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Encyclopedia > Cradle of civilization

In the history of the world, the cradle of civilization is a title claimed by several regions of the world owning to their development of writing, social systems, and cities. Human history's beginning, as opposed to its prehistory, has been said to begin with the invention, independently at several sites on Earth, of writing, which created the infrastructure for lasting, accurately transmitted memories and thus for the diffusion and growth of knowledge. Writing, in its turn, had been made necessary in the wake of the Neolithic Revolution, which had given rise to civilization, i.e., to create civilizations with permanent settled communities, which fostered a growing diversity of trades. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The Four Great Ancient Civilizations (Chinese: 四大文明古国; Pinyin: Sì Dà Wénmíng Gǔ Guó) is a concept frequently used in the study of history in China, referring to the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and India, seen as the first four civilizations to appear in the history of humankind. ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of Earth. ... The Cradle of Humankind or, alternatively Cradle of Humanity, Cradle of Mankind or Cradle of Man may refer to: History of the world, the history of humanity. ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of Earth. ... “Write” redirects here. ... Social structure (also referred to as a social system) is a system in which people forming the society are organized by a patterns of prelationships. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Central New York City. ...


Scholars educated in various parts of the world look at the question differently. There are five rivers that scholars cite as being possible sites for the 'Cradle of Civilization.' They are: the Tigris-Euphrates in modern day Iraq, the Nile in Africa, the Indus in South Asia, and the Huang-He-Yangtze in China. The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng...


Prosperous conditions throughout the world in fertile river locations prompted nomadic people in the various given regions to form a sedentary, agrarian community and, thus, become a "Cradle of Civilization." It is not clear where the actual beginning took place or whether there were many beginnings in many locations so that mankind's societal development cannot be attributed to only one primary location. The inhabitants of these areas built cities, created writing systems, learned to make pottery and use metals, domesticated animals, and created complex social structures with class systems.

Contents

Mesopotamia

Historically, the ancient city states of Mesopotamia in the fertile crescent are most cited by Western and Middle Eastern scholars as the cradle of civilization. The convergence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers produced rich fertile soil and a supply of water for irrigation. The civilizations that emerged around these rivers are among the earliest known attempts humanity made at establishing non-nomadic agrarian societies. But it is due to the fact that Ubaid, Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylon civilizations all emerged around the Tigris-Euphrates, the theory that Mesopotamia is the cradle of civilizations might be the strongest. It's also due to the fact that Ubaid (5500 B.C.) the oldest civilization known to exist was in the same area.[1] History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Sumer (or Å umer in Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ...


Sumer

Further information: The legacy of ancient Sumer

The Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer is believed to have begun around 4000-3500 BC, and although some claim it ended in 2334 BC with the rise of Akkad, the following Ur III period saw a Sumerian renaissance. This period came to an end with Amorite and Elamite invasions, after which Sumerian retained its importance only as a written language (similar to Latin in the Middle Ages). It is generally recognized that Sumer, in what is now Iraq, was the world's first civilization. Sumer (or Šumer in Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Sumer (or Šumer in Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Eridu was the oldest Sumerian site, settled during the proto-civilized Ubaid period. Situated several miles southwest of Ur, Eridu was the southernmost of a conglomeration of early temple-cities, in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, with the earliest of these settlements carbon dating to around 5000 BC. By the 4th millennium BC, in Nippur we find, in connection with a sort of ziggurat and shrine, a conduit built of bricks, in the form of an arch. Sumerian inscriptions written on clay also appear in Nippur. By 4000 BC an ancient Elamite city of Susa, in Mesopotamia, also seems to emerge from earlier villages. Whilst Elam originally adopted their own script from an early age they adapted the Sumerian cuneiform script to their own language. The earliest recognizable cuneiform dates to no later than about 3500 BC. Other villages that began to spring up around this time in the Ancient Near East (Middle East) were greatly impacted and shifted rapidly from a proto-civilized to a fully civilized state (eg. Ebla, Mari and Asshur). Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Sumer (or Å umer in Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... A conduit is a general term for a means of conveying something from one location to another or between persons. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... Sumer (or Å umer in Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events ? - Formation of the Sahara Desert 3450 (?) - Stage IId of the Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions ? _ Irrigation in Egypt ? - First use of Cuneiform (script) Categories... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Mari may refer to: Ethnic Mari El, a republic of Russian Federation Mari language, Finno-Ugric language Mari people, a Volga-Finnic people People Mari (composer), a video game music composer Mari (singer), a female vocalist Saint Mari, a Christian saint Other Mari (goddess), the main divinity of pre-Christian... The word Asshur can mean: Asshur (אַשּׁוּר), son of Shem, the son of Noah. ...


