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Encyclopedia > Cowboys
The classic vision of the American cowboy, as portrayed by Frederic Remington
The classic vision of the American cowboy, as portrayed by Frederic Remington

A cowboy (Spanish vaquero) tends cattle and horses on cattle ranches in North and South America. The cowboy is normally a ranch hander in charge of the horses and/or cattle, as is the wrangler. In addition to ranch work, some cowboys work in and participate in rodeos, and many cowboys work only in the rodeo. Image File history File links Cowboys. ... Image File history File links Cowboys. ... The Hunters Supper, 1909, National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Frederic Sackrider Remington (October 4, 1861 - December 26, 1909) was an American painter, illustrator, and sculptor who specialized in depictions of the American West. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, kine or kyne in pre-modern English, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... In North America a wrangler is someone employed to handle animals professionally, especially horses, but also others. ... Steer roping Fiesta de los Vaqueros, Tucson, AZ. Rodeo is a traditional North American sport with influences from the history of Mexican vaqueros (cowboys) and American cowboys. ...

Contents

Antecedents

Originally, the word designated a herdsboy who was employed as a cowherd, often on foot (riding requiring skills and investment in horse and equipment rarely available to or entrusted to a boy). Herdswork was often done - more often with sheep or goats - by minors in Antiquity, and still is in various third world cultures; the teenagers of a South African tribe even maintain a specific traditional form of Nguni stick fighting, to defend themselves and their herds. Four boys on the West Bank. ... Ancient history is the study of significant cultural and political events from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. ... Children stick fighting in Madadeni, Natal, South Africa circa 1994 Nguni stick fighting is a martial art traditionally practiced by teenage Nguni herdboys in South Africa. ...


But in the western culture, herding cattle was rarely left to boys, except as trainees at least approaching manhood, especially as schooling became generalized, and the term became disassociated from the boyish age, at first retaining the notion of low status often implied by 'boy' in professional designations, later being extended to the whole ranch culture.


History

American cowboy circa 1887
American cowboy circa 1887

The Spanish invented what we now consider the cowboy tradition, beginning in medieval Spain. Cowboy circa 1887 Free Public Domain Image from http://www. ... Cowboy circa 1887 Free Public Domain Image from http://www. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

North America

During the 16th century, they brought the tradition and their horses, the ancestors of the "wild" mustangs, with them to the New World through New Spain (later Mexico). The mustangs are called wild but in reality these are feral animals as they are descended from domestic horses. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Free-roaming mustangs (Utah, 2005) Mustangs at the Palomino Valley Adoption Center A mustang is a small, hardy, free-roaming horse of the North American west, descendant of Spanish conquistador horses. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ...


Though popularly considered as an American icon, cowboys are a New Hispanic tradition, which originated in the Central States of Mexico, Jalisco and Michoacán, where the Mexican cowboy would eventually be known as a "charro". Historically, the northern parts of Mexico (New Mexico) originally included most of the territory of the American southwest including Texas. In the early 1600s, the Spanish crown, and later independent Mexico, began offering empresario grants in what would later be Texas to US citizens who agreed to become Mexican citizens and convert to Catholicism. In 1821 Stephen F. Austin and his East Coast comrades became the first yankee community speaking Spanish. Following Texas independence in 1836 even more Americans immigrated into Texas and to the empresario ranching areas. Here they were impressed by the Mexican vaquero culture, borrowing vocabulary and attire from their counterparts. For other senses of this word, see icon (disambiguation). ... Jalisco is one of the 31 states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Michoacán de Ocampo (From michoaque, Nahuatl for those who have fish) is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... For the entertainer whose full name is Maria Rosario Pilar Martinez Molina Baeza, see: Charo A Charro is a traditional cowboy of central and northern Mexico. ... New Mexico (Spanish: Nuevo México or Nuevo Méjico) was a province of New Spain that existed from the late 16th century up through the early 19th century. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Categories: 1600s ... As part of both an effort to halt American expansion into Mexican territory and to colonize the scarcely populated northern region, the Mexican government began a colonization campaign in the early 19th century. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[2] - is described in the Oxford Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or Western... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Stephen F. Austin Stephen Fuller Austin (November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836), known as the Father of Texas, led the Anglo-American colonization of the region. ... The Texas Revolution was fought from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836 between Mexico and the Tejas portion of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. ... Charles Darwin 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... (See also List of types of clothing) Introduction Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ...


The buckaroo, also a cowboy of the vaquero tradition, developed in California and bordering territories during the Spanish Colonial period. The word Buckaroo, still a common term in the Great Basin and many areas of California and intermittently in the Pacific Northwest, appeared in 1889 in American English, derived (influenced by 'buck', as folk etymology) from bakhara, itself an anglicized alternate since 1827 of 'vaquero', Spanish for cowherd which only entered English one year earlier and itself originates in the Latin vaca 'cow'. It has been suggested that Califas be merged into this article or section. ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) The Great Basin is a large, arid region of the western United States. ... Darker red states are always considered part of the Pacific Northwest. ... Folk etymology or popular etymology is a linguistic term for a category of false etymology which has grown up in popular lore, as opposed to one which arose in scholarly usage. ...


