FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cradle of Humanity
The neutrality of this article or section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

Contents

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...

Usage of the term

ll human cultures contain myths about the origin of mankind, and attempt to anchor these stories through reference to historic times and places, known to them. These myths must be recognised as culturally important "truths" which aim to give "meaning" to life and the world.


For example, amongst the people of Southern Iraq, amongst the early Sumerians the semi-mythical land "Dilmun" was the site of creation, and these stories may have contributed to the later Biblical stories about Eden. In Ancient Egypt in the Memphite theology of Ptah the creation occurred with the appearance of the benben with the act of the God Atum. Amongst the ancient Greeks, various conceptions of creation of Mankind were entertained, often associated with the appearance of the Goddess Gaia. This creation was implicitly associated with the story of the omphalos, or the navel of the world, located at Delphi. In India, the creation of Humanity is associated with the semi-mythical homeland of the Aryan peoples, located somewhere in the vicinity of Mount Meru, located to the north of the Himalaya Mountains. Traditional Chinese mythology associates the cradle of humanity with the Yellow River of Northern China, the confluence of the Huang Ho and the Wei River. Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ... // Eden may refer to: Garden of Eden, an original meaning, a place east of Eden described in Book of Genesis. ... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Benben, in Egyptian mythology, or more specifically, in the Ogdoad, is the mound that arose from the primordial waters, Nu, that had upon it Atum, sitting. ... History Atum (alternatively spelt Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem) is an early deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... Gaia or Gaea (from the Greek words Ge (γη) = Earth (Pelasgian), and *aia (αια) = grandmother (PIE)) thus Gaia (γαια), can refer to any one of the following: Gaia as myth, Greek goddess (her equivalent in Rome is Terra), in Sumerian mythology she is refered to as Ki; Gaia as metaphor - set of philosophical... The Omphalos in Delphi An omphalos is a religious stone artifact in the ancient world. ... Delphi (Greek Δελφοί, [ðeÌžlˈfi]) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Mount Meru is a sacred mountain in Hindu mythology which is believed to be the abode of Brahma and other gods. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hé ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after Yangtze River) and the fourth longest in the world, at 3,395 km long [1]. Originating in the... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... The Wei River (渭河, pinyin: Wei He; Wade-Giles: Wei Ho) is a river in central China. ...


The evangelical Protestants of the 19th century, considered the inventors of the term Cradle of Humanity, made generalized but undocumented claims that the term originated in Mesopotamia in the 2nd century, and that it was used by early non-christian Arabs, to refer to a geographic area that falls within a 1,000 mile radius of the spot they believed to be the birthplace of mankind. No documentation of such a historical use has been forthcoming. Nevertheless, the term has been used not only in religious, but also in secular contexts, and may therefore refer to different locations, depending on the views of the user. The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ...


Cradle of civilization is a title claimed by many regions of the world, but is most often applied by Western and Middle Eastern educated scholars to the ancient city states of Mesopotamia. Scholars educated in other parts of the world look at the question differently. There are five rivers that scholars cite as being possible sites for the 'Cradle of Civilization.' They are: the Tigris-Euphrates in modern day Iraq, the Halil rud in modern day Iran, the Nile in Africa, the Indus in South Asia, and the Huang-He-Yangtze in China. Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Satellite image of the Indus River basin. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hé ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after Yangtze River) and the fourth longest in the world, at 3,395 km long [1]. Originating in the... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng...


The civilizations that emerged around these rivers are among the earliest currently known attempts humanity made at establishing non-nomadic agrarian societies and they all date back thousands of years. But due to the fact that the Ubaid, Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylon civilizations all emerged around the Tigris-Euphrates, the theory of Mesopotamia being the cradle of civilizatons might be the strongest. It's also due to the fact that Ubaid (5500 B.C.) is the oldest civilization known to exist. Ubaid Civilization The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ...


