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Encyclopedia > Crane (machine)
A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. The latticed boom is fitted with a jib.
A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. The latticed boom is fitted with a jib.
An old manual crane with a pivoted boom. The incline of the boom is controlled by means of chains, sprockets and gears.
An old manual crane with a pivoted boom. The incline of the boom is controlled by means of chains, sprockets and gears.

A crane is a mechanical lifting device equipped with a winder, wire ropes and sheaves that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight; in the construction industry for the movement of materials; and in the manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A derrick is a lifting device composed of one mast or pole which is hinged freely at the bottom. ... In a canoe or bangca, an outrigger is a thin, long, solid, hull used to stabilise an inherently unstable main hull. ... // This example shows laced struts and ties A lattice girder is a girder where the flanges are connected by a lattice web [1]. This type of design has been supplanted in modern construction with welded or bolted plate girders, which use more material but have lower fabrication costs. ... Look up Jib in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 549 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Gregorydavid 10:16, 11 January 2007 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 549 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Gregorydavid 10:16, 11 January 2007 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... Look up Chain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A chain can be any of the following: a flexible connection through multiple rigid links; applications include: pulling (it cannot be used for pushing) power transmission, as in roller chains (e. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Gear (disambiguation). ... Winder is a location in Georgia. ... Steel wire rope (right hand lay) Wire rope consists of several strands laid (or twisted) together like a helix. ... A sheave (pronounced shiv) is a wheel or roller with a groove along its edge for holding a belt, rope or cable. ... This article is about the concept in physics. ... In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force put into it. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... An excavator Engineering vehicles are heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing engineering tasks. ...

Contents

Overview

The first cranes were invented by the Ancient Greeks and were powered by men or beasts-of-burden, such as donkeys. These cranes were used for the construction of tall buildings. Larger cranes were later developed, employing the use of human treadwheels, permitting the lifting of heavier weights. In the High Middle Ages, harbour cranes were introduced to load and unload ships and assist with their construction – some were built into stone towers for extra strength and stability. The earliest cranes were constructed from wood, but cast iron and steel took over with the coming of the Industrial Revolution. Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... What is a treadwheel? A treadwheel is a form of Animal engine powered by man. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


For many centuries, power was supplied by the physical exertion of men or animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills could be driven by the harnessed natural power. The first 'mechanical' power was provided by steam engines, the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 18th or 19th century, with many remaining in use well into the late 20th century. Modern cranes usually use internal combustion engines or electric motors and hydraulic systems to provide a much greater lifting capability than was previously possible, although manual cranes are still utilised where the provision of power would be uneconomic. Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century) A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production, or metal shaping (rolling, grinding or wire drawing). ... A Dutch tower windmill, sporting sails, surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A Steam crane is a crane powered by a steam engine. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ...


Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms – each tailored to a specific use. Sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower cranes, used for constructing high buildings, and the largest floating cranes, used to build oil rigs and salvage sunken ships.


This article also covers lifting machines that do not strictly fit the above definition of a crane, but are generally known as cranes, such as stacker cranes and loader cranes.


History of cranes

Tower of Babel constructed with a treadwheel crane, illustration in the Maciejowski Bible (fol 3r)
Tower of Babel constructed with a treadwheel crane, illustration in the Maciejowski Bible (fol 3r)

Tower of Babel in the Maciejowski Bible (fol 3r) http://www1. ... Tower of Babel in the Maciejowski Bible (fol 3r) http://www1. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... The Israelites are repulsed from Hai (fol. ...

Ancient Greek cranes

The crane for lifting heavy loads was invented by the ancient Greeks in the late 6th century BC.[1] The archaeological record shows that no later than c.515 BC distinctive cuttings for both lifting tongs and lewis irons begin to appear on stone blocks of Greek temples. Since these holes point at the use of a lifting device, and since they are to be found either above the centre of gravity of the block, or in pairs equidistant from a point over the centre of gravity, they are regarded by archaeologists as the positive evidence required for the existence of the crane.[1] Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... Chain-linked Lewis or Chain Lewis is a lifting device made from two curved steel legs, linked by three steel rings. ...


The introduction of the winch and pulley hoist soon led to a widespread replacement of ramps as the main means of vertical motion. For the next two hundred years, Greek building sites witnessed a sharp drop in the weights handled, as the new lifting technique made the use of several smaller stones more practical than of fewer larger ones. In contrast to the archaic period with its tendency to ever-increasing block sizes, Greek temples of the classical age like the Parthenon invariably featured stone blocks weighing less than 15-20 tons. Also, the practice of erecting large monolithic columns was practically abandoned in favour of using several column drums.[2] Modern self-tailing winch on a sailing boat. ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ... The inclined plane is one of the classical simple machines; as the name suggests, it is a flat surface whose endpoints are at different heights. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ...


Although the exact circumstances of the shift from the ramp to the crane technology remain unclear, it has been argued that the volatile social and political conditions of Greece were more suitable to the employment of small, professional construction teams than of large bodies of unskilled labour, making the crane more preferable to the Greek polis than the more labour-intensive ramp which had been the norm in the autocratic societies of Egypt or Assyria.[2] A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...


The first unequivocal literary evidence for the existence of the compound pulley system appears in the Mechanical Problems (Mech. 18, 853a32-853b13) attributed to Aristotle (384-322 BC), but perhaps composed at a slightly later date. Around the same time, block sizes at Greek temples began to match their archaic predecessors again, indicating that the more sophisticated compound pulley must have found its way to Greek construction sites by then.[3] For the band, see Pulley (band). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Ancient Roman cranes

Reconstruction of a 10.4m high Roman Polyspastos at Bonn, Germany (I)
Reconstruction of a 10.4m high Roman Polyspastos at Bonn, Germany (I)
Reconstruction of a 10.4m high Roman Polyspastos at Bonn, Germany (II)
Reconstruction of a 10.4m high Roman Polyspastos at Bonn, Germany (II)

The heyday of crane in ancient times came under the Roman Empire, when construction activity soared and buildings reached enormous dimensions. The Romans adopted the Greek crane and developed it further. We are relatively well informed about their lifting techniques thanks to rather lengthy accounts by the engineers Vitruvius (De Architectura 10.2, 1-10) and Heron of Alexandria (Mechanica 3.2-5). There are also two surviving reliefs of Roman treadwheel cranes offering pictorial evidence, with the Haterii tombstone from the late first century AD being particularly detailed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 346 KB) de Rekonstruktion eines römischen Krans, der Stadt Bonn anlässlich ihrer 2000-Jahr-Feier geschenkt en Reconstruction of a Roman crane File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 346 KB) de Rekonstruktion eines römischen Krans, der Stadt Bonn anlässlich ihrer 2000-Jahr-Feier geschenkt en Reconstruction of a Roman crane File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Historic Town Hall of Bonn (view from the market square). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Historic Town Hall of Bonn (view from the market square). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... Heros aeolipile Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (c. ... What is a treadwheel? A treadwheel is a form of Animal engine powered by man. ... Quintus Haterius was a member of a senatorial family. ...


