mass, and proportion. The original "Sierra Sam" was a 95th percentile male dummy (heavier and taller than 95% of human males). In cooperation with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), GM shared this design, and a subsequent 5th percentile female dummy, with its competitors. Sierra Sam - USAF photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sierra Sam - USAF photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Ford Motor Company, (Fomoco on mechanical parts), is an American multinational corporation and the worlds third largest automaker based on vehicle sales in 2005. ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... In descriptive statistics, the pth percentile is a scale value for a data series equal to the p/100 quantile. ... The Society of Automotive Engineers is a professional organisation and standards body for the engineering of powered vehicles of all kinds - cars, trucks, boats, aircraft and more. ...


Since then, considerable work has gone into creating more and more sophisticated dummies. Hybrid II was introduced in 1972, with improved shoulder, spine, and knee responses, and more rigorous documentation. Hybrid II became the first dummy to comply with the American Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) for testing of automotive lap and shoulder belts. In 1973, a 50th percentile male dummy was released, and the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) NHTSA undertook an agreement with General Motors to produce a model exceeding Hybrid II's performance in a number of specific areas. General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ...


Though a great improvement over cadavers for standardized testing purposes, Hybrid I and Hybrid II were still very crude, and their use was limited to developing and testing seat belt designs. A dummy was needed which would allow researchers to explore injury-reduction strategies. It was this need that pushed GM researchers to develop the current Hybrid line, the Hybrid III family of crash test dummies. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Hybrid III family

The original 50th percentile male Hybrid III's family expanded to include a 95th percentile male, 5th percentile female, and three-year-old and six-year-old child dummies.
The original 50th percentile male Hybrid III's family expanded to include a 95th percentile male, 5th percentile female, and three-year-old and six-year-old child dummies.

Hybrid III, the 50th percentile male dummy which made its first appearance in 1976, is the familiar crash test dummy, and he is now a family man. If he could stand upright, he would be 168 cm (5'6") tall and would have a mass of 77 kg (170 lb). He occupies the driver's seat in all the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) [1] 65 km/h (40 mph) offset frontal crash tests. He is joined by a "big brother", the 95th percentile Hybrid III, at 188 cm (6 ft 2 in) and 100 kg (223 lb). Ms. Hybrid III is a 5th percentile female dummy, at a diminutive 152 cm (5 ft) tall and 50 kg (110 lb).[6] The two Hybrid III child dummies represent a 21 kg (47 lb) six year old and a 15 kg (33 lb) three year old. The child models are very recent additions to the crash test dummy family; because so little hard data are available on the effects of accidents on children, and such data are very difficult to obtain, these models are based in large part on estimates and approximations. HybridIII crash test dummy COPYRIGHT AND USE OF IMAGES NOTICE All material available on the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and Highway Loss Data Institute Internet sites are copyrighted property of the Institutes, unless indicated otherwise. ... HybridIII crash test dummy COPYRIGHT AND USE OF IMAGES NOTICE All material available on the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and Highway Loss Data Institute Internet sites are copyrighted property of the Institutes, unless indicated otherwise. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... The pound (abbreviations: lb or, sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of units of mass that formed part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Ms or Ms. ... Estimation is approximate or uncertain calculation of a result, often based on approximate, uncertain, incomplete, or noisy inputs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with estimation. ...


Test process

Every Hybrid III undergoes calibration prior to a crash test. Its head is removed and is dropped from 40 centimetres to test calibrate the head instrumentation. Then the head and neck are reattached, set in motion, and stopped abruptly to check for proper neck flexure. Hybrids wear chamois leather skin; the knees are struck with a metal probe to check for proper puncture. Finally, the head and neck are attached to the body, which is attached to a test platform and struck violently in the chest by a heavy pendulum to ensure that the ribs bend and flex as they should. Chamois leather is leather made from the skin of the chamois, although the term is also commonly used to refer to cloths made from the skin of other animals or a synthetic material version. ... The human rib cage. ...


