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Encyclopedia > Coyote
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Coyote

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. latrans
Binomial name
Canis latrans
Say, 1823
Coyote range
Coyote range


The coyote (Canis latrans), also known as the prairie wolf [2], is a mammal of the order Carnivora. The species is found throughout North and Central America, ranging from Panama in the south, north through Mexico, the United States, and Canada. It occurs as far north as Alaska and all but the northernmost portions of Canada.[2] There are currently 19 recognized subspecies, with 16 in Canada, Mexico and the United States, and 3 in Central America.[3] Coyote may refer to: Coyote, a wild dog native to North America Coyote (mythology), a Native American trickster god // Coyote (smuggler), in the Southwest United States, a person who engages in people smuggling Coyote, in colonial Mexico, a person with 3/4 Amerindian and 1/4 Spanish ancestry (synonymous with... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thomas Say. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the zoological term. ...


The name "coyote" is a borrowed from Mexican Spanish, ultimately derived from the Nahuatl word coyotl (pronounced [ˈkojoːtɬ]). Its Latin name, Canis latrans, literally means "barking dog." A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ...

Contents

Description

Coyote profile
Coyote profile

The color of the coyote's pelt varies from grayish brown to yellowish gray on the upper parts, while the throat and belly tending to buff or white. The forelegs, sides of the head, muzzle and feet are reddish brown. The back has tawny colored underfur and long, black-tipped guard hairs that form a black dorsal stripe and a dark cross on the shoulder area. The black-tipped tail has a scent gland located on its dorsal base. Coyotes shed once a year, beginning in May with light hair loss, ending in July after heavy shedding. The ears are proportionately large in relation to the head, while the feet are relatively small in relation to the rest of the body.[2] Mountain dwelling coyotes tend to be dark furred while desert coyotes tend to be more yellowish in color.[3] Download high resolution version (1280x731, 1074 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1280x731, 1074 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ...


Coyotes typically grow from 75-100 centimeters (30–40 inches) in length and on average, weigh from 7–21 kilograms (15–46 pounds).[2] Northern coyotes are typically larger than southern subspecies, with the largest coyotes on record weighing 74¾ pounds (33.7 kg) and measuring over five feet in total length.[4] The coyote's dental formula is I 3/3, C 1/1, Pm 4/4, M usually 2/2, occasionally 3/3, 3/2, or 2/3 X 2 = 40, 42, or 44.[5] Normal spacing between the upper canine teeth is 1 1/8 to 1 3/8 inches (29 to 35 mm) and 1 to 1 1/4 inches (25 to 32 mm) between the lower canine teeth.[6] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kg redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, , lbm, or sometimes in the United States: #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including the imperial and US and older English systems. ... Dentition is the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. ... In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. ...


Unlike wolves, but similairly to domestic dogs, coyotes have sweat glands on their pawpads. This trait is however absent in the large New England coyotes which are thought to have some wolf anscestry.[7] This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


During pursuit, a coyote may reach speeds up to 43 mph[8], and can jump over 4 meters.[2] Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ...


Behavior

Coyotes tend not to roam in large packs as wolves do, though they have been observed to travel in small, single sexed groups. These groups are usually not as unified as wolf packs, and members will readily disperse and regroup. [3]The collective name for a group of coyotes is a band, a pack, or a rout.[3] Coyotes are primarily nocturnal but can occasionally be seen during daylight hours.[2] Coyotes were once essentially diurnal, but have adapted to more nocturnal behavior with pressure from humans (McClennen et al, 2001). In linguistics, a collective noun is a word used to define a group of objects, where objects can be people, animals, inanimate things, concepts, or other things. ... Diurnal may mean: in biology, a diurnal animal is an animal that is active in the daytime. ...


Coyotes are capable of digging their own burrows, though they often appropriate the burrows of woodchucks or American badgers. Coyote territorial ranges can be as much as 19 kilometers in diameter around the den and travel occurs along fixed trails.[2] This article is about the mammal. ... Binomial name Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) The American Badger, Taxidea taxus, is a North American badger, somewhat similar in appearance to the European Badger. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ...