The simplest Roman crane, the Trispastos, consisted of a single-beam jib, a winch, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. Having thus a mechanical advantage of 3:1, it has been calculated that a single man working the winch could raise 150 kg (3 pulleys x 50 kg = 150), assuming that 50 kg represent the maximum effort a man can exert over a longer time period. Heavier crane types featured five pulleys (Pentaspastos) or, in case of the largest one, a set of three by five pulleys (Polyspastos) and came with two, three or four masts, depending on the maximum load. The Polyspastos, when worked by four men at both sides of the winch, could already lift 3000 kg (3 ropes x 5 pulleys x 4 men x 50 kg = 3000 kg). In case the winch was replaced by a treadwheel, the maximum load even doubled to 6000 kg at only half the crew, since the treadwheel possesses a much bigger mechanical advantage due to its larger diameter. This meant that, in comparison to the construction of the Egyptian Pyramids, where about 50 men were needed to move a 2.5 ton stone block up the ramp (50 kg per person), the lifting capability of the Roman Polyspastos proved to be 60 times higher (3000 kg per person).[4] Modern self-tailing winch on a sailing boat. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force put into it. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ...


However, numerous extant Roman buildings which feature much heavier stone blocks than those handled by the Polyspastos indicate that the overall lifting capability of the Romans went far beyond that of any single crane. At the temple of Jupiter at Baalbek, for incidence, the architraves blocks weigh up to 60 tons each, and the corner cornices blocks even over 100 tons, all of them raised to a height of ca. 19 m above the ground.[3] In Rome, the capital block of Trajan's Column weighs 53.3 tons which had to be lifted at a height of ca. 34 m.[5] Temple of Bacchus Details inside Temple of Bacchus Baalbek (Arabic: ) is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 3,850 ft (1,170 m), situated east of the Litani River. ... The architrave is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ...


It is assumed that Roman engineers accomplished lifting these extraordinary weights by two measures: First, as suggested by Heron, a lifting tower was set up, whose four masts were arranged in the shape of a quadrangle with parallel sides, not unlike a siege tower, but with the column in the middle of the structure (Mechanica 3.5).[6] Second, a multitude of capstans were placed on the ground around the tower, for, although having a lower leverage ratio than treadwheels, capstans could be set up in higher numbers and run by more men (and, moreover, by draught animals).[7] This use of multiple capstans is also described by Ammianus Marcellinus (17.4.15) in connection with the lifting of the Lateranense obelisk in the Circus Maximus (ca. 357 AD). The maximum lifting capability of a single capstan can be established by the number of lewis iron holes bored into the monolith. In case of the Baalbek architrave blocks, which weigh between 55 and 60 tons, eight extant holes suggest an allowance of 7.5 ton per lewis iron, that is per capstan.[8] Lifting such heavy weights in a concerted action required a great amount of coordination between the work groups applying the force to the capstans. 19th century French drawing of a medieval belfry. ... A portion of a model depicting a manual capstan in use. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... There are eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks in Rome, together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly (until 2005) an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome. ... For other uses, see Circus Maximus (disambiguation). ...


Medieval cranes

Small-scale modern reconstruction of the medieval gantry crane at Brugge harbor
Small-scale modern reconstruction of the medieval gantry crane at Brugge harbor
The Kraanplein ("Crane Square") at Brugge is glimpsed in this portrait of 1551 by Pieter Pourbus
The Kraanplein ("Crane Square") at Brugge is glimpsed in this portrait of 1551 by Pieter Pourbus
Medieval port crane with building overhanging in the former Hanse town of Danzig.
Medieval port crane with building overhanging in the former Hanse town of Danzig.

During the High Middle Ages the treadwheel crane was reintroduced on a large scale after the technology had fallen into disuse in western Europe with the demise of the Western Roman Empire.[9] The earliest reference to a treadwheel (magna rota) reappears in archival literature in France about 1225,[10] followed by an illuminated depiction in a manuscript of probably also French origin dating to 1240.[9] In navigation, the earliest uses of harbor cranes are documented for Utrecht in 1244, Antwerp in 1263, Brugge in 1288 and Hamburg in 1291,[11] while in England the treadwheel is not recorded before 1331.[12] Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 788 KB)Rebuild of a middle age crane, photogrpa taken by user:Donarreiskoffer, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 788 KB)Rebuild of a middle age crane, photogrpa taken by user:Donarreiskoffer, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2051 × 2837 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2051 × 2837 pixel, file size: 1. ... Pieter Pourbus (1523-1584) was a Flemish Renaissance painter. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Crane, Gdansk, Poland 2006 Å»uraw w GdaÅ„sku Rafal Konkolewski 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Crane, Gdansk, Poland 2006 Å»uraw w GdaÅ„sku Rafal Konkolewski 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


Generally, vertical transport was done safer and cheaper by cranes than by customary methods. Typical areas of application were harbors, mines, and, in particular, building sites where the treadwheel crane played a pivotal role in the construction of the lofty Gothic cathedrals. Nevertheless, both archival and pictorial sources of the time suggest that newly introduced machines like treadwheels or wheelbarrows did not completely replace more labor-intensive methods like ladders, hods and handbarrows. Rather, old and new machinery continued to coexist on medieval construction sites[13] and harbors.[11] The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... A common wheelbarrow Older wheelbarrow Wheelbarrows on the Belomorkanal A wheelbarrow is a small one-wheeled, hand-propelled vehicle, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles to the rear. ... For other uses, see Ladder (disambiguation). ... A brick hod is a three-sided box for carrying bricks or other construction materials, often mortar. ...