== ilovelacey ==


Egypt

Further information: Ancient Egypt: Ancient Achievements

The rise of dynastic Egypt in the Nile Valley occurred with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt in approximately 3200 BC, and ended at around 343 BC, at the start of the Achaemenid dynasty's control of Egypt. It is one of the three oldest civilizations in the world. Anthropological and archaeological evidence both indicate that the Kubbaniya culture was a grain-grinding culture farming along the Nile before the 10th millennium BC using sickle blades. But another culture of hunters, fishers and gathering peoples using stone tools replaced them. Evidence also indicates human habitation in the southwestern corner of Egypt, near the Sudan border, before 8000 BC. From around 7000 BC to 3000 BC the climate of the Sahara was much moister, offering good grazing land even in areas that are now very arid. Natural climate change after 3000 BC led to progressive arification of the region. It has been suggested that as a result of these changes, around 2500 BC early tribes from the Sahara were forced to concentrate along the Nile river where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society. However it should be borne in mind that indigenous tribes would always have been present in the fertile Nile Valley and may have developed complex societies by themselves. Domesticated animals had already been imported from Asia between 7500 BC and 4000 BC (see Sahara: History, Cattle period), and there is evidence of pastoralism and cultivation of cereals in the East Sahara in the 7th millennium BC. The earliest known artwork of ships in ancient Egypt dates to 6th millennium BC. Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... (9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... In the 8th millennium BC, agriculture becomes widely practiced in the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia. ... For other uses, see Sahara (disambiguation). ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... During the 7th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from Anatolia to the Balkans. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ...


By 6000 BC predynastic Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle. Symbols on Gerzean pottery, c.4th millennium BC, resemble traditional hieroglyph writing. In ancient Egypt mortar was in use by 4000 BC, and ancient Egyptians were producing ceramic faience as early as 3500 BC. There is evidence that ancient Egyptian explorers may have originally cleared and protected some branches of the Silk Road.[citation needed] Medical institutions are known to have been established in Egypt since as early as circa 3000 BC. Ancient Egypt gains credit for the tallest ancient pyramids and early forms of surgery, mathematics, and barge transport. The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Narmer. ... A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... Gerzeh ( or Girza, Jirzah ) was a predynastic Egyptian cemetery (29°27N, 31°12E) located along the west bank of the Nile and today named after al-Girza, the nearby present day town in Egypt [1]. Gerzeh is situated only several miles due east of the lake of the... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events 3500 BC - 3000 BC; Face of a woman, from Uruk (modern Warka, Iraq) was made. ... Explorer redirects here. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Ceremonial temple butcher knife made of flint, with the Horus name of the pharaoh Djer inscribed on its gold handle. ... All Giza Pyramids Map of Giza pyramid complex. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... A timeline of pure and applied mathematics // ca. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ...


Indus Valley and Indian subcontinent

See also: Indus Valley Civilization
Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India.
Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India.

The earliest-known farming cultures in South Asia emerged in the hills of Balochistan, Greater India. These semi-nomadic peoples domesticated wheat, barley, sheep, goat and cattle. Pottery was in use by the 6th millennium BC. The oldest granary yet found in this region was the Mehrgarh in the Indus Valley, which dates from 6000 BC. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Image File history File links Lothal_conception. ... Image File history File links Lothal_conception. ... Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency under the Department of Culture that is responsible about archaeological studies and preservation of cultural monuments. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


Their settlement consisted of mud buildings that housed four internal subdivisions. Burials included elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants and occasionally animal sacrifices. Figurines and ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone and polished copper have been found. By the 4th millennium BC, Technologies included stone and copper drills, updraft kilns, large pit kilns and copper melting crucibles. Button seals included geometric designs. For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Four styles of household basket. ... Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... Beads Cloisonné beads Dichroic beads (10 mm) A bead is a small, decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing. ... Bangles in Laad Bazaar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. ... A pendant (from Old French) is a hanging object, generally attached to a necklace or an earring. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... A rare Dresden porcelain figurine Figurine is a diminutive form of the word figure, and generally refers to a small human-made statue that represents a human (or deity or animal). ... The hard, rigid outer calcium carbonate covering of certain animals is called a shell. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Drill (disambiguation). ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... For other uses, see Crucible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the authentication means. ...