Another 'cradle of civilization' is a non-river based area known as Mesoamerica. This is the region where the the Olmec civilization began in about 1500 B.C. The cultural areas of Mesoamerica Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Spanish: Mesoamérica) was a geographical culture area extending from central Honduras and northwestern Costa Rica on the south, and, in Mexico, from the Soto la Marina River in Tamaulipas and the Rio Fuerte in Sinaloa on the north. ...


The convergence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers produced rich fertile soil and a supply of water for irrigation causing this particular region to be referred to as the Fertile Crescent. However, it is clear that similar conditions in other fertile river locations prompted nomadic people in that given region to form a sedentary, agrarian community and thus, also become a first "Cradle of Civilization." It is not clear where the actual beginning took place or whether there were many beginnings in many locations so that mankind's societal development cannot be attributed to only one primary location. The Fertile Crescent is a historical crescent-shape region in the Middle East incorporating the Levant, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. ...


Evolutionary view

Scientists have also sought to locate the "Cradle of Humanity". In the European Enlightenment, the general view was that modern Humanity first appeared in Central Asia, and this remained the dominant view of science, until the publication of two books by Charles Darwin - "On the Origin of Species" and the "Descent of Man". Scientific evidence for the origin of mankind was discovered a little earlier with the beginnings of paleoanthropology in August 1856, with the discovery of what we now recognise as the fossil of Homo neanderthalensis, which was found in Valley of the Neander River i.e. the Neanderthal, Germany. The discovery was announced in 1857, two years before the publication of Charles Darwin's book On the Origin of Species. Despite this early fossil, this did not challenge the earlier views of the contemporary scientific establishment that the Cradle of Humanity was to be found in Asia. Look up Enlightenment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by British naturalist Charles Darwin was first published in 1871. ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... The Neanderthal (Neandertal) is a small valley of the river Düssel in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, near the city of Mettmann. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal...


This view was challenged by Charles Darwin. Based upon the fact that amongst the Great Apes, Chimpanzees and Gorillas are found in Africa, whilst only the Orangutan is found in Asia, Charles Darwin considered that Africa, rather than Asia, may be the Cradle of Humanity. For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence and their long arms and reddish-brown hair. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


Darwin's view of Africa was challenged by Ernst Haeckel, who believed that Humanity evolved from the primates in Lemuria, a hypothetical geological "land bridge", which prior to the acceptance of continental drift was believed to link Africa, India and South East Asia. Ernst Haeckel. ... Lemuria is the name of a hypothetical lost land variously located in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ...


In 1891, Eugène Dubois, who accepted Haeckel's views, discovered a group of hominid fossils at the site of Trinil, on the banks of the Bengawan Solo River in Java, Indonesia. The find was originally named Pithecanthropus erectus, and popularly known as Java Man, Dubois later renaming it Homo erectus in 1894. This was the first discovery of early hominid remains outside of Europe, and led to a revival of the theories that Asia was the homeland of mankind. Eugene Dubois (January 28, 1858 - December 16, 1940) was a Dutch anatomist, who earned world-wide fame with the discovery of Homo erectus in Java in 1891. ... View of the Puncak area in West Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is the most populous of Indonesias islands, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Pithecanthropus erectus was the name first given to the Homo erectus specimen, also known as Java Man, by its discoverer Eugène Dubois. ...


But evidence was quickly forthcoming of early human "ape-men" elsewhere. In 1907, at the Mauer sand pits in Germany, a quarry worker found an almost complete mandible, which was designated Homo heidelbergensis by Otto Schoetensack. Since then fossilized remains attributable to Homo erectus have been found also in South Africa, Asia, England and China. But where did these Homo erectus come from? Binomial name †Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908 Homo heidelbergensis (Heidelberg Man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo and the direct ancestor of Homo neanderthalensis in Europe. ... Otto Schoetensack (July 12, 1850 - December 23, 1912) was a German industrialist and later professor of anthropology. ...