In areas where wolves have been exterminated, coyotes usually flourish. The settlement of New England for example ended in the destruction of the resident wolves, resulting in coyotes replacing them and filling the empty biological niche. Coyotes appear more able than wolves to live among people.[9]


Coyotes have been known to live a maximum of 10 years in the wild and 18 years in captivity.[2]


Reproduction

Female coyotes are monoestrus and remain in heat for 2–5 days between late January and late March, during which mating occurs. Once the female chooses a partner, the mated pair may remain temporarily monogamous for a number of years. Depending on geographic location, spermatogenesis in males takes around 54 days and occurs between January and February. The gestation period lasts from 60 to 63 days. Litter size ranges from 1 to 19 pups; though the average is 6. The pups weigh approximately 250 grams at birth and are initially blind and limp-eared. The eyes open and ears erect after 10 days. Around 21-28 days after birth, the young begin to emerge from the den and by 35 days they are fully weaned. Both parents feed the weaned cubs with regurgitated food. Male pups will disperse from their dens between months 6 and 9, while females usually remain with the parents and form the basis of the pack. The cubs attain full growth between 9 and 12 months. Sexual maturity is reached by 12 months.[2] The oestrus cycle (also Å“strus or estrous cycle) refers to the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females (humans and great apes are the only mammals who undergo a menstrual cycle instead). ... Cross section of the epithelium of a seminiferous tubule showing various stages of spermatocyte development Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. ...


Coyotes will sometimes mate with domestic dogs, usually in areas like Texas and Oklahoma where the coyotes are plentiful and the breeding season is extended because of the warm weather. The resulting hybrids called coydogs maintain the coyote's predatory nature, along with the dog's lack of timidity toward humans, making them a usually more serious threat to livestock than pure blooded animals. This cross breeding has the added effect of confusing the breeding cycle. Coyotes usually breed only once a year, while coydogs will breed year-round, producing many more pups than a wild coyote. Differences in the ears and tail are generally what can be used to distinguish coydogs from pure coyotes.[10] For other members of the dog family, see Canidae. ... A coydog is the hybrid offspring of a male coyote (Canis latrans) and a female dog (Canis lupus familiaris). ...


Coyotes have also been known on occasion to mate with wolves. The offspring, known as a coywolf is generally intermediate in size to both parents, being larger than a pure coyote, but smaller than a pure wolf. A study showed that of 100 coyotes collected in Maine, 22 had half or more wolf ancestry, and one was 89 percent wolf. A theory has been proposed that the large eastern coyotes in Canada are actually hybrids of the smaller western coyotes and wolves that met and mated decades ago as the coyotes moved toward New England from their earlier western ranges.[9] The red wolf is considered by some to be a wolf/coyote hybrid, due to its habit of readily mating with coyotes and the fact that it carries no unique genetic trait that would make it distinct from coyotes and grey wolves.[11] Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... The coywolf is a term used to refer to hybrids between a Coyote (Canis latrans) and the Gray wolf (Canis lupus) or the Red wolf (Canis rufus). ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... For other uses, see Red Wolf (disambiguation). ...


Communication

Hearing a coyote is much more common than seeing one. The calls a coyote make are high-pitched and variously described as howls, yips, yelps and barks. These calls may be a long rising and falling note (a howl) or a series of short notes (yips). These calls are most often heard at dusk or night, less often during the day. Although these calls are made throughout the year, they are most common during the spring mating season and in the fall when the pups leave their families to establish new territories.


Ecology

Diet and hunting

Coyotes are versatile carnivores with a 90% mammalian diet, depending on the season. They primarily eat small mammals, such as voles, eastern cottontails, ground squirrels, and mice, though they will eat birds, snakes, deer, and livestock as well as large insects and other large invertebrates. Though they will consume large amounts of carrion, they tend to prefer fresh meat. Part of the coyote's success as a species is its dietary adaptability. As such, coyotes have been known to eat human garbage and domestic pets. Fruits and vegetables are a significant part of the coyote's diet in the autumn and winter months.[2]


Coyotes shift their hunting techniques in accordance to their prey. When hunting small animals such as mice, they slowly stalk through the grass and use their acute sense of smell to track down the prey. When the prey is located, the coyotes stiffen and pounce on the prey in a cat-like manner. Coyotes will commonly work in teams when hunting large ungulates such as deer. Coyotes may take turns in baiting and pursuing the deer to exhaustion, or they may drive it towards a hidden member of the pack.[2] When attacking large prey, coyotes attack from the rear and the flanks of their prey. Occasionally they also grab the neck and head, pulling the animal down to the ground. Coyotes are persistent hunters, with successful attacks sometimes lasting from 14 minutes to about 21 hours; even unsuccessful ones can vary from 2 minutes to more than 8 hours before the coyotes give up. Depth of snow can affect the likelihood of a successful kill. [12]


