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Encyclopedia > Cramond
The village harbour at Cramond, with 18th century mill workers' housing in the background.
The village harbour at Cramond, with 18th century mill workers' housing in the background.
The inscription on the Roman altar dedicated to the mothers of Alaterva and of the fields.
The inscription on the Roman altar dedicated to the mothers of Alaterva and of the fields.

Cramond is a village that lies on the east bank of the River Almond where it enters the Firth of Forth forming a natural harbour. It is now a suburb in the north-west corner of Edinburgh. Excavations have revealed a Roman past and, as of 2004, the oldest human site in Scotland. It was the birthplace of the Scottish economist John Law. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... The River Almond is a river in east-central Scotland. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... Edinburgh is divided into areas that generally encompass a park (or green), a high street (i. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Jean Law John Law (bap. ...

Contents

Etymology

The fort or station at Cramond was known to the Romans themselves as Alaterva, according to a Roman altar dug up in the grounds of Cramond House that is dedicated to 'the mothers of Alaterva and of the fields', the Latin inscription reading Matribus Alatervis et Matribus Campestribus.


In the centuries that followed the end of the Roman occupation, Cramond lay on the edge of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, whose inhabitants spoke Cumbric, a Brythonic Celtic language, and gave the settlement its name. Cramond is derived from the compound Caeramon, meaning River-Fort, referring to the fort (Caer) on the River Almond (the word Amon, a river, was often applied to particular rivers). Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in England in Cumbria, Lancashire, some parts of Northumbria and Yorkshire and in southern Lowland Scotland, i. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Almond is an important river in east-central Scotland. ...


History

A map showing the parish of Cramond in 1794.
A map showing the parish of Cramond in 1794.

Cramond developed slowly over the centuries, with Cramond Kirk being founded in 1656. After a brief period spent as an industrial village in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, by the late 19th century it become a desirable suburb of Edinburgh, which it remains to this day. 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Significant Events and Trends World Leaders King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


Mesolithic period

Archaeological excavations at Cramond have uncovered evidence of habitation radiocarbon dated to around 8500 BC, making it the earliest known site of human habitation in Scotland. The early inhabitants of the site left behind piles of discarded hazelnut shells and stone tools. Pits and postholes suggest a hunter-gatherer encampment, and microlith stone tools made at the site predate finds of similar style in England. Although no bones or shells had survived the acid soil, the carbonised hazelnut shells indicate cooking in a similar way to finds at later Mesolithic period sites including Britain's oldest house at Howick in Northumberland, dated to 7600 BC Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ... A microlith is a small stone tool, typically knapped of flint or chert, usually about three centimetres long or less. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... There is more than one place called Howick. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... In the 8th millennium BC, agriculture becomes widely practiced in the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia. ...


Roman period

Site of the Roman Fort at Cramond.
Site of the Roman Fort at Cramond.

Around 142, Roman forces arrived at Cramond by order of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had given them the task of establishing a fort at the mouth of the River Almond. This fort would guard the eastern flank of the frontier that the Romans had established across Scotland. Nearly five hundred men worked on the site, building a fort that covered nearly six acres and a harbour for communication. However, the fort was only inhabited for a short time, perhaps fifteen years, before it was abandoned by the troops who were ordered to retreat south to Hadrian's Wall. Pottery and coins of later date indicate that the fort and harbour were reinhabited and used as a base for the army and navy of the Emperor Septimus Severus, sometime between 208 and 211. Events Construction of the Antonine Wall began in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... hello my name is marco u ... This article is about the year 211. ...


The medieval parish church of Cramond parish (which retains its late medieval western tower in altered form), was built within the Roman fort.


Though knowledge of the Roman presence at Cramond was recorded afterwards, the remains of the fort itself were only rediscovered in 1954. Substantial archaeological research was carried out upon its discovery to build up a reasonably accurate picture of the site in Roman times. The fort was rectangular in shape, with walls fifteen feet high on all sides. A gatehouse was set in every wall, allowing access in all four directions. Inside, there were barracks, workshops, granaries, headquarters and the commander's house. Later excavations revealed other constructions outside the boundary of the fort, including a bath-house, further industrial workshops and a native settlement. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... A gatehouse is a feature of European castles and mansions. ... Roman public baths in Bath, England. ...