The 1924 South African discovery of Australopithecus africanus at Taung by Raymond Dart, a pioneer of African paleontology, resurrected Darwin's hypothesis by suggesting that the material was a hominid. Later finds showed that it had a brain capacity little more than a chimpanzee (about 480 cc compared to Modern men 1300 cc) Nevertheless, his use of both Latin ("australo") and Greek ("pithecus") in naming the specimen resulted in the creation of a new genera other than "Homo" in the human lineage. Since then, the new genus-label created by Dart has become accepted as the designation to be used for the entire group of early hominids found in Africa. 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Binomial name †Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1925 Australopithecus africanus was an early hominid, an australopithecine, who lived between 3. ... Taung is a small town situated in North West Province of South Africa. ... Raymond Dart, holding the Taung Child skull Raymond Dart (February 4, 1893–22 November 1988) was an Australian anatomist and anthropologist best known for his discovery in 1924 of a fossil of Australopithecus at Taung in Northwestern South Africa. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ...


By 1939, in the light of other new discoveries in Southern Africa, of the Australopithecus africanus the question of human origins was reevaluated and a number of paleontologists reconsidered South Africa as the possible option for the "cradle of humanity". A find made by a young schoolboy named Gert Terblanche at Kromdraai, South Africa, in 1938, led the eminent scientist Dr. Robert Broom to suggest a second Australopithecus species - Australopithecus robustus. Broom later found several more cranial and mandibular fragments that came to be associated with A. robustus. Broom published the results of his extensive research on the australopithecines in 1946, which marked a crucial turning point for South Africa in the eyes of the global evolutionary community establishing it as the new African "cradle of humanity". 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ...


The 1959 discovery by Mary Leakey of a specimen known as OH5 or "Zinj" in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania is considered by many the watershed in paleoanthropological history. First named Zinjanthropus boisei, later classified as Australopithecus boisei, and now as Paranthropus boisei, this find did not affect prevailing views regarding the location of the "cradle of humanity" the way Homo habilis did only a year later. 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mary Leakey (February 6, 1913 – December 9, 1996) was a British archaeologist, who, along with others, discovered the first skull of a fossil ape on Rusinga Island. ... The Olduvai Gorge is a 30 mile long, steep-sided ravine, part of the Great Rift Valley which stretches along eastern Africa. ... Species Paranthropus aethiopicus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Paranthropus is an extinct genus of bipedal hominid that is probably descended from the Australopithecine hominids (Australopithecus). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Paranthropus boisei. ... Species †Paranthropus aethiopicus †Paranthropus boisei †Paranthropus robustus The robust australopithecines, members of the extinct hominin genus Paranthropus, were bipedal hominins that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominins (Australopithecus). ... Binomial name †Homo habilis Leakey et al, 1964 Homo habilis (IPA ) (handy man, skillful person) is a species of the genus Homo, which lived from approximately 2. ...


Estimated at the time of its discovery in 1960 to be approximately one million years older than Australopithecus robustus, the Homo habilis find at first created a bit of a problem: The name given to it literally means "handy man", and was chosen because of the collection of stone tools that were discovered near the specimens. Further, its height and brain size were larger than those of the australopithecines, and it appeared to be less robust. In other words, this older Homo habilis specimen seemed more advanced than comparatively recent ones.


While the role of Homo habilis in human evolution is still not settled, its discovery by the distinguished team of Louis Leakey, John Napier, and Phillip Tobias did result in Tanzania being regarded as the "cradle of humanity" for the following two or three decades. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other people with the same name, see John Napier (disambiguation). ... Phillip Vallentine Tobias is a South African palaeoanthropologist. ...


In 1974 Donald Johanson found the famous "Lucy", the most complete skeleton of an australopithecine to date, that firmly established the group as an intermediate between apes and humans. Together with anthropologist Timothy White, Johanson named the specimen Australopithecus afarensis. Mary Leakey discovered a set of human footprints at Laetoli, which were later thought to be Afarensis prints and by the end of 1980, the heated dispute seems to have been settled and Australopithecus afarensis was widely accepted as a new first human ancestor. Donald Carl Johanson (born June 28, 1943) is an American paleoanthropologist known for his discovery of the skeleton of a 3. ... Lucy (Amharic ድንቅነሽ dinqneš, you are wonderful) is the common name of AL 288-1, the remarkably near complete Australopithecus afarensis skeleton discovered on November 30, 1974 by the International Afar Research Expedition (IARE; director: Maurice Taieb, co-directors: Donald Johanson and Yves Coppens) in the Awash Valley of Ethiopias... Timothy White (January 25, 1952 - June 27, 2002) was a noted rock music journalist and editor. ... The Plio-Pleistocene site of Laetoli in Tanzania is famous for its hominid footprints, preserved in volcanic ash (Site G). ...