The average distance covered in a night's hunting is 4 km (2½ mi).[2]


Relationships with other predators

Since the Yellowstone Gray Wolf Reintroduction in 1995 and 1996, the local coyote population went through a dramatic restructuring. Until the wolves returned, Yellowstone National Park had one of the densest and most stable coyote populations in America due to a lack of human impacts. Two years after the wolf reintroductions, 50% of the pre-wolf population of coyotes had been reduced, through both competitive exclusion and predation. Yellowstone coyotes have had to shift their territories as a result, moving from open meadows to steep terrain. Carcasses in the open no longer attract coyotes; when a coyote is chased on flat terrain, it is often killed. They feel more secure on steep terrain where they will often lead a pursuing wolf downhill. As the wolf comes after it, the coyote will turn around and runs uphill. Wolves, being heavier, cannot stop and the coyote gets a huge lead. Though physical confrontations between the two species are usually dominated by the larger wolves, coyotes have been known to attack wolves if they outnumber them. Both species will kill each other's pups given the opportunity.[13] A reintroduced gray wolf in Yellowstone National Park Wolf reintroduction involves the artificial reestablishment of a population of wolves into areas where they had been previously extirpated. ... Yellowstone redirects here. ...


Cougars sometimes kill coyotes for food. The coyote's instinctive fear of cougars has led to the development of anti-coyote sound systems which repel coyotes from public places by replicating the sounds of a cougar. [14] For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation) or Puma (disambiguation). ...


In sympatric populations of coyotes and red foxes, fox territories tend to be located largely outside of coyote territories. The principal cause of this separation is believed to be active avoidance of coyotes by the foxes. Interactions between the two species vary in nature, ranging from active antagonism to indifference. The majority of aggressive encounters are initiated by coyotes, and there are few reports of red foxes acting aggressively toward coyotes except when attacked or when their pups were approached. Conversely, foxes and coyotes have sometimes been seen feeding together.[15] For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ...


Coyotes will sometimes form a symbiotic relationship with American badgers. Because coyotes are not very effective at digging rodents out of their burrows, they will chase the animals while they are above ground. Badgers on the other hand are not fast runners, but are well-adapted to digging. When hunting together, they effectively leave little escape for prey in the area. [2] Binomial name Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) The American Badger, Taxidea taxus, is a North American badger, somewhat similar in appearance to the European Badger. ...


In some areas, coyotes share their ranges with bobcats. It is rare for these two similarly sized species to physically confront one another, though bobcat populations tend to diminish in areas with high coyote densities. Coyotes have been known to occasionally kill bobcats, but in all cases, the victims were relatively small specimens, such as adult females and juveniles.[16] For other uses, see Bobcat (disambiguation). ...


Relationship with humans

Adaptation to human environment

A coyote standing by a road in Arizona
A coyote standing by a road in Arizona

Despite being extensively hunted, the coyote is one of the few medium-to-large-sized animals that has enlarged its range since human encroachment began. It originally ranged primarily in the western half of North America, but it has adapted readily to the changes caused by human occupation and, since the early 19th century, has been steadily extending its range (Gompper 2002). Sightings now commonly occur in California, Oregon, New England, and eastern Canada. Coyotes have moved into most of the areas of North America formerly occupied by wolves, and are often observed foraging in suburban trashcans. Download high resolution version (1012x756, 95 KB)Coyote in Arizona. ... Download high resolution version (1012x756, 95 KB)Coyote in Arizona. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... A waste container (known more commonly in British English as a dustbin and American English as a trash can) is a container, which can be made out of metal or plastic,[1] used to store refuse. ...