Apart from treadwheels, medieval depictions also show cranes to be powered manually by windlasses with radiating spokes, cranks and by the 15th century also by windlasses shaped like a ship's wheel. To smooth out irregularities of impulse and get over 'dead-spots' in the lifting process flywheels are known to be in use as early as 1123.[14] A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ... Wheel of the French carrier Clémenceau. ... Spoked flywheel Flywheel from stationary engine. ...


Origins

The exact process by which the treadwheel crane was reintroduced is not recorded,[10] although its return to construction sites has undoubtedly to be viewed in close connection with the simultaneous rise of Gothic architecture. The reappearance of the treadwheel crane may have resulted from a technological development of the windlass from which the treadwheel structurally and mechanically evolved. Alternatively, the medieval treadwheel may represent a deliberate reinvention of its Roman counterpart drawn from Vitruvius' De architectura which was available in many monastic libraries. Its reintroduction may have been inspired, as well, by the observation of the labor-saving qualities of the waterwheel with which early treadwheels shared many structural similarities.[12] A windlass is an apparatus for moving a heavy weight. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... De architectūra (Latin: On architecture) was a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ...


Structure and placement

The medieval treadwheel was a large wooden wheel turning around a central shaft with a treadway wide enough for two workers walking side by side. While the earlier 'compass-arm' wheel had spokes directly driven into the central shaft, the more advanced 'clasp-arm' type featured arms arranged as chords to the wheel rim,[15] giving the possibility of using a thinner shaft and providing thus a greater mechanical advantage.[16] An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ...


Contrary to a popularly held belief, cranes on medieval building sites were neither placed on the extremely lightweight scaffolding used at the time nor on the thin walls of the Gothic churches which were incapable of supporting the weight of both hoisting machine and load. Rather, cranes were placed in the initial stages of construction on the ground, often within the building. When a new floor was completed, and massive tie beams of the roof connected the walls, the crane was dismantled and reassembled on the roof beams from where it was moved from bay to bay during construction of the vaults.[17] Thus, the crane ‘grew’ and ‘wandered’ with the building with the result that today all extant construction cranes in England are found in church towers above the vaulting and below the roof, where they remained after building construction for bringing material for repairs aloft.[18] This article is about the temporary framework. ...


Less frequently, medieval illuminations also show cranes mounted on the outside of walls with the stand of the machine secured to putlogs.[19]


Mechanics and operation

Tower crane at the inland harbour of Trier from 1413.
Tower crane at the inland harbour of Trier from 1413.

In contrast to modern cranes, medieval cranes and hoists - much like their counterparts in Greece and Rome[20] - were primarily capable of a vertical lift, and not used to move loads for a considerable distance horizontally as well.[17] Accordingly, lifting work was organized at the workplace in a different way than today. In building construction, for example, it is assumed that the crane lifted the stone blocks either from the bottom directly into place,[17] or from a place opposite the centre of the wall from where it could deliver the blocks for two teams working at each end of the wall.[20] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixel Image in higher resolution (1155 × 786 pixel, file size: 606 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crane (machine) Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixel Image in higher resolution (1155 × 786 pixel, file size: 606 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crane (machine) Metadata... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ...


Additionally, the crane master who usually gave orders at the treadwheel workers from outside the crane was able to manipulate the movement laterally by a small rope attached to the load.[21] Slewing cranes which allowed a rotation of the load and were thus particularly suited for dockside work appeared as early as 1340.[22] While ashlar blocks were directly lifted by sling, lewis or devil's clamp (German Teufelskralle), other objects were placed before in containers like pallets, baskets, wooden boxes or barrels.[23] A wooden pallet A plastic pallet with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides A Pallet can also be a small, hard, or temporary bed (a term heavily used in the southern United States to describe a makeshift bed consisting of a blanket and a pillow on... Four styles of household basket. ... For other uses, see Barrel (disambiguation). ...


It is noteworthy that medieval cranes rarely featured ratchets or brakes to forestall the load from running backward.[24] This curious absence is explained by the high friction force exercised by medieval treadwheels which normally prevented the wheel from accelerating beyond control.[21] A ratchet lever hoist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ...


Harbor cranes

Beyond the modern warship stands a crane constructed in 1742, used for mounting masts to large sailing vessels. Copenhagen, Denmark
Beyond the modern warship stands a crane constructed in 1742, used for mounting masts to large sailing vessels. Copenhagen, Denmark

According to the “present state of knowledge” unknown in antiquity, stationary harbor cranes are considered a new development of the Middle Ages.[11] The typical harbor crane was a pivoting structure equipped with double treadwheels. These cranes were placed docksides for the loading and unloading of cargo where they replaced or complemented older lifting methods like see-saws, winches and yards.[11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 305 pixel Image in higher resolution (1654 × 631 pixel, file size: 252 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beyond the modern warship stands a crane constructed in 1742, used for mounting masts to sailing vessels. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 305 pixel Image in higher resolution (1654 × 631 pixel, file size: 252 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beyond the modern warship stands a crane constructed in 1742, used for mounting masts to sailing vessels. ... For the playground object see Seesaw See-Saw is a female JPop/JRock duo (formerly a trio) consisting of Chiaki Ishikawa (lead vocals) and Yuki Kajiura (back-up vocals, keyboards). ... Modern self-tailing winch on a sailing boat. ... The fore royal yard on the Prince William. ...


Two different types of harbor cranes can be identified with a varying geographical distribution: While gantry cranes which pivoted on a central vertical axle were commonly found at the Flemish and Dutch coastside, German sea and inland harbors typically featured tower cranes where the windlass and treadwheels were situated in a solid tower with only jib arm and roof rotating.[25] Interestingly, dockside cranes were not adopted in the Mediterranean region and the highly developed Italian ports where authorities continued to rely on the more labor-intensive method of unloading goods by ramps beyond the Middle Ages.[26]


Unlike construction cranes where the work speed was determined by the relatively slow progress of the masons, harbor cranes usually featured double treadwheels to speed up loading. The two treadwheels whose diameter is estimated to be 4 m or larger were attached to each side of the axle and rotated together.[11] Today, according to one survey, fifteen treadwheel harbor cranes from pre-industrial times are still extant throughout Europe.[27] Beside these stationary cranes, floating cranes which could be flexibly deployed in the whole port basin came into use by the 14th century.[25] Balder, Holstein, and Thialf USS Kearsarge as A crane vessel is a ship that is specialized in lifting heavy loads. ...


