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Encyclopedia > Crane (bird)
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Cranes

Indian Sarus Crane
Gruzs antigone antigone
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Gruiformes
Family: Gruidae
Vigors, 1825
Genera

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". While folklore often states that cranes mate for life, recent scientific research indicates that these birds do change mates over the course of their (considerable) lifetimes (Hayes 2005). Some species and/or populations of cranes migrate over long distances, while some do not migrate at all. Cranes are gregarious, forming large flocks where their numbers are sufficient. Sarus Crane, cropped version of existing uploaded image From original en: Sarus Crane, originally uploaded to Dutch wikipedia by user Jcwf; photographed by himself File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 The Sarus Crane (Grus antigone) is a resident breeding bird in northern India, Nepal, Southeast Asia and Queensland, Australia. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... “Animalia” redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – October 26, 1840) was an Irish zoologist and politician. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Genera Grus Anthropoides Balearica Bugeranus Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. ... Species Anthropoides is a small genus of cranes. ... Species Balearica pavonina Balearica regulorum birds have feathers The bird genus Balearica consists of two species in the crane family Gruidae: the Black-crowned Crane () and the Grey-crowned Crane (). The species occur in Africa, south of the Sahara Desert, and are the only cranes that can nest in trees. ... Binomial name Bugeranus carunculatus (Gmelin, 1789) The Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) is a bird in the crane family Gruidae. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Genera See text. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Many species of birds undertake seasonal journeys of various lengths, a phenomenon known as Bird migration. ...


Most species of cranes are at least threatened, if not critically endangered, within their range. The plight of the Whooping Cranes of North America inspired some of the first US legislation to protect endangered species. Binomial name Grus americana Linnaeus, 1758 The Whooping Crane (Grus americana) is a very large and endangered crane. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The Siberian Tiger, a subspecies of tiger. ...


They are opportunistic feeders that change their diet according to the season and their own nutrient requirements. They eat a range of items from suitably sized small rodents, fish, amphibians, and insects, to grain, berries, and plants. (The cranberry is so-named for its flowers' resemblance to the neck and head of the crane.) Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Subclasses and Orders    Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia    Order Anura    Order Caudata    Order Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectothermic (term for the animals... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... This article is about cereals in general. ... Several types of berries from the market. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Species Vaccinium erythrocarpum Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium microcarpum Vaccinium oxycoccus Approximate ranges of the cranberries in sect. ...


There are representatives of this group on all the continents except Antarctica and South America. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Contents

Systematics

Grey Crowned Crane, Balearica regulorum
Grey Crowned Crane, Balearica regulorum

There are 15 living species of cranes in 4 genera: Image File history File links Grey_Crowned_Crane. ... Image File history File links Grey_Crowned_Crane. ... Binomial name Balearica regulorum Bennett, 1834 The Grey Crowned Crane (Balearica regulorum) is a bird in the crane family Gruidae. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ...


SUBFAMILY BALEARICINAE - crowned cranes ...

SUBFAMILY GRUINAE - typical cranes Species Balearica pavonina Balearica regulorum birds have feathers The bird genus Balearica consists of two species in the crane family Gruidae: the Black-crowned Crane () and the Grey-crowned Crane (). The species occur in Africa, south of the Sahara Desert, and are the only cranes that can nest in trees. ... Binomial name Balearica pavonina Linnaeus, 1758 The Black_crowned Crane (Balearica pavonina) is a bird in the crane family Gruidae. ... Binomial name Balearica regulorum Bennett, 1834 The Grey Crowned Crane (Balearica regulorum) is a bird in the crane family Gruidae. ...

The fossil record of cranes leaves much to be desired. Apparently, the subfamilies were well distinct by the Late Eocene (around 35 mya). The present genera are apparently some 20 mya old. Biogeography of known fossil and the living taxa of cranes suggests that the group is probably of (Laurasian?) Old World origin. The extant diversity at the genus level is centered on (eastern) Africa, making it all the more regrettable that no decent fossil record exists from there. On the other hand, it is peculiar that numerous fossils of Ciconiiformes are documented from there; these birds presumably shared much of their habitat with cranes back then already. Genera Grus Anthropoides Balearica Bugeranus Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. ... Binomial name Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Crane (Grus grus), also known as the Eurasian Crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. ... Junbil53 22:27, 13 February 2007 (UTC) Binomial name Grus canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) is a large crane of North America and extreme northeastern Siberia. ... Binomial name Grus americana Linnaeus, 1758 The Whooping Crane (Grus americana) is a very large and endangered crane. ... Binomial name Grus antigone Linnaeus, 1758 The Sarus Crane (Grus antigone) is a resident breeding bird in northern India, Nepal, Southeast Asia and Queensland, Australia. ... Binomial name (Perry, 1810) The Brolga (Grus rubicunda) is a bird in the crane family. ... Binomial name Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773 The Siberian Crane, Grus leucogeranus, also known as the Siberian White Crane or the Snow Crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. ... Binomial name Grus vipio (Pallas, 1811) The White-naped Crane is a bird of the crane family. ... Binomial name Grus monacha Temminck, 1835 The Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) is a small, dark crane. ... Binomial name Grus nigricollis Przhevalsky, 1876 The Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a large, whitish-gray crane. ... Binomial name Grus japonensis (Statius Muller, 1776) The Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis), also called the Japanese Crane and Manchurian Crane, is a large crane and is the second rarest crane in the world. ... Species Anthropoides is a small genus of cranes. ... Binomial name Anthropoides paradisea (Lichtenstein,AAH, 1793) The Blue Crane (Anthropoides paradisea), also known as the Stanley Crane and the Paradise Crane, is the national bird of South Africa. ... Binomial name Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus, 1758 The Demoiselle Crane, Anthropoides virgo is a species of crane. ... Binomial name Bugeranus carunculatus (Gmelin, 1789) The Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) is a bird in the crane family Gruidae. ... Binomial name Bugeranus carunculatus (Gmelin, 1789) // General Information Bugeranus carunculatus Height: 172 cm, 6 ft. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Fossil genera are tentatively assigned to the present-day subfamilies:


Balearicinae

  • Geranopsis (Hordwell Late Eocene - Early Oligocene of England)

Gruinae

  • Palaeogrus (Middle Eocene of Germany and Italy - Middle Miocene of France)
  • Pliogrus (Early Pliocene of Eppelsheim, Germany)
  • Camusia (Late Miocene of Menorca, Mediterranean)
  • "Grus" conferta (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Contra Costa County, USA) - see Miller & Sibley (1942)

Sometimes considered Gruidae

  • Eobalearica (Ferghana Late? Eocene of Ferghana, Uzbekistan)
  • Probalearica (Late Oligocene? - Middle Pliocene of Florida, USA, France?, Moldavia and Mongolia) - A nomen dubium?
  • Aramornis (Sheep Creek Middle Miocene of Snake Creek Quarries, USA)

The supposed Grus prentici is not a true crane; it was eventually placed in the genus Paragrus (Lambrecht 1933:520). In scientific classification, a nomen dubium (Latin for doubtful name, plural nomina dubia) is a scientific name that is valid but of unknown or doubtful application: that is, it may be impossible to determine whether a specimen belongs to that group or not. ...


Cranes in popular culture

Sandhill Crane
Sandhill Crane
  • In Fox's TV series Prison Break, the protagonist (Michael Scofield) leaves paper folded cranes at important places in his attempt to arrange escape from prison for himself and his older brother (Lincoln Burrows). Late in the first season it becomes clear that Lincoln used to leave paper cranes by Michael's bedside when they were kids, and that the crane supposedly stands for 'a familial obligation' and 'watching out for your own'.
  • On The Future Is Wild, a large bird known as the great blue windrunner is a fictional descendant of cranes.

In the (1939) movie The Wizard of Oz, a bizarre rumor that one of the Munchkins hanged himself in the forest set is easily disproved by close inspection of the scene. The supposed body, swinging from a tree branch in the forest set, is actually a live crane in the background. It can be seen as the characters exit the forest near the Tin Man's cottage. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1660 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1660 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company, usually referred to as just Fox (the company itself prefers the capitalized version FOX), is a television network in the United States. ... Prison Break is an American television series that premiered on the Fox Network on August 29, 2005. ... Michael Scofield is a protagonist in the American television series, Prison Break. ... Lincoln Burrows, played by Dominic Purcell, is a protagonist of the American television series, Prison Break. ... The Future Is Wild was a 2003 joint Animal Planet/ORF (Austria) and ZDF (Germany) co-production and a book based on the show, which used computer-generated imagery to show the possible future of life on Earth. ... The Decemberists are a five-piece indie pop band from Portland, Oregon, fronted by singer/songwriter Colin Meloy. ... The Crane Wife is an album by The Decemberists, released in 2006. ...


Myth and lore

The cranes' beauty and their spectacular mating dances have made them highly symbolic birds in many cultures with records dating back to ancient times. Crane mythology is widely spread and can be found in areas such as the Aegean, South Arabia, China, Japan and in the Native American cultures of North America. In northern Hokkaidō, the women of the Ainu people, whose culture is more Siberian than Japanese, performed a crane dance that was captured in 1908 in a photograph by Arnold Genthe. In Korea, a crane dance has been performed in the courtyard of the Tongdosa Temple since the Silla Dynasty (646 CE). Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island and largest prefecture of Japan. ... Ainu IPA: /ʔáınu/) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Self-portrait Arnold Genthe ( 1869- 1942) was a photographer, most well known for his photos of San Franciscos Chinatown and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ...


In Mecca, in pre-Islamic South Arabia, the goddesses Allat, Uzza, and Manah, who were believed to be daughters of and intercessors with Allah, were called the "three exalted cranes" (gharaniq, an obscure word on which 'crane' is the usual gloss). See The Satanic Verses for the best-known story regarding these three goddesses. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), Allāt (a contraction of pre-Arabic *al-ilāhat the Goddess) was a pre-Islamic Arabian goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), al-ʕuzzā the Mightiest One (derived from the root ʕzy) was a pre-Islamic Arabian fertility goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), Manāt was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... A Gloss–word, phrase, (or syllable), is the dictionary entry for that word. ... For the novel by Salman Rushdie, see The Satanic Verses. ...