Coyotes also thrive in suburban settings and even some urban ones. A study by wildlife ecologists at Ohio State University yielded some surprising findings in this regard. Researchers studied coyote populations in Chicago over a seven-year period (2000–2007), proposing that coyotes have adapted well to living in densely populated urban environments while avoiding contact with humans. They found, among other things, that urban coyotes tend to live longer than their rural counterparts, kill rodents and small pets, and live anywhere from parks to industrial areas. The researchers estimate that there are up to 2,000 coyotes living in "the greater Chicago area" and that this circumstance may well apply to many other urban landscapes in North America.[17] In Washington DC's Rock Creek Park, coyotes den and raise their young, scavenge roadkill, and hunt rodents. "I don't see it as a bad thing for a park," the assigned National Park Service biologist told a reporter for Smithsonian Magazine (March 2006). "I see it as good for keeping animal populations in control, like the squirrels and the mice." As a testament to the coyote's habitat adaptability, a coyote (known as "Hal the Central Park Coyote") was even captured in Manhattan's Central Park in March 2006 after being chased by city wildlife officials for two days. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of ecologists who have articles, in alphabetical order by surname. ... The Ohio State University (OSU) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Ohio. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... Pets and humans often contribute toward the happiness of the other in a pet relationship. ... A hunt is an activity during which humans or animals chase some prey, such as wild or specially bred animals (traditionally targeted species are known as game), in order to catch or kill them, either for food, sale, or as a form of sport. ... This article is about national parks. ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hal, safely trapped in a holding cage Hal was a 35-pound, one year old coyote that wandered into New York Citys Central Park in 2006. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Attacks on humans

Coyote attacks on humans have increased within the past 5 years in California. Data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources show that while 41 attacks occurred during the period of 1988-1997, 48 attacks were verified from 1998 through 2003. The majority of these incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interface. [18]


Due to an absence of harassment by residents, urban coyotes lose their natural fear of humans, which is further worsened by people intentionally feeding coyotes. In such situations, some coyotes begin to act aggressively toward humans, chasing joggers and bicyclists, confronting people walking their dogs, and stalking small children.[18]


There is currently only one recorded fatal attack on a human. In 1981 in Glendale, California, a coyote attacked a toddler, who despite being rescued by her father, died in surgery due to blood loss and a broken neck.[19][18] Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Glendale within Los Angeles County and the State of California. ...


When faced with agressive coyotes, people are encouraged to avoid direct eye contact, and to leave the area calmly without turning back onto the animal. If followed by a coyote, making loud noises and making oneself look bigger is said to work. Rock throwing should be a last resort measure.[20]


Livestock and pet predation

Coyotes are the most abundant and often considered the most serious livestock predators in the western United States, causing the majority of sheep, goat and cattle losses.[6] Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


Coyotes will typically bite the throat just behind the jaw and below the ear when attacking adult sheep or goats, with death commonly resulting from suffocation. Blood loss is usually a secondary cause of death. Calves, and heavily fleeced sheep are killed by attacking the flanks or hind-quarters, causing shock and bloodloss. When attacking smaller prey, such as young lambs and kids, the kill is made by biting the skull and spinal regions, causing massive tissue and ossular damage. Small or young prey may be completely carried off, leaving only blood as evidence of a kill. Surplus killing, or killing more prey than can be consumed, is common with many kills not being fed upon. Coyotes will usually leave the hide and most of the skeleton of larger animals relatively intact unless food is scarce, in which case they may leave only the largest bones. Scattered bits of wool, skin and other parts are characteristic where coyotes feed extensively on larger carcasses.[6]


Coyote predation can usually be distinguished from dog or coydog predation by the fact that coyotes partially consume their victims. Tracks are also an important factor in distinguishing coyote from dog predation. Coyote tracks tend to be more oval-shaped and compact than those of domestic dogs, plus, claw marks are less prominent and the tracks tend to follow a straight line more closely than those of dogs. With the exception of sighthounds, most dogs of similar weight to coyotes have a slightly shorter stride. [6] Coyote kills can be distinguished from wolf kills by the fact that there is less damage to the underlying tissues. Also, coyote scats tend to be smaller than wolf scats.[21] The Whippet shows the characteristic long legs, deep chest, and narrow waist of a sighthound. ...


