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Encyclopedia > Cranberries
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Cranberry
Cranberry fruit
Cranberry fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Vaccinium
Subgenus: Oxycoccus
Species

Vaccinium erythrocarpum
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium microcarpum
Vaccinium oxycoccus Download high resolution version (640x735, 114 KB)Cranberry bog from http://www. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families See text. ... Genera See text The plant Family Ericaceae (Heath Family) or ericaceous plants are mostly lime-hating or calcifuge plants that thrive in acid soils. ... Species See text Vaccinium is a genus of shrubs in the plant Family Ericaceae including the cranberry, blueberry, bilberry or whortleberry, cowberry or lingonberry, and huckleberry. ...

Approximate ranges of the cranberries in sect. Oxycoccus: Red: Common Cranberry. Orange: Small Cranberry. Green: American Cranberry.

Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the genus Vaccinium subgenus Oxycoccus, or in some treatments, in the distinct genus Oxycoccus. They are found in acidic bogs throughout the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Approximate map of cranberry ranges: Red: Common cranberry Orange: Small cranberry Green: American cranberry Base map from Earth This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Approximate map of cranberry ranges: Red: Common cranberry Orange: Small cranberry Green: American cranberry Base map from Earth This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A Silver Fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant which retains its leaves year-round, with each leaf persisting for more than 12 months. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Species See text Vaccinium is a genus of shrubs in the plant Family Ericaceae including the cranberry, blueberry, bilberry or whortleberry, cowberry or lingonberry, and huckleberry. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planets surface (or celestial sphere) that is north of the equator (the word hemisphere literally means half ball). On the Earth, the Northern Hemisphere contains most of the land and about 88-90% of the human population. ...


Cranberries are low, creeping shrubs or vines up to 2 m long and 5 to 20 cm in height [1], with slender, wiry stems, not thickly woody, and small evergreen leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with very distinct reflexed petals, leaving the style and stamens fully exposed and pointing forward. They are pollinated by domestic honey bees. The fruit is a berry that is larger than the leaves of the plant; it is initially white, but turns a deep red when fully ripe. It is edible, with an acidic taste that can overwhelm its sweetness. A Silver Fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant which retains its leaves year-round, with each leaf persisting for more than 12 months. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Several types of berries from the market. ... Acidity redirects here. ...


Cranberries are a major commercial crop in certain US states and Canadian provinces (see "Cultivation and Uses" below). Most cranberries are processed into products such as juice, sauce, and sweetened dried cranberries, with the remainder sold fresh to consumers. Cranberry sauce is widely regarded as an indispensable part of the traditional American and Canadian Thanksgiving menu. Cranberry sauce is a sauce or relish made out of cranberries. ... The First Thanksgiving, painted by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1863-1930). ...

Contents

Species and description

There are three to four species of cranberry, classified in two sections:

Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. Oxycoccus
  • Vaccinium oxycoccus or Oxycoccus palustris (Common Cranberry or Northern Cranberry) is widespread throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere, including northern Europe, northern Asia and northern North America. It has small 5-10 mm leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with a purple central spike, produced on finely hairy stems. The fruit is a small pale pink berry, with a refreshing sharp acidic flavour.
  • Vaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccus microcarpus (Small Cranberry) occurs in northern Europe and northern Asia, and differs from V. oxycoccus in the leaves being more triangular, and the flower stems hairless. Some botanists include it within V. oxycoccus.
  • Vaccinium macrocarpon or Oxycoccus macrocarpus (American Cranberry, Bearberry) native to northeastern North America (eastern Canada, and eastern United States, south to North Carolina at high altitudes). It differs from V. oxycoccus in the leaves being larger, 10-20 mm long, and in its slightly apple-like taste.
Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. Oxycoccoides
Vaccinium oxycoccus flowers
Vaccinium oxycoccus flowers

Cranberries are related to the bilberries, blueberries, and huckleberries, all in Vaccinium subgenus Vaccinium. These differ in having stouter, woodier stems forming taller shrubs, and in the bell-shaped flowers, the petals not being reflexed. The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planets surface (or celestial sphere) that is north of the equator (the word hemisphere literally means half ball). On the Earth, the Northern Hemisphere contains most of the land and about 88-90% of the human population. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Several types of berries from the market. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Binomial name Vaccinium erythrocarpum Michx. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of North American mountains mostly in the United States, and partly in Canada, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from the island of Newfoundland some 1,500 miles... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 272 KB) Description: Vaccinum oxycoccos Picture taken by BerndH Date: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cranberry Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 272 KB) Description: Vaccinum oxycoccos Picture taken by BerndH Date: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cranberry Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Binomial name Vaccinium myrtillus L. Bilberry is a name given to several species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae) that bear tasty fruits. ... Species See text. ... Wild huckleberry in the Mount Hood National Forest. ...