Mechanical principles

Cranes helping to construct a tower block in Melbourne, Australia
Cranes helping to construct a tower block in Melbourne, Australia

There are two major considerations that are taken into account in the design of cranes. The first is that the crane must be able to lift a load of a specified weight and the second is that the crane must remain stable and not topple over when the load is lifted and moved to another location. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x2453, 820 KB) Construction of a sky scraper, Melbourne File links The following pages link to this file: Skyscraper Construction Crane (machine) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x2453, 820 KB) Construction of a sky scraper, Melbourne File links The following pages link to this file: Skyscraper Construction Crane (machine) ... The City of Melbournes coat of arms The central business district of Melbourne, viewed from the north Alternate meanings: Melbourne (disambiguation) Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia, with a population of 52,117 in the Central...


Lifting capacity

Cranes illustrate the use of one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage. This article is about the concept in physics. ... In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force put into it. ...

  • The lever. A balance crane contains a horizontal beam (the lever) pivoted about a point called the fulcrum. The principle of the lever allows a heavy load attached to the shorter end of the beam to be lifted by a smaller force applied in the opposite direction to the longer end of the beam. The ratio of the load's weight to the applied force is equal to the ratio of the lengths of the longer arm and the shorter arm, and is called the mechanical advantage.
  • The pulley. A jib crane contains a tilted strut (the jib) that supports a fixed pulley block. Cables are wrapped multiple times round the fixed block and round another block attached to the load. When the free end of the cable is pulled by hand or by a winding machine, the pulley system delivers a force to the load that is equal to the applied force multiplied by the number of lengths of cable passing between the two blocks. This number is the mechanical advantage.
  • The hydraulic cylinder. This can be used directly to lift the load (as with a HIAB), or indirectly to move the jib or beam that carries another lifting device.
Tower Crane constructing a building in Kansas City
Tower Crane constructing a building in Kansas City

Cranes, like all machines, obey the principle of conservation of energy. This means that the energy delivered to the load cannot exceed the energy put into the machine. For example, if a pulley system multiplies the applied force by ten, then the load moves only one tenth as far as the applied force. Since energy is proportional to force multiplied by distance, the output energy is kept roughly equal to the input energy (in practice slightly less, because some energy is lost to friction and other inefficiencies). For the Portuguese town and parish, see Lever, Portugal. ... Look up Fulcrum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force put into it. ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ... Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Hydrauliska Industri AB (Hiab) is a Swedish manufacturer of loader cranes, demountable containers, forestry cranes, truck-mounted forklifts and tail lifts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Kansas City is a city in Clay, Cass, Jackson, and Platte counties in Missouri. ... Look up conservation of energy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... Thermodynamic efficiency (e) is defined as: where W is the absolute value of the work done in one thermodynamic cycle. ...


Stability of crane

In order for a crane to be stable, the sum of all moments about any point such as the base of the crane must equate to zero. In practice, the magnitude of load that is permitted to be lifted (called the "rated load" in the US) is some value less than the load that will cause the crane to tip. Under US standards for mobile cranes, the stability-limited rated load for a crawler crane is 75% of the tipping load. The stability-limited rated load for a mobile crane supported on outriggers is 85% of the tipping load. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with torque. ...


Types of cranes

Railroad cranes

Diesel-powered railroad crane for maintenance work – Tampa, Florida.
Diesel-powered railroad crane for maintenance work – Tampa, Florida.
Main article: Crane (railroad)

A railroad crane is a crane with flanged wheels, used by railroads. The simplest form is just a crane mounted on a railroad car or on a flatcar. More capable devices are purpose-built. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ... Tampa redirects here. ... A railroad crane owned by the German firm Magdeburger Hafen GmbH. A railroad crane is a piece of rail transport maintenance of way equipment. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... FEC 37066 passing Glen Haven, Wisconsin, on the Mississippi River, is carrying two containers. ...


Different types of crane are used for maintenenace work, recovery operations and freight loading in goods yards. Maintenance of way (often abbreviated as M of Way, MOW or MW) refers to the maintenance of railroad rights of way. ...


Mobile crane

The most basic type of mobile crane consists of a steel truss or telescopic boom mounted on a mobile platform, which may be rail, wheeled (including "truck" carriers) or caterpillar tracks. The boom is hinged at the bottom, and can be raised and lowered by cables or by hydraulic cylinders. A hook is suspended from the top of the boom by wire rope and sheaves. The wire ropes are operated by whatever prime movers the designers have available, operating through a variety of transmissions. Steam engines, electric motors and internal combustion engines (IC) have all been used. Older cranes' transmissions tended to be clutches. This was later modified when using IC engines to match the steam engines "max torque at zero speed" characteristic by the addition of a hydrokinetic element culminating in controlled torque converters. The operational advantages of this arrangement can now be achieved by electronic control of hydrostatic drives, which for size and other considerations is becoming standard. Some examples of this type of crane can be converted to a demolition crane by adding a demolition ball, or to an earthmover by adding a clamshell bucket or a dragline and scoop, although design details can limit their effectiveness. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Look up truss in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... </nowiki> Rear sprocket of a Leclerc tank Track of a Leclerc tank U.S. M60 Patton tank. ... A sheave (pronounced shiv) is a wheel or roller with a groove along its edge for holding a belt, rope or cable. ... For the philosophical/theological concept of a prime mover (that is, a self-existent being that is the ultimate cause or mover of all things), see cosmological argument. ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For other uses, see Clutch (disambiguation). ... ZF torque converter A cut-away model of a torque converter A torque converter is a modified form of a hydrodynamic fluid coupling, and like the fluid coupling, is used to transfer rotating power from a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine or electric motor, to a rotating... For other uses, see Demolition (disambiguation). ... An excavator. ... Huge Manitowok 4600 Heavy lift Dragline at the SNS Project, 2005. ...