Although it is rare for coyotes to attack humans, coyotes are often attracted to dog food and animals that are small enough to appear as prey. Items like garbage, pet food and sometimes even feeding stations for birds and squirrels will attract coyotes into backyards. Approximately 3 to 5 pets attacked by coyotes are brought into the Animal Urgent Care hospital of South Orange County each week, the majority of which are dogs, since cats typically do not survive the attacks.[22] Scat analysis collected near Claremont, California revealed that coyotes relied heavily on pets as a food source in winter and spring.[18] At one location in Southern California, coyotes began relying on a colony of feral cats as a food source. Over time, the coyotes killed most of the cats and then continued to eat the cat food placed daily at the colony site by citizens who were maintaining the cat colony.[18] Coyotes will usually attack smaller or similar sized dogs, though they have been known to occasionally attack large, powerful breeds such as Rhodesian ridgebacks [23] and Rottweilers.[24] Even with a size advantage, large dogs are usually at a disadvantage against coyotes in physical confrontations, because coyotes have larger canine teeth and are generally more practiced in hostile encounters.[14] Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Claremont is a city in eastern Los Angeles County, California, USA, about 30 miles (45 km) east of downtown Los Angeles at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains in the Pomona Valley. ... The Rhodesian Ridgeback is a dog breed indigenous to Southern Africa. ... This article is about the dog breed. ...


Pelts

In the early days of European settlement in North Dakota, beavers were the most valued and sought after furbearers, though other species were also taken, including coyotes.[25] Currently, coyotes are still an important furbearer in the region. During the 1983-86 seasons, North Dakota buyers purchased an average of 7,913 pelts annually, for an average annual combined return to takers of $255,458. In 1986-87, South Dakota buyers purchased 8,149 pelts for a total of $349,674 to takers.[26] Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ...


The harvest of coyote pelts in Texas has varied over the past few decades, but has generally followed a downward trend. A study from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, however, found that there was no indication of population decline, and suggested that, as pelt prices were not increasing, the decrease in harvest was likely due to decreasing demand, and not increasing scarcity (where pelt prices would go up.) It suggested that fashion, and the changing custom of wearing fur garments, may be significant among these factors. [27] For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Today, coyote fur is still used for full coats and trim and is particularly popular for men’s coats.[28]


Character in mythology

Main article: Coyote (mythology)
A coyote in the grass with snow
A coyote in the grass with snow

Many myths from Native American peoples include a character whose name is translated into English as "Coyote". He can play the role of trickster or culture hero (or both), and also often appears in creation myths and etiological myths. Coyote is a mythological character common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote (Canis latrans) animal. ... Download high resolution version (1999x1350, 643 KB)From http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1999x1350, 643 KB)From http://www. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... The trickster figure Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 childrens book by Michel Rodange. ... A culture hero is a historical or mythological hero who changes the world through invention or discovery. ... Creation beliefs and stories describe how the universe, the Earth, life, and/or humanity came into being. ... The Just So Stories for Little Children were written by British author Rudyard Kipling. ...


Contemporary cultural references

The Coyote is a popular figure in folklore and popular culture. Reference may invoke either the animal or the mythological figure. Traits commonly described in pop culture appearances include inventiveness, mischievousness, and evasiveness. By far the best known representation is the animated Wile E. Coyote. This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... Road Runner and Wile E. Coyote The Road Runner cartoons are a series of Looney Tunes cartoons created by Chuck Jones for Warner Brothers. ...


Subspecies

  • Mexican Coyote, Canis latrans cagottis
  • San Pedro Martir Coyote, Canis latrans clepticus
  • Salvador Coyote, Canis latrans dickeyi
  • South-eastern Coyote, Canis latrans frustor
  • Belize Coyote, Canis latrans goldmani
  • Honduras Coyote, Canis latrans hondurensis
  • Durango Coyote, Canis latrans impavidus
  • Northern Coyote, Canis latrans incolatus
  • Tiburon Island Coyote, Canis latrans jamesi
  • Plains Coyote, Canis latrans latrans
  • Mountain Coyote, Canis latrans lestes
  • Mearns Coyote, Canis latrans mearnsi
  • Lower Rio Grande Coyote, Canis latrans microdon
  • California Valley Coyote, Canis latrans ochropus
  • Peninsula Coyote, Canis latrans peninsulae
  • Texas Plains Coyote,Canis latrans texensis
  • North-eastern Coyote, Canis latrans thamnos
  • Northwest Coast Coyote, Canis latrans umpquensis
  • Colima Coyote, Canis latrans vigilis

Canis latrans mearnsi, also known as the Mearns coyote, is the sub-species of coyote native to the American Southwest. ...