Dated at almost four million years old, A. afarensis, Found in the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia became the oldest hominid fossil yet on record, granting Ethiopia the position as the new "cradle of humanity".


The French magazine 'Science et Vie' made the displacement of Lucy its cover story in its May 1999 edition. The magazine considered Lucy, regarded as the most important fossil specimen of the species Australopithecus afarensis to date, under the caption ‘Adieu Lucy’ (‘Farewell Lucy’) and wrote that the apes from the Australopithecus species did not represent the origin of man and should be removed as the earliest Hominid ancestor. (Isabelle Bourdial, "Adieu Lucy", Science et Vie, May 1999, no. 980, pp. 52-62) Science & Vie (Science and Life) is a science magazine issued in France since 1913. ...


The discovery of a fossil temporarily called "Toumaï" (or hope of life in the South Chad language, Goran), estimated at an age of seven million years, the oldest hominid found to date, in the catchment of Lake Chad, has led some to question the African Rift Valley as the Cradle of the evolution of Hominids. A team of researchers led by paleontologist Michel Brunet uncovered an almost complete cranium and lower facial bones of this ancestor that appears to have lived at the point of transition between apes and hominids and for which they have suggested the name Sahelanthropus tchadensis. The location of the find in the Sahel region, a semiarid zone of mid-west Africa that separates the Sahara from the southern tropical forests, has led to the suggestion that the "cradle of humanity", the point at which the eventual human lineage separated from that of the Apes, may have been more in central or western Africa. A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Michel Brunet is a French paleontologist and a professor at the University of Poitiers. ... Binomial name Sahelanthropus tchadensis Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an early fossil hominid, approximately 7 million years old from the Miocene. ...


While accepting an African origin of the hominids, debate still rages over the site of origin of anatomically modern human beings. The earlier view, presented by Carlton Coon and other evolutionary scientists (eg Wolpoff, Alan Thorne), considered the possibility that modern humans may have evolved simultaneously in several locations on several continents along parallel evolutionary lines, finally engaging in trans-continental migration and interbreeding at the stage of Homo erectus or even later. Known as the "Multi Regional Hypothesis", proponents of these theories consider the discussion on a single evolutionary "cradle of humanity" is not useful. Carleton Stevens Coon, (23 June 1904 – 3 June 1981) was an American physical anthropologist best remembered for his books on race. ...


Others led by Chris Stringer, based upon the fact that the earliest evidence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens is found at Kibbish Omo, and accepting the genomic evidence of Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam, consider East Africa to have been once again the specific location as the "cradle of humanity". Born 1947, Chris Stringer is a British anthropologist and one of the leading proponents of the recent single-origin hypothesis or Out of Africa theory, which hypothesizes that modern humans originated in Africa over 100,000 years ago and replaced the worlds archaic human species, such as Homo erectus... Mitochondrial Eve (mt-mrca) is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for all living humans. ... In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ...