Following the American Civil War, their culture diffused eastward and northward combining with the earlier cowboy tradition that was following the cattle trails out of Texas northward and westward. Sharing the same base, their traditions became indistinguishable with a few regional differences still remaining. Over time, the cowboys of the American West developed a culture of their own, a blend of frontier and Victorian values. Such hazardous work in isolated conditions bred a tradition of self-dependence and individualism, exemplified in their songs and poetry. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The word tradition, comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... // United States In the United States, the frontier was the term applied to the zone of unsettled land outside the region of existing settlements of Americans. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian Era of Great Britain marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook, that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Cowboy songs are often associated with songs that the cowboys sang at night around the campfire with a lot of yodeling and sometimes accompanied by a guitar, banjo (and perhaps some canned beans). ... Cowboy poetry is a form of poetry that focuses on the culture, features and lifestyle of the West, both the Old West and its modern equivalents. ...


By the 1890s, the open ranges of the Indian Territory were gone and the large cattle drives from Texas to the railheads in Kansas were over. Smaller cattle drives continued at least into the 1940s, with Arizona cattle driven to the railhead at Magdalena, New Mexico. Meanwhile, ranches multiplied all over the developing West, keeping cowboy employment high, if somewhat more settled. The cattle drives started in the late 1800s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Magdalena is a village in Socorro County, New Mexico, USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 913. ...


In the 1930s and 1940s, Western movies popularized the cowboy lifestyle but also formed persistent stereotypes. In pop culture, the cowboy and the gunslinger are often associated with one another. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... Stereotypes are ideas held by some individuals about members of particular groups, based solely on membership in that group. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Gunslinger from The Great Train Robbery Gunslinger, also gunfighter, is a name given to men in the American Old West who had gained a reputation as being dangerous with a gun. ...


Much has been written about the racial mix of the cowboys in the West, but cowboys ranked low in the social structure of the period and there are no firm figures. The Cattle on a Thousand Hills by John Ambulo in the March 1887 issue of The Overland Monthly states that cowboys are "... of two classes—those recruited from Texas and other States on the eastern slope; and Mexicans, from the south-western region. ...". Census records bear that out. The cowboy occupation undoubtedly appealed to the freedmen following the Civil War. It is estimated that about 15% of all cowboys were of African ancestry—ranging from about 25% on the trail drives out of Texas, to very few on the northern ranges. Similarly, cowboys of Mexican descent also averaged about 15%, but were more common in Texas and the southwest. American Indians also found employment as cowboys early in the history of the West. Many of the early vaqueros were Indians trained to work for the Spanish missions in caring for the mission herds. Following the dissolution of the reservation system around 1900, many of the Indian trade schools also taught ranching skills to Indian youth. Social structure is a term frequently used in social theory - yet rarely defined or clearly conceptualised (Jary and Jary 1991, Abercrombie et al 2000). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ...

American Indian youths learning to brand cattle at the Seger Indian Industrial School near Colony—on the old Cheyenne-Arapaho reservation in Oklahoma Territory, ca. 1900.
American Indian youths learning to brand cattle at the Seger Indian Industrial School near Colony—on the old Cheyenne-Arapaho reservation in Oklahoma Territory, ca. 1900.

American Indian students branding cattle. ... American Indian students branding cattle. ...

Canada

American style free-range dry land ranching was introduced to Canada (specifically southern Alberta) in the 1880s. The cowboy way of life became prominent throughout the foothills of the Canadian Rockies, and Canada's first rodeo, the Raymond Stampede was established in 1902. The nearby city of Calgary, Alberta became the centre of the Canadian cattle industry, earning it the nickname “Cowtown”. The cattle industry is still extremely important to Alberta, and cattle outnumber people in the province. Eventually fenced cattle farms outgrew true ranches, but the cowboy influence lived on. In the 1912 the Calgary Stampede began, and today it is the world’s richest cash rodeo. Each year Calgary’s more northern rival Edmonton stages the Canadian Finals Rodeo and dozens of regional rodeos are held through the province. Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increases in hilly areas at the base of a mountain range. ... Ringrose Peak, Lake OHara, British Columbia, Canada The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... The Raymond Stampede is an annual rodeo that is held in the town of Raymond, Alberta, Canada every July 1. ... Calgary is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. ... Rider at the Stampede Rodeo The Calgary Stampede, which bills itself as The Greatest Outdoor show on Earth, is a large festival, exhibition, and rodeo held in Calgary, Alberta for ten days every July. ... Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... The Canadian Finals Rodeo is the national championships of Canadian rodeos. ...