Some plants of the completely unrelated genus Viburnum are sometimes inaccurately called "highbush cranberries". Species About 150 species; see text Viburnum (Viburnum) is a genus of about 175 species of shrubs or (in a few species) small trees that were previously included in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae. ...


Cranberries are susceptible to false blossom, a harmful but controllable phytoplasma disease that is most common in the eastern production areas of Massachusetts and New Jersey. Species Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum Candidatus Phytoplasma mali Candidatus Phytoplasma morrenia Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae Candidatus Phytoplasma persicae Candidatus Phytoplasma pini Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii Candidatus...


Etymology and history

The Cranberry Harvest on the Island of Nantucket, Eastman Johnson, 1880.
The Cranberry Harvest on the Island of Nantucket, Eastman Johnson, 1880.

The name cranberry probably derives from their being a favorite food of cranes, though some sources claim the name comes from "'craneberry' because before the flower expands, its stem, calyx, and petals resembled the neck, head, and bill of a crane". Another name, used in northeastern Canada, is mossberry. An old English name for Vaccinium oxycoccus is the fenberry, because they were grown in fen (marsh) lands. Download high resolution version (950x454, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (950x454, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Nantucket County Settled 1641 Incorporated 1671 Government type Open town meeting Area    - Town  105. ... Eastman Johnson (1824 - 1906) was a U.S. painter. ... Genera Grus Anthropoides Balearica Bugeranus Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. ... A fen is a sere, a phase in the natural ecological succession from the open water of a lake to (for example) woodland. ...


Cranberries have been eaten by Arctic peoples for millennia and remain a very popular fruit for wild harvesting in the Nordic countries and Russia. In Scotland the berries were formerly wild harvested but with the loss of suitable habitat, the plants have become so scarce that this is no longer done. In North America, Native Americans were the first to recognise and use the cranberry as a source of food. Some tribes called the red berries Sassamanash. They are reported to have introduced the cranberry to starving English settlers in Massachusetts around 1620, who incorporated the berry into the traditional Thanksgiving feast. American Revolutionary War veteran Henry Hall is alleged to be the first to cultivate the cranberry commercially, in the Cape Cod town of Dennis around 1816. The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Olmec script These glyphs written in Epi-Olmec script, the earliest examples of writing in the Americas, give a calendar date of 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual one-day holiday to give thanks, traditionally to God, for the things one has at the end of the harvest season. ... Combatants American Patriots France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida and Tuscarora tribes Polish volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George... For other people of this name, see Henry Hall (disambiguation). ... Cape Cod (or simply the Cape) is an arm-shaped peninsula nearly coextensive with Barnstable County, Massachusetts and forming the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. ... Seal of Dennis, MA Dennis is a town located in Barnstable County, Massachusetts. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Cultivation and uses

Cranberry harvest in New Jersey
Cranberry harvest in New Jersey

Cranberries are a major commercial crop in the American states of Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, Oregon, Washington, and Wisconsin, as well as in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Quebec. New Jersey has led the United States in cranberry production since 1995. A very small production is found in southern Chile, in the Baltic States and in eastern Europe. Download high resolution version (3157x2125, 3095 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3157x2125, 3095 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water...


Historically, cranberry beds were constructed in wetlands. Currently cranberry beds are constructed in upland areas that have a shallow water table. The topsoil is scraped off to form dikes around the bed perimeter. Clean sand is hauled in to a depth of four to eight inches. The surface is laser leveled with a slight crown in the center to facilitate drainage. Beds are frequently drained with socked tile in addition to the perimeter ditch. In addition to making it possible to hold water, the dikes allow equipment to service the beds without driving on the vines. Irrigation equipment is installed in the bed to provide irrigation for vine growth and for spring and fall frost protection. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ...


Cranberry vines are propagated by moving vines from an established bed. The vines are spread on the surface of the sand of the new bed and pushed into the sand with a blunt disk. The vines are watered frequently during the first few weeks until roots form and new shoots grow. Beds are given frequent light application of nitrogen fertilizer during the first year. The cost of establishment for new cranberry beds is estimated to be about US$70,000 per hectare.