By 4000 BC, a pre-Harappan culture emerged, with trade networks including lapis lazuli and other raw materials. The Indus civilization is known to have comprised two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and more than 100 towns and villages, often of relatively small size. The two cities were perhaps originally about a mile square in overall dimensions, and their outstanding magnitude suggests political centralization, either in two large states or in a single great empire with alternative capitals. Or it may be that Harappa succeeded Mohenjo-daro, which is known to have been devastated more than once by exceptional floods [1]. The southern region of the civilization in Kathiawar and beyond appears to be of later origin than the major Indus sites. Villagers also grew numerous other crops, including peas, sesame seed, dates, and cotton. The Indus valley civilization is credited for a regular and consistent use of decimal fractions in a uniform system of ancient weights and measures.[2][3] Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a crop grown primarily for its oil-rich seeds. ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Major cities of the civilization included Harappa (3300 BC), Dholavira (2900 BC), Mohenjo-Daro (2500 BC), Lothal (2400 BC), , and Rakhigarhi. Streets were laid out in grid patterns along with the development of sewage and water systems. This civilization of planned cities came to an end around 1700 BC either through external invasion and perhaps due to drying of rivers flowing from the Himalayas to the Arabian sea and geological/climatic changes in the Indus valley civilization area which resulted in the formation of the Thar desert. The origins of the invaders are a matter of conjecture. As a result, the cities were abandoned and populations reduced and people moved to the more fertile Ganga-Yamuna river area. The Indus Valley script remains un-deciphered. This theory is called the Aryan Invasion Theory. An alternative theory proposed is the Out of India theory, according to which there was no Aryan invasion into India, there was a continuity between the Indus Valley Civilization and the subsequent Vedic Age and that the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization was related to geological events. A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Dholavira, an ancient metropolitan city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ... Rakhigarhi, or Rakhi Garhi, is a village in Hissar district in the northwest Indian state of Haryana, around 150 kilometers from Delhi. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The term Indus script refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Harappan civilization of ancient India, dating to ca. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... The Vedic civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ...


China

The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations. Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to around 1500 BC. The Yellow River was irrigated around 2205 BC, reputedly by an Emperor named Yu the Great, starting the semi-mythical Xia Dynasty. Archaeologists disagree whether or not there is archaeological evidence to support the existence of the Xia Dynasty, with some suggesting that the Bronze Age society, the Erlitou culture, was the site of this ancient, first recorded dynasty of China. The earliest archaeologically verifiable dynasty in recorded Chinese history, the Shang Dynasty, emerged around 1750 BC. The Shang Dynasty is attributed for bronze artifacts and oracle bones, which were turtle shells or cattle scapula on which are written the first recorded Chinese characters and found in the Huang He valley in Yinxu, a capital of the Shang Dynasty. The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsia-chao), ca. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Replica of an oracle bone -- turtle shell Replica of an oracle bone -- ox scapula Oracle bones (甲骨片 pinyin: jiÇŽgÇ”piàn) are pieces of bone or turtle shell used in royal divination in the mid Shang to early Zhou dynasties in ancient China, and often bearing written inscriptions in what... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Yinxu, the ruins of Yin, the capital (1350 - 1046 BC) of the Shang (Yin) Dynasty. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...


The oldest pre-civilized Neolithic cultures found in China to date are the Pengtoushan, the Jiahu, and the Peiligang, all dated to about 7000 BC. Pengtoushan has been difficult to date and has a date variance from 9000 BC to 5500 BC, but it was at this site that remains of domesticated rice dated at about 7000 BC were found. At Jiahu, some of the earliest evidence of rice cultivation was found. Another notable discovery at Jiahu was playable tonal flutes, dated around 7000 BC to 6600 BC. Peiligang was one of the earliest cultures in China to make pottery. Both Jiahu and Peiligang developed millet farming, animal husbandry, storage and redistribution of crops. Evidence also indicates specialized craftsmanship and administrators in these Neolithic cultures (see History of China: Prehistoric times). The Pengtoushan culture (彭頭山文化) (7500-6100 BC [1]) was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan, China. ... 9000 years old Jiahu playable Flutes. ... The Peiligang culture (裴李崗文化) is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived in the Yiluo river valley in Henan Province, China. ... Craftsman is an artisan who practices a handicraft or trade; a style of architecture and furniture arising from the Arts and Crafts movement; a military rank within the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, equivalent to a private; and ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ...