When the dummy has been determined to be ready for testing, it is dressed entirely in yellow, marking paint is applied to the head and knees, and calibration marks are fastened to the side of the head to aid researchers when slow-motion films are reviewed later. The dummy is then placed inside the test vehicle. Forty-four data channels located in all parts of the Hybrid III, from the head to the ankle, record between 30 000 and 35 000 data items in a typical 100 - 150 millisecond crash. Recorded in a temporary data repository in the dummy's chest, these data are downloaded to computer once the test is complete. Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... Grays Fig. ... One millisecond is one-thousandth of a second. ... Chest of a human male The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ...


Because the Hybrid is a standardized data collection device, any part of a particular Hybrid type is interchangeable with any other. Not only can one dummy be tested several times, but if a part should fail, it can be replaced with a new part. A fully-instrumented dummy is worth about 150 000.[7] For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation) or EUR (disambiguation). ...


Hybrid's successors

Hybrid IIIs are designed to research the effects of frontal impacts, and are less valuable in assessing the effects of other sorts of impacts, such as side impacts, rear impacts, or rollovers. After head-on collisions, the most common severe injury accident is the side impact. A rollover in Sydney, Australia on Christmas day, 2001. ...


The SID (Side Impact Dummy) family of test dummies has been designed to measure rib, spine, and internal organ effects in side collisions. It also assesses spine and rib deceleration and compression of the chest cavity. SID is the US government testing standard, EuroSID is used in Europe to ensure compliance with safety standards, and SID II(s) represents a 5th percentile female. BioSID is a more sophisticated version of SID and EuroSID, but is not used in a regulatory capacity. The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


BioRID is a dummy designed to assess the effects of a rear impact. Its primary purpose is to research Whiplash, and to aid designers in developing effective head and neck restraints. BioRID is more sophisticated in its spinal construction than Hybrid; 24 vertebra simulators allow BioRID to assume a much more natural seating posture, and to demonstrate the neck movement and configuration seen in rear-end collisions. Whiplash is the common name for a hyper extension/flexion injury to the cervical, thoracic or lumbar spines. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ...

THOR offers sophisticated instrumentation for assessing frontal-impacts.
THOR offers sophisticated instrumentation for assessing frontal-impacts.

CRABI is a child dummy used to evaluate the effectiveness of child restraint devices including seat belts and air bags. There are three models of the CRABI, representing 18-month, 12-month, and 6-month old children. THOR crash test dummy COPYRIGHT AND USE OF IMAGES NOTICE All material available on the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and Highway Loss Data Institute Internet sites are copyrighted property of the Institutes, unless indicated otherwise. ... THOR crash test dummy COPYRIGHT AND USE OF IMAGES NOTICE All material available on the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and Highway Loss Data Institute Internet sites are copyrighted property of the Institutes, unless indicated otherwise. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An airbag is a flexible membrane or envelope, inflatable to contain air or some other gas. ...


THOR is an advanced 50th percentile male dummy. The successor of Hybrid III, THOR has a more humanlike spine and pelvis, and its face contains a number of sensors which allow analysis of facial impacts to an accuracy currently unobtainable with other dummies. THOR's range of sensors is also greater in quantity and sensitivity than those of Hybrid III. Thors battle against the giants, by Mårten Eskil Winge, 1872 Thor (Old Norse: Þórr) is the red-haired and bearded god of thunder in Norse Mythology and more generally Germanic mythology (Old English: Þunor, Old Dutch and Old High German: Donar, from Proto-Germanic *Þunraz). ... The pelvis (pl. ... The face is the front part of the head, in humans from the forehead to chin including the hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyes, nose, cheek, mouth, lips, philtrum, teeth, skin, and chin. ...


Further development is needed on dummies which can address the concern that, even though fewer lives are lost, there are still a hundred seriously injured passengers for every death, and crippling injuries to the legs and feet represent a great percentage of resultant physical impairments.


Future of the dummy

Crash test dummies have provided invaluable data on how human bodies react in crashes and have contributed greatly to improved vehicle design. While they have saved millions of lives, like cadavers and animals, they have reached a point of reduced data return.


The largest problem with acquiring data from cadavers, other than their availability, was that an essential element of standardized testing, repeatability, was impossible. No matter how many elements from a previous test could be reused, the cadaver had to be different each time. While modern test dummies have overcome this problem, testers still face essentially the same problem when it comes to testing the vehicle. A vehicle can be crashed only once; no matter how carefully the test is done, it cannot be repeated exactly.