A common misconception about cranberry production is that the beds remain flooded throughout the year. During the growing season cranberry beds are not flooded, but are irrigated regularly to maintain soil moisture. Beds are flooded in the fall to facilitate harvest and again during the winter to protect against low temperatures. In cold climates like Wisconsin, Massachusetts, and eastern Canada the winter flood typically freezes into ice while in warmer climates the water remains liquid. When ice forms on the beds trucks can be driven onto the ice to spread a thin layer of sand that helps to control pests and to rejuvenate the vines. Sanding is done every three to five years.


Cranberries are harvested in the fall when the fruit takes on its distinctive deep red color. This is usually in late September and into October. To harvest cranberries the beds are flooded with six to eight inches of water. A harvester is driven through the beds to remove the fruit from the vines. For the past 50 years water reel type harvesters have been used. Harvested cranberries float in the water and can be corraled into a corner of the bed and conveyed or pumped from the bed. From the farm, cranberries are taken to receiving stations where they are cleaned, sorted, and stored prior to packaging or processing. In 2005 a new type of cranberry harvester called the Ruby Slipper was introduced into the industry. Whether this type of harvester with fewer moving parts will be accepted by the industry still remains to be seen.


White cranberry juice drinks are made from regular cranberries that have been harvested after the fruit are mature, but before they have attained their characteristic dark red color. Yields are lower on beds harvested early and the early flooding tends to damage vines, but not severely.


About 95% of cranberries are processed into products such as juice drinks, sauce, and sweetened dried cranberries. The remaining 5% is sold fresh to consumers. Cranberries destined to processing are usually frozen in bulk containers shortly after arriving at a receiving station. Cranberries for fresh market are stored in shallow bins or boxes with perforated or slatted bottoms to allow air movement to prevent decay. Because harvest occurs in late fall cranberries for fresh market are frequently stored in thick walled barns without mechanical refrigeration. Temperatures are regulated by opening and closing vents in the barn as needed.


Usually cranberries as fruit are served as a compote or jelly, often known generically as cranberry sauce. Such preparations are traditionally served with roast turkey meat and are considered by some to be a staple of the Canadian and US holiday Thanksgiving. The berry is also used in baking (muffins, scones and cakes) but, unlike many other berries, is normally considered too sharp to be eaten unaccompanied. A compote is a sweet cooked preparation of whole or cut fruit (such as apples, pears, cherries, strawberries, plums) and sugar, usually more liquid in consistency than jams, jellies or preserves. ... Look up jelly in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cranberry sauce is a sauce or relish made out of cranberries. ... Holidays of the United States vary with local observance. ... Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual one-day holiday to give thanks, traditionally to God, for the things one has at the end of the harvest season. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Scones with honey. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Fresh cranberries can be frozen at home, and will keep up to nine months; they can be used directly in recipes without thawing.[2]


Cranberry juice, usually sweetened to reduce its natural severe tartness and make "cranberry juice cocktail" or blended with other fruit juices, is a major use of cranberries.


Health benefits

Cranberries are a source of polyphenol antioxidants, phytochemicals under active research for possible benefits to the cardiovascular system, immune system and as anti-cancer agents[3][4]. Molecular structure of flavone, a common Polyphenol antioxidant Polyphenol antioxidant is a class of multi-phenolic compounds known for their role of down-regulating free radical formation in mammals . ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


There is potential benefit of cranberry juice consumption against bacterial infections in the urinary system. While much of the evidence is equivocal, hypotheses suggest that an effect occurs from a component of the juice competitively inhibiting bacterial attachment to the bladder and urethra[5], allowing the bacteria to be flushed out more easily. A working hypothesis is that this mechanism results from the high molecular weight non-dializable material (NDM) contained within the cranberry acting against P-fimbrial adhesion by unpathogenic E. coli[citation needed]. By recognizing the galactose-galactose linkage on the bacterial cell wall, NDM may also prevent type 1 fimbriae of gram negative E. coli adhering to receptors on the bladder epithelium[citation needed]. This action may involve D-mannose[citation needed] and fructose, two monosaccharides present in the cranberry[citation needed]. The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A fimbria (plural fimbriae) is a Latin word that literally means fringe. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Types of epithelium This article discusses the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... Mannose is a sugar, one of the hexose series of carbohydrates. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Monosaccharides are carbohydrates in the form of simple sugars. ...


Although promising for anti-bacterial activity, long-term consumption of cranberry juice has only limited evidence for beneficial effects against urinary tract infections in women[6]. Similar applications have not been successfully proved in other clinical trials of consuming cranberry juice or tablets by people with spinal cord injury associated with bladder catheterization, neurogenic bladder or infrequent urination, any of which may be associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections[7] [8] [9]. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. ... Spinal cord injury, or myelopathy, is a disturbance of the spinal cord that results in loss of sensation and/or mobility. ... A bladder is a pouch or other flexible enclosure with waterproof or gasproof walls. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that a health professional may insert into part of the body. ... Dysfunction of the urinary bladder due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of micturition. ... Urination, formally called micturition, is the process of disposing urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. ...