To increase the horizontal reach of the hoist, the boom may be extended by adding a jib to the top. The jib can be fixed or, in more complex cranes, luffing (that is, able to be raised and lowered).

A telescopic crane dismantling a 40 m tower crane in Cambridge, UK
A telescopic crane dismantling a 40 m tower crane in Cambridge, UK

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (878x1024, 173 KB) A mobile telescopic crane, is used to dismantle a 40m tower crane. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (878x1024, 173 KB) A mobile telescopic crane, is used to dismantle a 40m tower crane. ...

Telescopic crane

A telescopic crane has a boom that consists of a number of tubes fitted one inside the other. A hydraulic or other powered mechanism extends or retracts the tubes to increase or decrease the total length of the boom. These types of booms are often used for short term construction projects, rescue jobs, lifting boats in and out of the water, etc. The relative compactness of telescopic booms make them adaptable for many mobile applications. Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


Tower crane

Six tower cranes constructing buildings at Canon's Marsh, Bristol, England.
Six tower cranes constructing buildings at Canon's Marsh, Bristol, England.
Luffing tower crane,Singapore
Luffing tower crane,Singapore
Concrete counter-weights on a tower crane Cape Town, South Africa.
Concrete counter-weights on a tower crane Cape Town, South Africa.
A "jack up" mast supporting a tower crane. The inner element is moved upward with jacks and a new outer section is assembled around the exposed portion.
A "jack up" mast supporting a tower crane. The inner element is moved upward with jacks and a new outer section is assembled around the exposed portion.

The tower crane is a modern form of balance crane. Fixed to the ground (or "jacked up" and supported by the structure as the structure is being built), tower cranes often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the construction of tall buildings. To save space and to provide stability the vertical part of the crane is often braced onto the completed structure which is normally the concrete lift shaft in the center of the building. A horizontal boom is balanced asymmetrically across the top of the tower. Its short arm carries a counterweight of concrete blocks, and its long arm carries the lifting gear. The crane operator either sits in a cabin at the top of the tower or controls the crane by radio remote control from the ground, usually standing near the load. In the first case the operator's cabin is located at the top of the tower just below the horizontal boom. The boom is mounted on a slewing bearing and is rotated by means of a slewing motor. The lifting hook is operated by a system of sheaves. Download high resolution version (1500x1111, 536 KB) Six tower cranes constructing housing in the old docks, Bristol, England. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1111, 536 KB) Six tower cranes constructing housing in the old docks, Bristol, England. ... Millennium Square and the At-Bristol planetarium , Canons Marsh is an inner city area of Bristol, England, of approximately one square kilometer. ... This article is about the English city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 568 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Luffing Tower crane photograph taken by self - Oct 2007 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 568 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Luffing Tower crane photograph taken by self - Oct 2007 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - City 2,499 km²  (964. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (840 × 1120 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo Radomil File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crane... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (840 × 1120 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo Radomil File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Crane... This article is about the construction material. ... A lifting hook with a safety latch. ... A sheave (pronounced shiv) is a wheel or roller with a groove along its edge for holding a belt, rope or cable. ...


A tower crane is usually assembled by a telescopic crane of smaller lifting capacity but greater height and in the case of tower cranes that have risen while constructing very tall skyscrapers, a smaller crane (or derrick) will sometimes be lifted to the roof of the completed tower to dismantle the tower crane afterwards. A self-assembling tower crane lifts itself off the ground using jacks, allowing the next section of the tower to be inserted at ground level.


Hammerhead crane

The hammerhead, or giant cantilever, crane is a fixed-jib crane consisting of a steel-braced tower on which revolves a large, horizontal, double cantilever; the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the lifting trolley, the jib is extended backwards in order to form a support for the machinery and counter-balancing weight. In addition to the motions of lifting and revolving, there is provided a so-called "racking " motion, by which the lifting trolley, with the load suspended, can be moved in and out along the jib without altering the level of the load. Such horizontal movement of the load is a marked feature of later crane design. Hammerhead cranes are generally constructed in large sizes, up to 350 tons.


The design evolved first in Germany around the turn of the 19th century and was adopted for use in British shipyards to support the battleship construction program from 1904-1914. The ability of the hammerhead crane to lift heavy weights was useful for installing large pieces of battleships such as armour plate and gun barrels. Hammerhead cranes were also installed in naval shipyards in Japan and in the USA. The British Government also installed a hammerhead crane at the Singapore Naval Base (1938) and later a copy of the crane was installed at Garden Island Naval Dockyard in Sydney (1951). These cranes provided repair support for the battle fleet operating far from Great Britain. A picture of a destroyed M113 armoured personnel carrier showing a section of the armour. ...


The principal engineering firm for hammerhead cranes in the British empire was Sir William Arrol & Co Ltd.


Truck-mounted crane

A typical truck-mounted crane
A typical truck-mounted crane

A crane mounted on a truck carrier provides the mobility for this type of crane. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 324 pixelsFull resolution (1247 × 505 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by me, CurranH, and I hereby release it to the public domain, and anyone is free to use it for any use they desire... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 324 pixelsFull resolution (1247 × 505 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by me, CurranH, and I hereby release it to the public domain, and anyone is free to use it for any use they desire... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ...


Generally, these cranes are designed to be able to travel on streets and highways, eliminating the need for special equipment to transport a crane to the jobsite. When working on the jobsite, outriggers are extended horizontally from the chassis then down vertically to level and stabilize the crane while stationary and hoisting. Many truck cranes possess limited slow-travelling capability (just a few miles per hour) while suspending a load. Great care must be taken not to swing the load sideways from the direction of travel, as most of the anti-tipping stability then lies in the strength and stiffness of the chassis suspension. Most cranes of this type also have moving counterweights for stabilization beyond that of the outriggers. Loads suspended directly over the rear remain more stable, as most of the weight of the truck crane itself then acts as a counterweight to the load. Factory-calculated charts (or electronic safeguards) are used by the crane operator to determine the maximum safe loads for stationary (outriggered) work as well as (on-rubber) loads and travelling speeds. In a canoe or bangca, an outrigger is a thin, long, solid, hull used to stabilise an inherently unstable main hull. ... Builders hoist, with small petrol engine A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. ...


Truck cranes range in size from about 14.5 US Tons to about 120 US tons.