China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and countries linked to Chinese cultural and political history.
China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and countries linked to Chinese cultural and political history.

The early history of China is complicated by the lack of a written language during this period coupled with the existence of documents from later time periods attempting to describe events that occurred several centuries before. The problem in some sense stems from centuries of introspection on the part of the Chinese people which has blurred the distinction between fact and fiction in regards to this early history. By 7000 BC, the Chinese were farming millet, giving rise to the Jiahu culture. At Damaidi in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6,000-5,000 BCE have been discovered "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, moon, stars, gods and scenes of hunting or grazing." These pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese.[4][5]. Later Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture around 2500 BC. Archaeological sites such as Sanxingdui and Erlitou show evidence of a Bronze Age civilization in China. The earliest bronze knife was found at Majiayao in Gansu and Qinhai province dated 3000 BC. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 27 KB) Summary Description: Chinese-world map ; Dark green, the chinese world : Main China, Taiwan, Hongkong, Macao. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 27 KB) Summary Description: Chinese-world map ; Dark green, the chinese world : Main China, Taiwan, Hongkong, Macao. ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia circa 6500 BC – English Channel formed circa 6100 BC – The Storegga Slide, causing a megatsunami in the Norwegian Sea circa 6000... 9000 years old Jiahu playable Flutes. ... Damaidi (大麥地) is a small village in China located in Zhongwei County in Ningxia, among the Weining Mountains on the north bend of the Yellow River. ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest loess highland, the Yellow River flows through a vast area of its land. ... Yangshao culture (仰韶文化) was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the central Yellow River in China. ... Longshan culture (龍山文化) was a late Neolithic culture centered around the central and lower Yellow River in China. ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ... Sanxingdui (三星堆 san1 xing1 dui1) is an archaeological site, about 40 kilometres from Chengdu in Sichuan Province, China. ... The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Central New York City. ... The Majiayao culture (馬家窯文化) is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in the upper Yellow River region in Gansu and Qinghai, China. ...


Chinese civilization originated with city-states in the Yellow River valley. 221 BC is the commonly accepted year when China became unified under a large kingdom or empire. Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to control the large territory.


The Americas

In the history of the Americas, civilizations were established long after migration. Several large, centralized civilizations developed in the Western Hemisphere : Norte Chico, Chavin, Nazca, Moche, Huari, Chimu, Pachacamac, Tiahuanaco, Aymara and Inca in the Central Andes (Peru and Bolivia); Muisca in Colombia ; Olmecs, Toltecs, Mixtecs , Zapotecs, Aztecs and the Mesoamerican Mayas in Central America). The history of the Americas is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean. ... Central New York City. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Norte Chico ranging over three river valleys north of present-day Lima: Supe, Fortaleza and Pativilca. ... Chav n is the name of a pre-Moche people in Peru Chav n is a parish belonging to the municipality of Viveiro, Spain. ... For the tectonic plate, see Nazca Plate. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... Middle Horizon The Huari (or Wari) was a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the southern Andes from about 500 to 1200 AD. The capital city is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. ... The Chimú were the residents of Chimor with its capital at the city of Chan Chan in the Moche valley of Peru. ... Pachacamac empire The ancient city of Pachacamac is a ruin 40 km southeast of Lima, Peru in the Valley of the Lurín River. ... Middle Horizon Tiwanaku (old spelling: Tiahuanaco) is an important Pre-Columbian archeological site in Bolivia. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... The Zipa used to cover his body in gold and, from his raft, he offered treasures to the Guatavita godess in the middle of the sacred lake. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ... Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian piece of Mixtec writing, now in the British Museum The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are a Native American people centered in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ... The Zapotec are an indigenous people of Mexico. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... This article is about the culture area. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


The ancestors of today's Native Americans were hunter-gatherers who migrated into North America. The most popular theory asserts that migrants came to the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, Beringia, the land mass covered by the cold ocean waters in the Bering Strait. Small Paleo-Indian groups probably followed the mammoth and other prey animals. It is possible that groups of people may also have traveled into North America on shelf or sheet ice along the northern Pacific coast. Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at... The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times during the ice ages. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the genus Mammuthus. ...