An autumn 2004 caution from the Committee on Safety of Medicines, the UK agency dealing with drug safety, advised patients taking warfarin not to drink cranberry juice after adverse effects were reported, possibly resulting from the presence of salicylic acid native to] polyphenol-rich plants such as the cranberry. The Committee on the Safety of Medicines (CSM) was an independent advisory committee that for 40 years advised the UK Licensing Authority on the quality, efficacy and safety of medicines. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ... Polyphenols are a group of plant chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ...


Cranberry juice contains a chemical component, a high molecular weight non-dializable material (NDM), as noted above, that is able to inhibit and even reverse the formation of plaque by Streptococcus mutan pathogens that cause tooth decay.[1][2] The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In biochemistry, dialysis is the process of separating crystalloids and colloids in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane. ... Improper removal of plaque caused a build up of calculus (dark yellow colour) near the gums on almost all the teeth. ... Streptococcus is a genus of spherical shaped Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the phylum Firmicutes[1] and the lactic acid bacteria group. ...


Cranberry juice components also show efficacy against formation of kidney stones[10] [11].


Raw cranberries are by far the most abundant food source of the anthocyanidin flavonoid peonidin and are also rich in two other anthocyanidins, cyanidin and petunidin.[3] These compounds have an unknown effect on human health.[4][5] Although they are extraordinarily powerful at inhibiting and even killing many kinds of human cancer cells in vitro (that is, in a petri dish), their effect when ingested by humans is unproven, and substantial questions about their effectiveness are raised by their poor absorption into human cells, and their rapid elimination from the human bloodstream. Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... Molecular structure of flavone The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites based around a phenylbenzopyrone structure. ... The generic garden peony. ... Chemical structure of cyanidin Cyanidin, or flavan-3-ol, is a natural organic compound which is classified as a flavonoid and an anthocyanin. ...


Marketing and economics

History

Cranberry sales have traditionally been associated with the United States holidays of Thanksgiving and Christmas. Until the 1930s most of the crop was sold fresh. Bold text This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual one-day holiday to give thanks, traditionally to God, for the things one has at the end of the harvest season. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ...


Cranberry growers have a long history of cooperative marketing. As early as 1904, John Gaynor, a Wisconsin grower, and A.U. Chaney, a fruit broker from Des Moines, Iowa, organized Wisconsin growers into a cooperative called the Wisconsin Cranberry Sales Company to receive a uniform price from buyers. Growers in New Jersey and Massachusetts were also organized into cooperatives, creating the National Fruit Exchange that marketed fruit under the Eatmor brand. The success of cooperative marketing almost led to its failure. With consistent and high prices, acreage and production doubled between 1903 and 1917 and prices fell. In 1918, US$54,000 was spent on advertising, leading to US$1 million in increased sales. Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up marketing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... Nickname: Hartford of the West, City of Skywalks, Raccoon City, DSM Location in the State of Iowa, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Iowa County Polk County Incorporated September 22, 1851 Government  - Mayor Frank Cownie Area  - City  77. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... A brand is a name, logo, slogan, and/or design scheme associated with a product or service. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


With surplus cranberries and changing American households some enterprising growers began canning cranberries that were below-grade for fresh market. Competition between canners was fierce because profits were thin. The Ocean Spray cooperative was established in 1930 through a merger of three primary processing companies: Ocean Spray Preserving company, Makepeace Preserving Co, and Cranberry Products Co. The new company was called Cranberry Canners, Inc. and used the Ocean Spray label on their products. Since the new company represented over 90% of the market, it would have been illegal (cf. antitrust) had attorney John Quarles not found an exemption for agricultural cooperatives. As of 2006, about 65% of the North American industry belongs to the Ocean Spray cooperative. (The percentage may be slightly higher in Canada than in the U.S.) Surplus means the quantity left over, after conducting an activity; the quantity which has not been used up, and can refer to: budget surplus, the opposite of a budget deficit economic surplus Surplus product or surplus value in Marxian economics physical surplus in the economic theory of Piero Sraffa Operating... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ocean Spray is an agricultural cooperative of growers of cranberries and grapefruit headquartered in Middleborough/Lakeville, Massachusetts. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ... An attorney is someone who represents someone else in the transaction of business: For attorney-at-law, see lawyer, solicitor, barrister or civil law notary. ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) comprises a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members, with no passive shareholders. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


