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Encyclopedia > Cranium (anatomy)
Cranium (anatomy)
Cranial bones ya
Gray's subject #30 128
Dorlands/Elsevier c_60/12264811

The cranium is the upper portion of the skull. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Elseviers logo. ... In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones. ...


Most sources include the following cranial bones: [1][2]

Other bones sometimes included are:[3][4] Your skull is in your back (this is obviously not true, I was just testing the website to see if it really works) The ethmoid bone (os ethmoidale) is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. ... The frontal bone (os frontale, TA: A02. ... The occipital bone, a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium, is trapezoid in shape and curved on itself. ... The parietal bones (os parietale) are bones in the human skull and form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. ... The sphenoid bone (from Greek sphenoeides, wedgelike) is a bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital bone. ... The temporal bones (os temporales) are situated at the sides and base of the skull. ...

The term "cranium" is sometimes used as a synonym for "skull".[5] It is also sometimes defined as all of the skull bones, except the mandible.[6] The lacrimal bone (Os Lacrimale), the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit . ... The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. ... The Nasal Bones (Ossa Faciei & Ossa Nasalia) are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, the bridge of the nose. ... The palatine bone is a bone situated at the back part of the nasal cavity between the maxilla and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid. ... The vomer bone is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull. ... The zygomatic bone (malar bone) is a paired bone of the human skull. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ...


The term "neurocranium", "brain box",[7] or "braincase"[6] are sometimes used to define the portion of the cranium which encloses the brain. (This may be nearly synonymous with some of the more conservative definitions of "cranium".)


References

  1. ^ Skeletal System / Divisions of the Skeleton
  2. ^ The Skull - Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body - Yahoo! Education. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  3. ^ o_07/12598238 at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  4. ^ Definition: bones of skull from Online Medical Dictionary
  5. ^ Cranium at eMedicine Dictionary
  6. ^ a b Dept of Anth: Module Glossary
  7. ^ n_06/12568362 at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
The sphenoidal sinuses (or sphenoid) contained within the body of the sphenoid vary in size and shape; owing to the lateral displacement of the intervening septum they are rarely symmetrical. ... The greater wing of the sphenoid bone, or ali-sphenoid, is a bony process of the sphenoid bone; there is one on each side, extending from the side of the body of the sphenoid and curving upward, laterally, and backwards. ... At th anterior and medial part of the Sphenoid is a circular aperture, the foramen rotundum, for the transmission of the maxillary nerve. ... At the base of the skull the foramen ovale is a hole that transmits the mandibular nerve, the otic ganglion, the accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins (from the cavernous sinus to the pterygoid plexus) and the lesser superficial petrosal nerve. ... In the base of the skull, in the great wings of the sphenoid bone, medial to the foramen ovale, a small aperture, the sphenoidal emissary foramen, may occasionally be seen (it is often absent) opposite the root of the pterygoid process. ... The foramen spinosum is the foramen in the skull that permits the passage of the middle meningeal artery. ... The great wings, or ali-sphenoids, are two strong processes of bone, which arise from the sides of the body, and are curved upward, lateralward, and backward; the posterior part of each projects as a triangular process which fits into the angle between the squama and the petrous portion of... The lateral surface of the great wing is convex, and divided by a transverse ridge, the infratemporal crest, into two portions. ... The lesser wings of the sphenoid or orbito-sphenoids are two thin triangular plates, which arise from the upper and anterior parts of the body, and, projecting lateralward, end in sharp points [Fig. ... 1 Foramen ethmoidale, 2 Canalis opticus, 3 Fissura orbitalis superior, 4 Fossa sacci lacrimalis, 5 Sulcus infraorbitalis, 6 Fissura orbitalis inferior, 7 Foramen infraorbitale The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of... In the sphenoid bone, the posterior border, smooth and rounded, is received into the lateral fissure of the brain; the medial end of this border forms the anterior clinoid process, which gives attachment to the tentorium cerebelli; it is sometimes joined to the middle clinoid process by a spicule of... optical canal information ... The pterygoid processes of the sphenoid, one on either side, descend perpendicularly from the regions where the body and great wings unite. ... The Pterygoid fossa, or the sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the front of the cranium. ... In the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid, above the pterygoid fossa is a small, oval, shallow depression, the scaphoid fossa, which gives origin to the Tensor veli palatini. ... The lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid (or lateral lamina of pterygoid process) is broad, thin, and everted; its lateral surface forms part of the medial wall of the infratemporal fossa, and gives attachment to the Pterygoideus externus; its medial surface forms part of the pterygoid fossa, and gives attachment... The medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid is narrower and longer than the lateral pterygoid plate; it curves lateralward at its lower extremity into a hook-like process, the pterygoid hamulus, around which the tendon of the Tensor veli palatini glides. ... The pterygoid canal (also vidian canal) is a passage in the skull leading from just anterior to the foramen lacerum in the middle cranial fossa to the pterygopalatine fossa. ... The medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid curves lateralward at its lower extremity into a hook-like process, the pterygoid hamulus, around which the tendon of the Tensor veli palatini glides. ... The body of the sphenoid bone, more or less cubical in shape, is hollowed out in its interior to form two large cavities, the sphenoidal air sinuses, which are separated from each other by a septum. ... The sphenoidal conchae (sphenoidal turbinated processes) are two thin, curved plates, situated at the anterior and lower part of the body of the sphenoid. ... Your skull is in your back (this is obviously not true, I was just testing the website to see if it really works) The ethmoid bone (os ethmoidale) is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. ... The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (horizontal lamina) [Fig. ... The crista galli (Latin: crest of the cock) is a median ridge of bone that projects from the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. ... Bones and cartilages of septum of nose. ... In the ethmoid bone, a curved lamina, the uncinate process, projects downward and backward from this part of the labyrinth; it forms a small part of the medial wall of the maxillary sinus, and articulates with the ethmoidal process of the inferior nasal concha. ... The back part of the medial surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid is subdivided by a narrow oblique fissure, the superior meatus of the nose, bounded above by a thin, curved plate, the superior nasal concha. ... The superior meatus, the smallest of the three meatuses of the nose, occupies the middle third of the lateral wall. ... The medial surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid consists of a thin lamella, which descends from the under surface of the cribriform plate, and ends below in a free, convoluted margin, the middle nasal concha. ... The middle meatus is situated between the middle and inferior conchæ, and extends from the anterior to the posterior end of the latter. ... The Labyrinth or Lateral Mass of the ethmoid bone consists of a number of thin-walled cellular cavities, the ethmoidal cells, arranged in three groups, anterior, middle, and posterior, and interposed between two vertical plates of bone; the lateral plate forms part of the orbit, the medial, part of the... ethmoidal sinuses can be divided into 3: a) anterior b) middle c) posterior except the posterior ethmoidal sinus, all the ethmoidal sinuses will drain into middle meateus. ... Lateral to either olfactory groove are the internal openings of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina (or canals). ... Lateral to either olfactory groove are the internal openings of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina (or canals). ...

 
 

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