Hawaiian Paniolo

The Hawaiian cowboy, the paniolo, is a direct descendant of the "vaquero" of California / Mexico. The word "paniolo" is believed by those who study Hawaiian etymology to be a Hawaiianized pronunciation of español. (The Hawaiian language has no 'es' sound, and all syllables and words must end in a vowel) Paniolo, like the American cowboys, learned their skills from Mexican vaqueros. Hawaiian could refer to the Hawaiian language the native Hawaiian people within Hawaii. ... The Hawaiian language takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... This article discusses the unit of speech. ...


By the early 1800s, Capt. George Vancouver's gift of cattle to Pai`ea Kamehameha, first monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom (known to the English-speaking world as Kamehameha the Great, king of the Sandwich Isles) had multiplied astonishingly, and were wreaking havoc throughout the countryside. About 1812, John Parker, a sailor who had jumped ship and settled in the islands, received permission from Kamehameha to hunt the wild cattle and develop a beef industry. Captain George Vancouver A statue of George Vancouver outside of Vancouver City Hall. ... Kamehameha I, King of Hawaii, also known as Kamehameha I and Kamehameha the Great (circa 1758 – 1819), unified the Hawaiian Islands in battle and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in 1810. ... The Sandwich Islands was the name given to Hawaii by Captain James Cook on his discovery of the islands on January 18, 1778. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Hawaiian style of ranching included capturing wild oxen by driving them into pits dug in the forest floor. Once tamed somewhat by hunger and thirst, they were hauled out up a steep ramp, and tied by their horns to the horns of a tame steer which knew where the paddock with food and water was. The industry grew slowly under the reign of Kamehameha's son Liholiho (Kamehameha II) For the 1983 horror film, see The Hunger. ... Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth, almost always largely consisting of water. ... Look up paddock in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kamehameha II succeeded the throne of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i upon the death of his father, Kamehameha I. He and his Queen Consort died in London from the measles. ...


After becoming king himself, Liholiho's son Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III) visited California, then still a part of Mexico. He was impressed with the skill of the Mexican vaqueros in handling wild cattle, and invited several to Hawai`i in 1832 to teach the Hawaiian people how to work cattle. Categories: Stub | 1814 births | 1854 deaths | Royal Family of Hawaii ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Even today, traditional paniolo dress, as well as certain styles of Hawaiian formal attire, reflect the Spanish heritage of the vaquero. The traditional Hawaiian saddle and many other tools of the cowboy's trade have a distinctly Mexican/Spanish look and many Hawaiian ranching families still carry the names of the vaqueros who married Hawaiian women and made Hawai`i their home.


Cowboys of other nations

In addition to the original Mexican vaquero, the Mexican charro, the North American cowboy, and the Hawaiian paniolo, the Spanish also exported their horsemanship and knowledge of cattle ranching to the gaucho of Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and (with the spelling "gaúcho") southern Brazil, the llanero of the llano (South American prairie-like plains, as in Venezuela), the huaso of Chile, and, indirectly through the Americans, to Australia. In Australia, which has a large ranch (station) culture, cowboys are known as ringers and stockmen (with trainee stockmen being known as jackaroos and jillaroos). For the entertainer whose full name is Maria Rosario Pilar Martinez Molina Baeza, see: Charo A Charro is a traditional cowboy of central and northern Mexico. ... Gauchos taming horses in Corrientes Province, Argentina. ... A Llanero or the Llaneros is the name given to Venezuelan and Colombia cowboys and means plainsmen. ... A huaso (feminine huasa) is a Chilean countryman and skilled horseman, similar to the Argentinian gaucho and the American cowboy. ... Station is the term for a large Australian landholding used for livestock production. ... Ringer is a term with several meanings: An ornithologist trained in bird ringing is called a ringer. ... Australian Stockmans Hall of Fame ( a museum in Longreach, Queensland, Australia ) A stockman is the name given to a person who looks after the livestock on a station. ...


The idea of horsemen who guard herds of cattle, sheep or horses is common wherever wide, open land for grazing exists. In the French Camargue, horsemen called "gardians" herd cattle. In Hungary, the csikós guard horses. The herdsmen in the region of Maremma, in Tuscany (Italy) are called butteros. Shoreline of the Étang de Vaccarès The Camargue is the land south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the River Rhône delta at the approximate coordinates 43°32′N 4°30′E . ... The Maremma is an area in Italy, consisting of part of southern Tuscany (and partly coincident with province of Grosseto area) and some part of northern Latium (a bordering region of the province of Viterbo). ... Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria and Marche to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Working cowboys