A turning point for the industry occurred on November 9, 1959 when the secretary of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Arthur S. Flemming announced that some of the 1959 crop was tainted with traces of the herbicide aminotriazole. The market for cranberries collapsed and growers lost millions of dollars.[6] However, the scare taught the industry that they could not be completely dependent on the holiday market for their products and had to find year round markets for their fruit. They also had to be excruciatingly careful about their use of pesticides. November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (also known as HEW) was a cabinet level department of the United States government from 1953 until 1979. ... Arthur Sherwood Flemming was a United States Secretary of Health and Welfare between 1958 - 1961 under the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... Aminotriazole is an herbicide, C2H4N4, used on nonfood croplands to control annual grasses and broadleaf and aquatic weeds. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ...


After the aminotriazole scare, Ocean Spray reorganized and spent substantial sums on product development. New products such as cranberry apple juice blends were introduced, followed by other juice blends. Product Development is the process of development of products. ... Orange juice Juice is a liquid naturally contained in vegetable or fruit tissue. ...


A Federal Marketing Order that is authorized to synchronize supply and demand was approved in 1962. The order has been renewed and modified slightly in subsequent years, but it has allowed for more stable marketing. The market order has been invoked during six crop years: 1962 (12%), 1963 (5%), 1970 (10%), 1971 (12%), 2000 (15%), and 2001 (35%). Even though supply still slightly exceeds demand, there is little will to invoke the Federal Marketing Order out of the realization that any pullback in supply by U.S. growers would easily be filled by Canadian production. In the United States, a Federal Marketing Order is a regulation of an executive agency which sets prices and other conditions for the sale of certain goods. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prices and production increased steadily during the 1980s and 1990s. Prices peaked at about $65.00 per barrel (A cranberry barrel = 100 pounds or 45.4 kg) in 1996 then fell to $18.00 per barrel in 2001. The cause for the preciptous drop was classic oversupply. Production had outpaced consumption leading to substantial inventory in freezers or as concentrate.


Cranberry handlers (processors) include Ocean Spray, Cliffstar, Inc., Northland Cranberries, Clement Pappas & Co., Decas Cranberry Products as well as a number of small handlers and processors. [12] Ocean Spray is an agricultural cooperative of growers of cranberries and grapefruit headquartered in Middleborough/Lakeville, Massachusetts. ...


Nutrition

Cranberries exhibit a level of tannins, in addition to antioxidants. Tannins have anti-clotting properties, and may help reduce both urinary tract infections and the amount of dental plaque-causing bacteria in the mouth, thus being a prophylaxis for gingivitis.[7] Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... Improper removal of plaque caused a build up of calculus (dark yellow colour) near the gums on almost all the teeth. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Nutrients in raw cranberries[8]
Nutrient Value per 100 grams
Energy 46 kcal
Fiber, total dietary 4.6 g
Sugars, total 4.04 g
Calcium, Ca 8 mg
Magnesium, Mg 6 mg
Phosphorus, P 13 mg
Potassium, K 85 mg
Sodium, Na 2 mg
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 13.3 mg
Vitamin A, IU 60 IU
Carotene, beta 36 mcgJ
Lutein + zeaxanthin 91 mcg
See also: Chemicals in Vaccinium macrocarpon

References

  1. ^ The Cranberry Institute
  2. ^ Blocking tooth decay
  3. ^ Peonidin Content of Foods
  4. ^ anthocyanidin
  5. ^ peonidin
  6. ^ "Cranberry Blues" 1959 recording (mp3 file) by Robert Williams and the Groovers
  7. ^ University of Maine
  8. ^ U.S. Department of Agriculture: Nutrient Data Laboratory -- USDA Nutrient Database A searchable index of food nutrient composition. Search on cranberries for raw cranberry nutrient composition. Search on cranberry for other cranberry products.

Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... The generic garden peony. ... This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
  • Germplasm Resources Information Network: Sect. Oxycoccus and Sect. Oxycoccoides
  • October 2004 "Current Problems in Pharmacovigilance" (pdf file) - has warfarin and cranberry juice caution, p. 10.
  • 2001 review of evidence for therapeutic effects of cranberry juice
  • 1989 study of cranberry juice's possible role in inhibiting bacterial adherence to bladder cells
  • The Cranberry Institute for information on cranberry's health benefits.
  • Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers Association for information on cranberry culture
  • Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' Association for information on cranberry culture
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst Cranberry Station for information on cranberry research
  • Cranberry Library Page Exhaustive link page for cranberry information hosted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Wikimapia An overhead view of a cranberry farm near Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin
  • Cranberries keep the doctor and dentist away.

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