The Greek for crane is Γερανος (Geranos), which gives us the Cranesbill, or hardy geranium. The crane was a bird of omen. In the tale of Ibycus and the cranes, a thief attacked Ibycus (a poet of the 6th century BCE) and left him for dead. Ibycus called to a flock of passing cranes, who followed the murderer to a theater and hovered over him until, stricken with guilt, he confessed to the crime. Species See list The cranesbills make up the genus Geranium of 422 species of annual, biennial, and perennial plants found throughout the temperate regions of the world and the mountains of the tropics, but mostly in the eastern part of the Mediterranean. ... Ibycus (), of Rhegium in Italy, Greek lyric poet, contemporary of Anacreon, flourished in the 6th century BC. He was included in the canonical list of nine lyric poets by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria. ...


Pliny the Elder wrote that cranes would appoint one of their number to stand guard while they slept. The sentry would hold a stone in its claw, so that if it fell asleep it would drop the stone and waken. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...

A pair of Red-crowned Cranes in the Tokyo Zoo.
A pair of Red-crowned Cranes in the Tokyo Zoo.

Aristotle describes the migration of cranes in The History of Animals, adding an account of their fights with Pygmies as they wintered near the source of the Nile. He describes as untruthful an account that the crane carries a touchstone inside it that can be used to test for gold when vomited up. (This second story is not altogether implausible, as cranes might ingest appropriate gizzard stones in one locality and regurgitate them in a region where such stone is otherwise scarce) ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 1123 KB) A pair of Red-crowned cranes in the Tokyo zoo. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 1123 KB) A pair of Red-crowned cranes in the Tokyo zoo. ... Binomial name Grus japonensis (Statius Muller, 1776) The Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis), also called the Japanese Crane and Manchurian Crane, is a large crane and is the second rarest crane in the world. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... A touchstone is a small tablet of dark stone such as fieldstone or slate, used for probing of precious metal alloys. ...


A crane is the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for the letter "B."[verification needed] Also, the word "pedigree" comes from the Old French phrase, "pie de grue", which means "foot of a crane", as the pedigree diagram looks similar to the branches coming out of a crane's foot. A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Look up B, b in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pedigree is a list of ancestors (usually implying distinguished), a list of ancestors of the same breed (usually in the case of animals), the purity of a breed, individual, or strain, or a document proving any of these things. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue...


A crane is considered auspicious in China, Japan and Vietnam. It is one of the symbols of longevity and is often represented with other symbols of long life, such as pine, bamboo, and the tortoise. Vietnamese people consider crane and dragon to be symbols of their culture. In feudal Japan the crane was protected by the ruling classes and fed by the peasants. When the feudal system was abolished in the Meiji era of the 19th century, the protection of cranes was lost. With effort they have been brought back from the brink of extinction. Japan has named one of their satellites tsuru (crane, the bird). According to tradition, if one folds 1000 origami cranes one's wish for health will be granted. Since the death of Sadako Sasaki this applies to a wish for peace as well. For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... The traditional crane and papers of the same size used to fold it A paper Pegasus designed by F. Kawahata Origami ) (literally meaning folding paper) is the art of paper folding. ... Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/f/f7/Sadako_Sasaki_Portrait_Age_12. ...


Also, traditional Chinese 'heavenly cranes' (tian-he) or 'blessed cranes' (xian-he) were messengers of wisdom. Legendary Taoist sages were transported between heavenly worlds on the backs of cranes. This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ...


See also

The International Crane Foundation (ICF) in Baraboo, Wisconsin is a scientific organization dedicated to the study and preservation of the 15 crane species of birds. ...

References

  • Hayes, M.A. (2005): Divorce and extra-pair paternity as alternative mating strategies in monogamous sandhill cranes. MS thesis, University of South Dakota, Vermilion, S.D.. 86 p. PDF fulltext at the International Crane Foundation's Library
  • Lambrecht, Kálmán (1933): Handbuch der Palaeornithologie. Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin.
  • Miller, Alden H. & Sibley, Charles G. (1942): A New Species of Crane from the Pliocene of California. Condor 44: 126-127. PDF fulltext

The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ...

External links

  • Saving Cranes website (ICF)
  • Craneworld website
  • Gruidae videos on the Internet Bird Collection
  • Origami crane

Myth and Lore links

  • Crane mythologies. Not selective, a starting point
  • Crane Dance at the Tongdosa Temple (archive link, was dead)
  • Thousand Cranes lore.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Crane (bird) - MSN Encarta (0 words)
Cranes fly with their necks fully extended, whereas herons, once they have attained their full flight speed, pull their heads back so that the neck is bent in an S-curve.
Cranes are birds of open country—marshes, meadows, prairies, and tundra.
The sandhill crane is classified as Grus canadensis, the whooping crane as Grus americana, and the sarus crane as Grus antigone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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