Rough terrain crane

A crane mounted on an undercarriage with four rubber tires that is designed for pick-and-carry operations and for off-road and "rough terrain" applications. Outriggers that extend horizontally and vertically are used to level and stabilize the crane for hoisting. These telescopic cranes are single-engine machines where the same engine is used for powering the undercarriage as is used for powering the crane, similar to a crawler crane. However, in a rough terrain crane, the engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage rather than in the upper, like the crawler crane. HAC Cranes is one of the top leading dealers in the nation.


Crawler crane

A crawler is a crane mounted on an undercarriage with a set of tracks that provide for the stability and mobility of the crane. Crawler cranes have both advantages and disadvantages depending on their intended use. The main advantage of a crawler is that they can move on site and perform lifts with very little set-up, as the crane is stable on its tracks with no outriggers. In addition, a crawler crane is capable of traveling with a load. The main disadvantage of a crawler crane is that they are very heavy, and cannot easily be moved from one job site to the next without significant expense. Typically, a large crawler must be disassembled and moved by trucks, rail cars or ships to be transported to its next location.


Gantry crane

Portainer gantry cranes at the Hamburg Harbour
Portainer gantry cranes at the Hamburg Harbour

A gantry crane has a hoist in a trolley which runs horizontally along gantry rails, usually fitted underneath a beam spanning between uprights which themselves have wheels so that the whole crane can move at right angles to the direction of the gantry rails. These cranes come in all sizes, and some can move very heavy loads, particularly the extremely large examples used in shipyards or industrial installations . A special version is the container crane (or "Portainer" crane, named after the first manufacturer), designed for loading and unloading ship-borne containers at a port. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1188x482, 111 KB) MV Bunga Raya Satu, Malaysia at the Container Terminal Altenwerder (Hamburg, Germany) File links The following pages link to this file: Crane (machine) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1188x482, 111 KB) MV Bunga Raya Satu, Malaysia at the Container Terminal Altenwerder (Hamburg, Germany) File links The following pages link to this file: Crane (machine) ... Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a gantry crane, container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, STS crane or a dockside crane) is a very large crane used to load and unload container ships, and... Builders hoist, with small petrol engine A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. ... Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane or a STS crane) is a large dockside crane in the form of a specialised type of gantry crane used to...


Overhead crane

Also known as a "suspended crane", this type of crane works in the same way as a gantry crane but without uprights. The hoist is on a trolley which moves in one direction along one or two beams, which move at right angles to that direction along elevated tracks, often mounted along the side walls of an assembly area in a factory. Some of them can lift very heavy loads. Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a gantry crane, container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, STS crane or a dockside crane) is a very large crane used to load and unload container ships, and... Builders hoist, with small petrol engine A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Floating crane

Floating cranes are used mainly in bridge building and port construction, but they are also used for occasional loading and unloading of especially heavy or awkward loads on and off ships. Some floating cranes are mounted on a pontoon, others are specialized crane barges with a lifting capacity exceeding 10,000 tons and have been used to transport entire bridge sections. Floating cranes have also been used to salvage sunken ships. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1088x768, 129 KB) SSCV Thialf in Norwegian fjord with Fulmar SALM buoy in 1998. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1088x768, 129 KB) SSCV Thialf in Norwegian fjord with Fulmar SALM buoy in 1998. ... Balder, Holstein and Thialf The SSCV Thialf is a Semi-Submersible Crane Vessel. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... For the car body style, see Ponton (automobile). ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ...


Crane vessels are often used in offshore construction. The largest revolving cranes can be found on SSCV Thialf, which has two cranes with a capacity of 7,100 metric tons each. Balder, Holstein, and Thialf USS Kearsarge as A crane vessel is a ship that is specialized in lifting heavy loads. ... Offshore construction is the installation of structures and pipelines in a marine environment for the production and transmission of oil and gas. ... Balder, Holstein and Thialf The SSCV Thialf is a Semi-Submersible Crane Vessel. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ...


Vessel (Deck) crane

Located on the ships and used for cargo operations which allows to reduce costs by avoiding usage of the shore cranes. Also vital in small seaports where no shore cranes available. Mostly are electric, hydraulic, electro-hydraulic driven.


Aerial crane

Aerial cranes usually extend from helicopters to lift large loads. Helicopters are able to travel to and lift in areas that are more difficult to reach by a conventional crane. Aerial helicopter cranes are most commonly used to lift units/loads onto shopping centers, multi-story buildings, highrises, etc. However, they can lift basically anything within their lifting capacity, (i.e. cars, boats, swimming pools, etc.). They also work as disaster relief after natural disasters for clean-up, and during wild-fires they are able to carry huge buckets of water over fires to put them out.


Examples include:

  • Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane/Erickson Air Crane - civilian version
  • CH-54 Tarhe - military version
  • Mi-26 - Russian flying crane helicopter

CH-54 Tarhe carrying an M551 Sheridan tank on a sling mount in Vietnam. ... The CH-54 Tarhe was a twin-engine heavy-lift helicopter designed by Sikorsky Aircraft for the United States Army. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Jib crane

A Jib crane is a type of crane where a horizontal member (jib or boom), supporting a moveable hoist, is fixed to a wall or to a floor-mounted pillar. Jib cranes are used in industrial premises and on military vehicles. The jib may swing through an arc, to give additional lateral movement, or be fixed. Similar cranes, often known simply as hoists, were fitted on the top floor of warehouse buildings to enable goods to be lifted to all floors.


Crane-like machines

The generally-accepted definition of a crane is a machine for lifting and moving heavy objects by means of ropes or cables suspended from a movable arm. As such, a lifting machine that does not use cables, or else provides only vertical and not horizontal movement, cannot strictly be called a 'crane'.


Types of crane-like lifting machine include:

More technically-advanced types of such lifting machines are often known as 'cranes', regardless of the official definition of the term. Some notable examples follow: This block and tackle on a davit of the Mercator is used to help lower a boat. ... A portion of a model depicting a manual capstan in use. ... Builders hoist, with small petrol engine A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. ... Modern self-tailing winch on a sailing boat. ... A windlass is an apparatus for moving a heavy weight. ...