A second problem with dummies is that they are only approximately human. Forty-four data channels on a Hybrid III is not even a remote representation of the number of data channels in a living person. The mimicking of internal organs is crude at best, a fact that means that even though cadavers and animals are no longer the primary sources of accident data, they must still be employed in the study of soft tissue injury.


The future of crash testing has begun at the same place it all started: Wayne State University. King H. Yang is one of Wayne State's researchers involved in creating detailed computer models of human systems. Currently, computers are neither fast enough nor programmers skilled enough to create full-body simulations, but injury analysis of individual body systems is producing reliable and encouraging results. A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... 3 programmers. ...


The advantage of the computer is that it is unbound by physical law. A virtual vehicle crashed once can be uncrashed and then crashed again in a slightly different manner. A virtual back broken can be unbroken, the seatbelt configuration changed, and the back re-broken. When every variable is controllable and every event is repeatable, the need for physical experimentation is greatly reduced. A physical law, scientific law, or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations of physical behavior. ... Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment, be it a real or imagined one. ...


At the beginning of the 21st century, legal certification of new car models is still required to be done using physical dummies in physical vehicles. However, the future is almost certainly one where neither skin and bone, or plastic and steel will determine the shape of vehicles to come. The next generation of crash test dummies will perform their tasks entirely on a computer screen.


See also

Minor collisions such as this one are the most common type of crash. ... Car safety is the avoidance of car accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In auto racing, a safety car (known in America as the pace car) is a car which limits the speed of competing cars on a racetrack in the case of a major accident or obstruction on the track. ... Seat belt legislation is a law or laws put in place to enforce or require the wearing of seat belts while person is driving, or there are passengers in the front or back seats. ... Samuel W. Alderson Samuel W. Alderson (1914 - 2005) is best known for his invention of the crash test dummy, a device which, during the last half of the twentieth century, was widely used by automobile manufacturers to test the reliability of automobile seat belts and other safety protocols. ... Harold J. Bud Mertz is considered to be the driving force in the creation of the Hybrid III crash test dummy, the standard dummy used today. ... Vince and Larry The humanoid appearance of crash test dummies led to their becoming anthropomorphized. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Mary Ward 1827-1869. Famous Offaly People. Offaly Historical & Archaeological Society. Retrieved on April 25, 2006.
  2. ^ Carden, Gary. A curious look at the lives of the dead. Retrieved April 18, 2006.
  3. ^ 'Fastest Man on Earth,' Col. John Paul Stapp, Dies at 89 (March 1, 2000). Retrieved April 18, 2006.
  4. ^ Roach, Mary (November 19, 1999). I was a human crash-test dummy. Retrieved April 18, 2006.
  5. ^ I was a human crash-test dummy (Nov. 19, 1999).
  6. ^ Mello, Tara Baukus (December 5, 2000).The Female Dummy: No Brains, But A Real Lifesaver. Retrieved April 18, 2006.
  7. ^ How the Test are done (19 March 2003). Retrieved April 18, 2006.

April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

References

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cars - Crash test dummy (3405 words)
Crash test dummies are full-scale replicas of human beings, weighted and articulated to simulate the behavior of a human body in a vehicle mishap, and instrumented to record as much data as possible on variables such as speed of impact, crushing force, bending, folding, or torque of the body, and deceleration rates during a collision.
Hybrid III, the 50th percentile male dummy which made its first appearance in 1976, is the familiar crash test dummy, and he is now a family man. If he could stand upright, he would be 168 cm (5'6") tall and would have a mass of 77 kg (170 lb).
The child models are very recent additions to the crash test dummy family; because so little hard data are available on the effects of accidents on children, and such data are very difficult to obtain, these models are based in large part on estimates and approximations.
CTheory.net (2621 words)
Crash test dummies sit in a cut-away Lexus as if X-rayed, revealing both the skeletal automobile and the spectral interior dummy of its passengers.
In the purity of the crash test is the appearance of a sacramental writing circuit, the dummy's animation become a vehicle guaranteeing the safety of all drivers, its sensitivity inscribing the test in a range of measurement devices.
Between the driver and the corpse is the dummy: survival requires that other drivers become corpses, absorbed by the survivor as the knowledge of the dummy, the knowledge of having survived to drive again.
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