Cultural traits brought by the first immigrants later evolved and spawned such cultures as Iroquois on North America and Pirahã of South America. These cultures later developed into civilizations. In many cases, these cultures expanded at a later date than their Old World counterparts. Cultures that may be considered advanced or civilized include: Cahokia, Zapotec, Toltecs, Olmec, Aztecs, and the Inca. For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The Pirahã people are an indigenous hunter-gatherer tribe of Amazon natives, who mainly live on the banks of the Maici River in Brazil. ... Central New York City. ... Cahokia is the site of an ancient Native American city near Collinsville, Illinois, across the Mississippi River from St. ... Extent of the Zapotec civilization The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca of southern Mesoamerica. ... The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ...


Norte Chico 3000-1600 BC

Caral of the Norte Chico, the oldest known civilization in the Western Hemisphere.
Caral of the Norte Chico, the oldest known civilization in the Western Hemisphere.

The oldest known civilization in South America, as well as in the Western Hemisphere as a whole, the Norte Chico civilization comprised several interconnected settlements leading to the Peruvian coast, including the urban centers at Aspero and Caral. The presence of Quipu (an Andean recording medium) at Caral indicates its potential influence on later Andean societies, as well as the antiquity of this unique recording system. The stone pyramids on the sites are thought to be contemporary to the great pyramids of Giza. Unusually among Andean cities, no evidence of fortifications, or of other signs of warfare, have yet been found in the Norte Chico. Image File history File links PeruCaral01. ... Image File history File links PeruCaral01. ... Editor: The name of the first andean civilization is Caral, and not Norte Chico. Caral civilization was defined for the first time by Ruth Shady in 1997, after the Sacred City of Caral. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex Pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. ... Aspero is a well-studied site of the ancient Norte Chico civilization, located at the mouth of the Supe river on the north-central Peruvian coast. ... Editor: The name of the first andean civilization is Caral, and not Norte Chico. Caral civilization was defined for the first time by Ruth Shady in 1997, after the Sacred City of Caral. ... Inca Quipu. ...


Olmec (New World) 1200–450 BC

The Olmec civilization was the first Mesoamerican civilization, beginning around 1200 BC and ending around 400 BC. By 2700 BC, settlers in the Americas had begun to grow their first crop, maize, and a number of cities were built. Around 1200 BC, these small cities coalesced into this civilization. A prominent civilization thus emerged. The centers of these cities were ceremonial complexes with pyramids and walled plazas. The first of these centers was at San Lorenzo, with another one following it at La Venta. Olmec artisans sculpted jade and clay figurines of Jaguars and humans, and giant heads of the emperor stood in every major city. The domestication of maize is thought to have begun around 7,500 to 12,000 years ago (corrected for solar variations).[2]. The earliest record of lowland maize cultivation dates to around 5,100 calendar years BC [3]. The ruling families, however, eventually lost their grip on the surrounding regions, and the civilization ended in 400 BC, with the defacing and destruction of San Lorenzo and La Venta, two of the major cities. This civilization is considered the mother culture of the Mesoamerican civilizations. It spawned the Mayan civilization whose first constructions began around 600 BC and continued to influence future civilizations. [4] Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... (Redirected from 2700 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


See also

History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... For a related concept in sociology, see Social disintegration. ... The Four Great Ancient Civilizations (Chinese: 四大文明古国; Pinyin: Sì Dà Wénmíng Gǔ Guó) is a concept frequently used in the study of history in China, referring to the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and India, seen as the first four civilizations to appear in the history of humankind. ...

External articles

Citations ans notes
  1. ^ Ubaid Civilization
  2. ^ andrews.ac.uk/history/Projects/Pearce/Chapters/Ch3.html Early Indian culture - Indus civilization
  3. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan (1998). Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Oxford University Press. 
  4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6669569.stm
  5. ^ "Carvings may rewrite history of Chinese characters", Xinhua online, 2007-05-18. Retrieved on 2007-05-19. 

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