Loader crane

A loader crane offloading aerated concrete bricks at a building site
A loader crane offloading aerated concrete bricks at a building site

A loader crane (also called a knuckle-boom crane) is a hydraulically-powered articulated arm fitted to a truck or trailer, and is used for loading/unloading the vehicle. The numerous jointed sections can be folded into a small space when the crane is not in use. One or more of the sections may be telescopic. Often the crane will have a degree of automation and be able to unload or stow itself without an operator's instruction. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x696, 119 KB) Summary Hydraulic truck crane. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x696, 119 KB) Summary Hydraulic truck crane. ... Concrete being poured, raked and vibrated into place in residential construction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Utility trailer A Trailer is generally an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle. ... Telescope can refer to: In astronomy and in general: An optical tool. ...


Unlike most cranes, the operator must move around the vehicle to be able to view his load; hence modern cranes may be fitted with a portable cabled or radio-linked control system to supplement the crane-mounted hydraulic control levers.


In the UK, this type of crane is almost invariably known colloquially as a "Hiab", partly because this manufacturer invented the loader crane and was first into the UK market, and partly because the distinctive name was displayed prominently on the boom arm. Hydrauliska Industri AB (Hiab) is a Swedish manufacturer of loader cranes, demountable containers, forestry cranes, truck-mounted forklifts and tail lifts. ...


Rolloader crane

This is a loader crane mounted on a chassis with wheels. This chassis can ride on the trailer. Because the crane can move on the trailer, it can be a light crane, so the trailer is allowed to transport more goods.


Manufacturer of rolloader cranes include the Dutch Kennis [1] and the Finnish company Hiab (Hydrauliska Industri AB). Kennis Music is a record label, specializing in R&B, pop and hip-hop music, founded by popular Nigerian radio DJ Kenny Ogungbe in the early 1990s. ... Hydrauliska Industri AB (Hiab) is a Swedish manufacturer of loader cranes, demountable containers, forestry cranes, truck-mounted forklifts and tail lifts. ...


Stacker crane

A crane with a forklift type mechanism used in automated (computer controlled) warehouses (known as an automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS)). The crane moves on a track in an aisle of the warehouse. The fork can be raised or lowered to any of the levels of a storage rack and can be extended into the rack to store and retrieve product. The product can in some cases be as large as an automobile. Stacker cranes are often used in the large freezer warehouses of frozen food manufacturers. This automation avoids requiring forklift drivers to work in below freezing temperatures every day. US airman operates forklift at a truck A forklift is a powered industrial truck used to hoist and transport materials by means of steel forks inserted under the load. ... Old warehouses in Amsterdam Inside Green Logistics Co. ... Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (often referred to as ASRS or AS/RS) refers to a variety of computer-controlled methods for automatically depositing and retrieving loads from defined storage locations. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ...


Cranes of special interest

  • Finnieston Crane (aka the Stobcross Crane)
    – Category A -listed example of a 'hammerhead' (cantilever) crane in Glasgow's former docks
    – 50m tall, 175 tons capacity, built 1926

The Finnieston Crane is a crane and landmark in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Forth Bridge, designed by Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir John Fowler, opened in 1890, and now owned by Network Rail, is designated as a Category A listed building by Historic Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Kockumskranen as it appeared in February 2000. ... Kockums in Malmö, 1970 Foto: Pål-Nils Nilsson. ... Ulsan, a metropolitan city in the south-east of South Korea, facing the Sea of Japan (East Sea). ... Samson and Goliath Samson and Goliath are twin shipbuilding gantry cranes situated at Queens Island, Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a gantry crane, container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, STS crane or a dockside crane) is a very large crane used to load and unload container ships, and... Harland and Wolff Heavy Industries began as a shipyard located in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ...

Manufacturers

Major manufacturers of cranes include:

  • Arcomet
  • American Hoist and Derrick
  • BaltKran
  • Bantom and Spierings.
  • Broderson Manufacturing Corp (BMC)
  • Bucyrus-Erie
  • Demag (Mannesman Dematic)
  • Dreggen Crane AS – Design/Engineering, ship and offshore cranes
  • Fassi Cranes
  • Favelle Favco
  • Gorbel Inc.
  • Grove
  • Heila Cranes (Poviglio, Italy) – truck loaders, marine cranes
  • HIAB (Hydrauliska Industri AB) – loader and rolloader cranes
  • Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd.
  • Hitachi Construction Machinery (Europe)
  • Hitachi Sumitomo Cranes
  • HMF (Højbjerg MaskinFabrik) – loader cranes
  • Huisman-Itrec
  • Koehring
  • Konecranes

National Crane Bucyrus International, Inc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up Grove, grove in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hydrauliska Industri AB (Hiab) is a Swedish manufacturer of loader cranes, demountable containers, forestry cranes, truck-mounted forklifts and tail lifts. ... Hitachi Construction Machinery (Europe) NV is a subsidiary of Hitachi Construction Machinery Group. ... Konecranes (KCI Konecranes prior to 2007-03-16) is a Finnish company, headquartered in Hyvinkää, which specialises in the manufacture and service of cranes of various sizes and lifting capacities. ... The Liebherr Group is a German manufacturer established in 1949 by Hans Liebherr. ... Lorain may refer to: Lorain, Ohio Lorain County, Ohio Lorain, Wisconsin Lorain, Pennsylvania This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Manitowoc Company (NYSE: MTW) is a manufacturer of high-capacity lattice-boom crawler cranes, tower cranes, and mobile telescopic cranes for heavy construction, commercial construction, energy-related, infrastructure, duty-cycle, and crane-rental applications. ...