In 1997 the Cramond Lioness was uncovered in the harbour mud by a local boatman (who received a substantial monetary reward for finding this major antiquity), and was identified as a sandstone statue of a lioness devouring a hapless male figure, probably one of a pair at the tomb of a military commander. After conservation, the statue was displayed in the Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. It is one of the most ambitious pieces of Roman sculpture to have survived in Scotland. The Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, is a museum dedicated to the history, people and culture of Scotland. ...


Cramond today

The older houses along the wharf are typical of traditional south-east Scottish vernacular architecture, constructed in stone with harling white lime render finish, with facing stone window and door surrounds and crow-step gables, roofed with orangey-red clay pantiles imported from the Netherlands. A ruined water mill lies further up the Almond along a quiet walk past a yacht club and sailing boats moored in the river.To the east a sand beach and waterfront esplanade provides a popular walk to Silverknowes and Granton. On the other side of the Almond, (once accessible by a rowing-boat ferry) the Dalmeny Estate has a pleasant walk through Dalmeny Woods along the shore of the Firth of Forth. It belongs to the postal district EH4. Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorize a method of construction which uses locally available resources to address local needs. ... Harl is a Scottish term describing a building technique. ... This is a list of the post towns of the United Kingdom – it appears in postcode sequence. ... EH4 is a postal district for Edinburgh, and is considered to belong to the most exclusive addresses, which includes Blackhall, one of Scotlands most expensive suburbs and it also includes Cramond, another suburb which is almost always assosciated as Second-Best to Blackhall. ...


Offshore, Cramond Island has WW II fortifications and is linked to land by a causeway with a line of concrete pylons on one side, constructed as a submarine defence boom. At certain low tides sand extends to the island, tempting visitors to visit the island, though occasionally some are stranded by the incoming tide. Cramond Island and the walkway seen from the shore. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Hindenburgdamm rail causeway across the Wadden Sea to the island of Sylt in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany In modern usage, a causeway is a road or railway elevated by a bank, usually across a broad body of water or wetland. ...


Medieval period

A tower-house, probably built in the early 15th century, and part of a now-demolished larger establishment, was once a manor house of the Bishops of Dunkeld, of whose diocese Cramond was a part. It was made structurally sound and converted to a private dwelling in the 1980s. The Bishop of Dunkeld is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. ...


References

  • Scotland's Hidden History - Ian Armit, Tempus (in association with Historic Scotland) 1998, ISBN 0-7486-6067-4
  • Wood, John Philip (1794). The Antient and Modern state of the Parish of Cramond. Edinburgh: John Paterson.

External links

  • Tide Times Note that these are the tide times of Leith, for Cramond simply add 4 Minutes. It is safe to cross over to Cramond Island between 2 hours before and 2 hours after low tide.
  • Cramond Boat Club
  • Notes on Roman Cramond

Coordinates: 55°58′N, 3°18′W Edinburgh is divided into areas that generally encompass a park (or green), a high street (i. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Heroic Age: Post-Severan Cramond (3860 words)
Some of the coins from Cramond are of particular interest: the coin of Tetricus came from the spoil heap associated with the bathhouse excavations and was minted at Cologne; as it comes from a western mint it may well be genuine (Robertson 1983:408).
Cramond therefore means "fort on the river Almond," and the name must have originated prior to the conquest of this area by Anglo-Saxon Northumbria in the middle of the seventh century.
Cramond was probably controlled by a succession of royal owners in a manner similar to that suggested for some Roman forts in England, where churches occur from the seventh century onward (Bidwell 1997:108-9).
Encyclopedia: Cramond (1195 words)
Cramond is a village built on the east side of the River Almond where it enters the Firth of Forth forming a natural harbour, now a suburb of Edinburgh.
Offshore, Cramond Island has WW II fortifications and is linked to land by a line of concrete pyramids constructed as a submarine defence boom.
In 1997 the Cramond Lioness was uncovered in the harbour mud, and found to be a statue of a lioness devouring a hapless male figure, probably one of a pair at a military commander's tomb.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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