External links

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References

  1. ^ Sillero-Zubiri & Hoffmann (2004). Canis latrans. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 05 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Canis latrans. Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  3. ^ a b c Coyote. Lioncrusher's Domain. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  4. ^ http://home.sou.edu/~rible/wildlife/coyote.html
  5. ^ http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/tmot1/canilatr.htm
  6. ^ a b c d Coyote Predation - Description. A. Wade, Dale & E. Bowns, James. Procedures for Evaluating Predation on Livestock and Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  7. ^ Coppinger, Ray (2001). Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution, p352. 0684855305. 
  8. ^ http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004737.html
  9. ^ a b Eastern Coyotes Are Becoming Coywolves. David Zimmerman. Caledonian record. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  10. ^ http://www.health-serve.com/coyoteclub/coydogs.html
  11. ^ http://canidae.ca/MTDNA.HTM
  12. ^ Yellowstone National Park- Coyotes. nps.gov. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  13. ^ http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Publications/ZooGoer/1998/3/weavingwolfweb.cfm
  14. ^ a b Coyote In the Suburbs. Q&A websites. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  15. ^ http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/mammals/cfoxint/index.htm
  16. ^ http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-4909(200209)47%3A3%3C511%3ABKBAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7
  17. ^ [1]. Thriving under our noses, stealthily: coyotes URL accessed on January 9, 2006.
  18. ^ a b c d e COYOTE ATTACKS: AN INCREASING SUBURBAN PROBLEM. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  19. ^ http://www.varmintal.com/attac.htm
  20. ^ http://www.wcsv.org/Education/Coexhisting/Coyote_Solutions.htm
  21. ^ http://animalrangeextension.montana.edu/articles/wildlife/wolf_depredation.htm
  22. ^ For coyotes, pets are prey. Greg Hardesty. Orange County Register. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  23. ^ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/07/16/MNG9TR15PH1.DTL&tsp=1
  24. ^ http://www3.whdh.com/news/articles/local/BO52127/
  25. ^ http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/mammals/furtake/history.htm
  26. ^ http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/basinwet/chap3g.htm
  27. ^ http://texnat.tamu.edu/symposia/coyote/p18.htm
  28. ^ http://www.iftf.com/iftf_2_4_2.php
  • Canis latrans (TSN 180599). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 23 March 2006.
  • Robert M. Timm, Hopland Research & Extension Center, University of California, Hopland, California ; Rex O. Baker, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (retired), Corona, California ; Joe R. Bennett, USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, Taft, California ; and Craig C. Coolahan, USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, Sacramento, California, "Coyote Attacks: An Increasing Suburban Problem" (March 3, 2004). Hopland Research & Extension Center. Paper timm_baker_P047.
  • http://repositories.cdlib.org/anrrec/hrec/timm_baker_P047
  • Bekoff, Marc. 1977. Canis Latrans, Species Account. American Society of Mammalogists.
  • Gompper, M. 2002. Top Carnivores in the Suburbs? Ecological and conservation issues raised by colonization of North-eastern North America by coyotes. BioScience 52:185-190.
  • McClennen, N., R. Wigglesworth, and S. H. Anderson. 2001. "The effect of suburban and agricultural development on the activity patterns of coyotes (Canis latrans), American Midland Naturalist, vol. 146: 27-36.
  • Moehlman, P., and H. Hofer. 1997. "Cooperative breeding, reproductive suppression, and body mass in canids", chapter in Cooperative Breeding in Canids, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
  • Morey, Paul. 2004. "Landscape use and diet of coyotes, Canis latrans, in the Chicago metropolitan area", Masters Thesis, Utah State University.
  • Parker, Gerry. 1995. "Eastern Coyote: Story of Its Success", Nimbus Publishing, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
  • Voigt, D. R., and W. E. Berg. 1999. "Coyote", chapter 28 in Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America, Section IV: Species Biology, Management, and Conservation. Queen's Printer for Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Coyote | The Humane Society of the United States (870 words)
Coyotes are a close relative of the wolf and the domestic dog.
The settlers did coyotes a big favor through the relentless pursuit of the animal's larger cousin, the wolf, whose presence often held coyote populations in check, and through the abundant provision of garbage, dead draft animals, and wantonly slaughtered wildlife, such as the bison, upon which coyote populations thrived.
Coyotes are territorial, with the males marking their boundaries, as many canids do, with urine signposts.
Coyote - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1283 words)
Coyotes have moved into most of the areas of North America formerly occupied by wolves, and the "dog" observed foraging in a suburban trashcan may in fact be a coyote.
The northeast coyote and the Cape Cod coyote are thought to be a 50% mix with the Red Wolf.
Coyote with a ruddy tint in its fur
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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