  • NCK-Rapier
  • North American Industries – overhead bridge cranes, gantry cranes, & monorails
  • Northwest
  • Palfingerloader cranes
  • P&H – (produced by Morris Material Handling [4])
  • PPM
  • RDLIFT s.r.l. – tower cranes & self-erecting cranes [5]
  • Ruston-Bucyrus
  • Sennebogen
  • SibtyazhMash
  • (SHAKTI MINING EQUIPMENTS PVT. LTD) (www.shaktimining.com)
  • SPANCO [6]
  • Street Crane [www.streetcrane.com]
  • Sumitomo
  • Terex
  • Vetter
  • Western Mule Cranes [www.westernmule.com]
  • Wolffkran

North American Industries is a private company that has been building overhead cranes since 1969. ... Palfinger is a manufacturer of hydraulic lifting, loading, and handling systems based in Salzburg, Austria. ... PPM or ppm may refer to: Pages per minute, a measure of speed often used to market printers or photocopiers Parry People Movers, a British company manufacturing lightweight railbuses Parts per million, a measure of concentration; a statistical quality measure of outgoing product quality Pay Per Impression, one way that... Bucyrus International is a manufacturer of heavy equipment headquartered in South Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... The Sumitomo Group is a group of related japanese companies, (keiretsu). ... Terex Corporation (NYSE: TEX) is a diversified global manufacturer of a broad range of heavy equipment for a variety of industries, including construction, infrastructure, quarrying, recycling, surface mining, shipping, transportation, refining, utility and maintenance. ...

Historic

Manufacturers that have now ceased trading as a separate entity:

Ransomes, Sims and Jeffries Engineers of Ipswich were a major British agricultural machinery maker. ...

Training

The National Association of Heavy Equipment Training Schools (commonly known as NAHETS) is a private educational organization that primarily trains within the heavy equipment construction industry in the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ a b J. J. Coulton, p.7
  2. ^ a b J. J. Coulton, p.14f.
  3. ^ a b J. J. Coulton, p.16
  4. ^ All data from: Hans-Liudger Dienel, Wolfgang Meighörner, p.13
  5. ^ Lynne Lancaster, p.426
  6. ^ Lynne Lancaster, p.427ff.
  7. ^ Lynne Lancaster, p.434ff.
  8. ^ Lynne Lancaster, p.436
  9. ^ a b Andrea Matthies, p.514
  10. ^ a b Andrea Matthies, p.515
  11. ^ a b c d e Michael Matheus, p.345
  12. ^ a b Andrea Matthies, p.524
  13. ^ Andrea Matthies, p.545
  14. ^ Andrea Matthies, p.518
  15. ^ Andrea Matthies, p.525f.
  16. ^ Andrea Matthies, p.536
  17. ^ a b c Andrea Matthies, p.533
  18. ^ Andrea Matthies, p.532ff.
  19. ^ Andrea Matthies, p.535
  20. ^ a b J. J. Coulton, p.6
  21. ^ a b Hans-Liudger Dienel, Wolfgang Meighörner, p.17
  22. ^ Andrea Matthies, p.534
  23. ^ Andrea Matthies, p.531
  24. ^ Andrea Matthies, p.540
  25. ^ a b Michael Matheus, p.346
  26. ^ Michael Matheus, p.347
  27. ^ These are Bergen, Stockholm, Karlskrona (Sweden), Kopenhagen (Denmark), Harwich (England), Danzig, Lüneburg, Stade, Otterndorf, Marktbreit, Würzburg, Östrich, Bingen, Andernach and Trier (Germany). Cf. Michael Matheus, p.346

Literature

History of cranes

  • Andrea Matthies: Medieval Treadwheels. Artists' Views of Building Construction, Technology and Culture, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Jul., 1992), pp. 510-547
  • Hans-Liudger Dienel, Wolfgang Meighörner, “Der Tretradkran,“ Publication of the Deutsches Museum (Technikgeschichte Series), 2nd ed., München 1997
  • J. J. Coulton, “Lifting in Early Greek Architecture,” The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 94. (1974), pp. 1-19
  • Lynne Lancaster, “Building Trajan's Column,” American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 103, No. 3. (Jul., 1999), pp. 419-439
  • Michael Matheus: "Mittelalterliche Hafenkräne," in: Uta Lindgren (ed.): Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800-1400, Berlin 2001 (4th ed.), pp. 345-48 ISBN 3-7861-1748-9

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cranes

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Types of crane

Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane or a STS crane) is a large dockside crane in the form of a specialised type of gantry crane used to... Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a gantry crane, container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, STS crane or a dockside crane) is a very large crane used to load and unload container ships, and... A containerlift is a road going truck or semi-trailer used to hoist, stack and transport ISO standard containers. ... Balder, Holstein, and Thialf USS Kearsarge as A crane vessel is a ship that is specialized in lifting heavy loads. ... Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a gantry crane, container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, STS crane or a dockside crane) is a very large crane used to load and unload container ships, and... A Straddle Carrier is a road going truck or semi-trailer used to hoist, stack and transport ISO standard containers. ... Heavy Tow truck A tow truck (also called a wrecker, a breakdown truck or a breakdown lorry), is a vehicle used to take disabled motor vehicles off a roadway to another location in case of breakdown or collision, or to impound illegally parked vehicles on public or (more commonly) private...

Other

In British civil engineering, a banksman is the skilled trade which directs the operation of a crane from the point near where loads are attached and detached. ... A wooden pallet A plastic pallet with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides A Pallet can also be a small, hard, or temporary bed (a term heavily used in the southern United States to describe a makeshift bed consisting of a blanket and a pillow on... A steam shovel is a large steam-powered excavating machine designed for lifting and moving material such as rock and soil. ... The National Association of Heavy Equipment Training Schools (commonly known as NAHETS) is a private educational organization that primarily trains within the heavy equipment construction industry in the United States. ...

Related ideas

For other uses, see Skyhook (disambiguation). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
crane, machine. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (360 words)
Modern cranes are of varied types and sizes; they may be actuated by steam, electricity, diesel, or hydraulic power as well as by manual power, and they are indispensable in industries where heavy materials are handled constantly.
The jib crane has a horizontal load-supporting boom fastened to a rotating vertical column, either attached to a wall or extending from floor to ceiling; when the column is held only at the bottom it is called a pillar crane.
The derrick is a crane equipped either with a vertical mast held by struts, as on barges, or with guy wires, as in building construction.
crane: Information from Answers.com (2075 words)
A crane is a tower or derrick equipped with cables and pulleys that is used to lift and lower materials.
Cranes may either be controlled from an operator in a cab that travels with the crane, by a pushbutton pendant control station, or by infrared or radio control.
A tower crane is usually assembled by a telescopic crane of smaller lifting capacity but greater height, and in the case of tower cranes that have risen while constructing very tall skyscrapers, a smaller crane will sometimes be lifted to the roof of the completed tower to dismantle the tower crane afterward.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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