Today, the accepted scientific viewpoint among biologists and paleoanthropologists is that mankind evolved through natural selection, and when journalists and popularizers currently usually use the term "Cradle of Humanity", it is intended to refer to Great Rift Valley sites in East Africa, where the oldest hominid fossils have been found. Based upon a range of evidence it is believed that the earliest hominids evolved from apes between 5-7 million years ago, in this area, whilst modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) only emerged much later, some time about 150,000-200,000 years ago, possibly in the same region of eastern Africa. Since 2002, however, several groups of prominent paleontologists have begun to challenge East Africa's position as the evolutionary "cradle of humanity", for all hominids, most notably because of the fossil hominid partial skull found in Chad in July 2002. The appearance of the earliest hominids outside Africa focuses on the Liujiang hominid of China, the Dmanisi fossils of Georgia and the Mungo Man fossils in Australia. See also: Origin of Species, Darwinism, Dmanisi Expedition A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... Paeloanthropology is the branch of physical anthropology that focuses on the study of human evolution. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Dmanisi is a site in eastern Georgia approximately 85 km southwest of Tbilisi in the Mashavera River Valley. ... The Mungo Man (also known as Lake Mungo 3) was an early human inhabitant of the continent of Australia, who is believed to have lived about 40,000 years ago, during the Pleistocene epoch. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ...


Creationist position

Modern fundamentalist Jewish, Christian and Muslim creationists disagree with these evolutionary views and believe that man was created by God in a place called Eden and then placed in a garden located east of Eden. In the Bible, Genesis 2:10-14 [1] it is said that the Garden of Eden was supplied by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The only evidence to support this view is the early Civilisations of Europe and the Middle East originated in the area of the Euphrates and the Tigris. Namely the early Sumerians and Phoenicians who seeded the creation of Carthage, along with several other North African, Mesopotamian, and European Empires. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their entirety by a supernatural deity or deities (typically God), whose existence is presupposed. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... // Eden may refer to: Garden of Eden, an original meaning, a place east of Eden described in Book of Genesis. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן  ; Arabic جنة عدن  ; in Greek Οὐρανός [uƔɑNÉ’s] Starry Sky : גןַֹ֗ [אְוּגַ֗ןוֹסַ֗ ]) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן  ; Arabic جنة عدن  ; in Greek Οὐρανός [uƔɑNÉ’s] Starry Sky : גןַֹ֗ [אְוּגַ֗ןוֹסַ֗ ]) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ...


See also: Creation Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

States believed by some to be the "Cradle of Humanity" (lands falling within a 1,000-mile radius of the assumed location described in the Bible book of Genesis as man's birthplace).
States believed by some to be the "Cradle of Humanity" (lands falling within a 1,000-mile radius of the assumed location described in the Bible book of Genesis as man's birthplace).

Cradle of Humanity States/Territories Image created by Sentinel. ... Cradle of Humanity States/Territories Image created by Sentinel. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ...

Group of fifteen lands

Based on the second century 1,000-mile "limit", the fifteen nations/territories that today comprise the "Cradle of Humanity" are, in alphabetical order: Bahrain, the Gaza Strip, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, the West Bank, and Yemen. One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


The radius of 1,000 miles from Eden as the limit of the Cradle of Humanity may have been "fixed" by the Christian authors of Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt in the pre-Islamic era. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Jahiliyyah is an Islamic concept referring to the spiritual condition of pre-Islamic Arabian society. ...


By the arrival of the Ottoman period (1516–1918), the term had become well accepted throughout the majority of the empire, which extended into parts of southern Europe and exerted much cultural influence for over 400 years. Early in the 19th century, Protestant missionaries began to arrive in the region and found that the term provided a common ground for introducing their teachings to the local population. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ...


There is no evidence that the term "cradle of humanity" has widespread use among Jewish or Christian creationists today, although Mesopotamian Christian Arabs seem to have been the ones to develop the term for describing an area roughly within a 1,000 mile radius of the location they believed to be the site of the Garden of Eden, based on the a passage, attributed to Moses, found in the Bible at Genesis 2:8–14: Arab Christians are people who are ethnically Arab or culturally and linguistically Arabized and who follow the religion of Christianity. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן  ; Arabic جنة عدن  ; in Greek Οὐρανός [uƔɑNÉ’s] Starry Sky : גןַֹ֗ [אְוּגַ֗ןוֹסַ֗ ]) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ...

"A river watering the garden flowed upward from Eden, and from there it divided. It had four headstreams. The name of the first is Pishon. It winds through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold. The gold of that land is good; aromatic resin and onyx are also there. The name of the second river is Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush. The name of the third river is Tigris; it runs along the east side of Asshur. And the fourth river is the great river Euphrates."

While two of these names, Tigris and Euphrates, refer to rivers which border and define Mesapotamia, the rivers Gihon and Pishon cannot be identified. Cush refers to an ancient region to the south of Egypt, Nubia, in present-day Sudan. However, second century Christians, in spite of this ambiguity, identified the location of Eden at a point that, today, would be just west of the border between Iraq and Iran and just above the northern shore of the Persian Gulf. // Eden may refer to: Garden of Eden, an original meaning, a place east of Eden described in Book of Genesis. ... The Pishon is mentioned in the Biblical Genesis (2:11) as one of four rivers branching off from a single river within the Eden. ... Havilah is a Biblical place-name mentioned in Genesis 2:11: The name of the first [river] is the Pishon; it is the one that winds through the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. ... Gihon is the title of a river first mentioned in the second chapter of the Biblical book of Genesis. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... The word Asshur can mean: Asshur (אַשּׁוּר), son of Shem, the son of Noah. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Gihon is the title of a river first mentioned in the second chapter of the Biblical book of Genesis. ... The Pishon is mentioned in the Biblical Genesis (2:11) as one of four rivers branching off from a single river within the Eden. ... Cush (כּוּשׁ Black, Standard Hebrew Kuš, Tiberian Hebrew Kûš) was the eldest son of Ham, brother of Canaan and the father of Nimrod, mentioned in the table of nations in the Book of Genesis (x. ... Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן  ; Arabic جنة عدن  ; in Greek Οὐρανός [uƔɑNÉ’s] Starry Sky : גןַֹ֗ [אְוּגַ֗ןוֹסַ֗ ]) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


A few isolated Christian denominations still appear to use the term, nowadays, as a nickname for "Eden" and when they do, the expression is usually capitalized as Cradle of Humanity. Despite this apparently "Christian" background, the term "Cradle of Humanity" seems to be more heavily used among Muslims, who tend to accept the 1,000 mile limit from "Eden" as the boundary for the area. This may stem from the popularization of the phrase during the period when these present-day states were all ruled by the Ottoman Empire. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...


Criticism of the term "Middle East"

The expression "Middle East" is criticised as being ambiguous. The critics contend that the lands of the "Cradle of Humanity" are defined clearly within an unmistakable geographic limit. However, depending on the context in which the user applies the term "Middle East", it may or may not include countries in northern Africa, southern Europe and various parts of Eurasia east of the Ural Mountains. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Some cultural historians in the self-described "Cradle of Humanity States" (see map above) also find the thinking behind the terms Near East, Middle East and Far East offensive, since they are vestiges of British colonialism; a period when such expressions were coined based on the distance between England and the region in question. They often argue that, unlike the West Indies, where the present dominant culture was indeed largely formed under the influence of the colonizing powers, most of the dominant culture in so-called Near, Middle and Far East lands, predated the colonials and has actually survived their sometimes destructive influence. The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cradle of Humanity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2440 words)
It is important to note that the term "Cradle of Humanity" is not necessarily interchangeable with or identical in meaning to the expressions "Cradle of Civilization", "origin of man", or "birthplace of mankind" for those who use these phrases.
While the role of Homo habilis in human evolution is still not settled, its discovery by the distinguished team of Louis Leakey, John Napier, and Phillip Tobias did result in Tanzania being regarded as the "cradle of humanity" for at least two decades.
The expression "Cradle of Humanity" is frequently used by persons opposed to the expression "Middle East" when that term would seem too ambiguous in their opinion.
cradle: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (875 words)
Cradles, in conjunction with accompanying software that must be installed in the computer, may automatically upload the data from the device when placed in the cradle.
Cradle may also mean a piece of hardware on which a wireless phone or PDA sits on for charging and/or synchronising with PC.
from cradle to grave σ' όλη τη διάρκεια της ζωής
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m