Cattle drive in Colorado, USA
Cattle drive in Colorado, USA

On the ranch, the cowboy is responsible for feeding the livestock, branding or marking cattle and horses, and tending to their injuries or other needs. They also move the livestock to market. In addition, cowboys repair fences, maintain ranch equipment, and perform other odd jobs around the ranch. These jobs vary depending on the size of the ranch, the terrain, and the number of livestock. On larger ranches, or on those with lots of cattle, a cowboys may specialize in one task or another. On smaller ranches with fewer cowboys—often just family members—the cowboy tends to be a generalist employed in many tasks. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1738x2712, 1435 KB) Summary Source: http://library. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1738x2712, 1435 KB) Summary Source: http://library. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics collects no figures for cowboys, so the exact number of working cowboys is unknown. Cowboys are included in the 2003 category, Support activities for animal production, which totals 9,730 workers averaging $19,340 per annum. In addition to cowboys working on ranches, in stockyards, and in rodeos, the category includes farm hands working with other types of livestock (sheep, goats, hogs, chickens, etc.). Of those 9,730 workers, 3,290 of them are listed in the subcategory of Spectator sports which includes rodeos, circuses, and theaters needing livestock handlers. The Bureau of Labor Statistics was founded in 1884 by President Chester A. Arthur. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A stockyard is a place for the sale and shipping of livestock. ... Species See text. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... HOG or hog can mean:- A pig, originally a castrated male pig. ... Trinomial name Gallus gallus domesticus A chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated bird which is often raised as a type of poultry. ...


Dress

Most cowboy dress, thought of as Western wear, grew out of the environment in which the cowboy worked. Many of the items were adapted from the Mexican vaqueros. Gene Autry in the western wear typical of the singing cowboys of the 1950s - note characteristic piped, arrowhead-end smile pockets, broad open shirt collar, pointed shirt yoke, neckerchief or bandana, and cowboy hat Western wear is a category of mens and womens clothing which derives its unique...

  • Cowboy hat; a hat with a wide brim to protect from brush and vegetation, the sun and the elements; there are many styles, probably influenced by John B. Stetson's Boss of the Plains, the Mexican sombrero and US (and Confederate) Cavalry hats.
  • Cowboy boots; a boot with a high top to protect the lower legs, pointed toes to help guide the foot into the stirrup, and high heels to keep the foot from slipping through the stirrup while working in the saddle; with or without spurs (often detachable).
  • Chaps protect the legs while on horseback, especially riding through heavy brush or during rough work with the livestock.
  • Jeans, or other sturdy tight-fitting trousers; heavy canvas trousers designed to protect the legs and snug fitting to prevent the trouser legs from blistering the inner thigh and knee while horseback, and from snagging on brush, corral equipment or other hazards.

A cowboys hat, usually with a four to six-inch brim, acts as an umbrella in stormy weather, and a shade from the sun in hot weather. ... The Stetson Cavalry Hat For the university, see Stetson University. ... Sombrero A sombrero is a type of hat originating in Mexico. ... American cowboy circa 1887 A cowhand tends livestock, especially cattle. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ... Pair of chaps Chaps (short for chaparajos) are sturdy leather coverings for the legs. ... Blue Jeans Jeans are trousers traditionally made from denim, but may also be made from a variety of fabrics including cotton and corduroy. ...

Tools

Modern Texas cowboys. Note that their clothes are similar to those of the 19th century cowboy above
Modern Texas cowboys. Note that their clothes are similar to those of the 19th century cowboy above
  • Lariat; from the Spanish "la riata," meaning "the rope," a tightly twisted stiff rope with a loop at one end enabling it to be thrown to catch animals (sometimes called a lasso, especially in the East).
  • Spurs; tools used to allow the rider to communicate with the horse.
  • Rifle; a firearm used to protect the livestock from predation by wild animals. Occasionally cowboys will carry a pistol when not physically working cattle, especially in brushy areas. The modern American cowboys came to existence in an age of guns, but cattle herders of earlier times were equipped with long sticks, bows and sometimes lances.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 3376 KB) Summary I met these two cowboys near Benjamin, Texas as they were getting ready to go out and rope cattle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 3376 KB) Summary I met these two cowboys near Benjamin, Texas as they were getting ready to go out and rope cattle. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A lasso is a loop of rope that is designed to be thrown around a target and tighten when pulled. ... A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ... A rifle is a firearm with a stock and a barrel that has a spiral groove or grooves (rifling) cut into its interior. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... A bow is a weapon that shoots arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ...

Mount & tack

The traditional mode of transport is on horseback on a large ranch. Horses can traverse terrain vehicles cannot. Horses, along with mules and burros, also serve as pack animals. The most important horse on the ranch is the everyday working ranch horse; cutting horses are very rarely used on ranches. Because the rider is busy working while riding, the horse must neck rein and have good cow sense—it must instinctively know how to anticipate and react to cattle. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A mule in Spain In its common modern meaning, a mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. ... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 The donkey, a. ... A horse responds to neck rein techniques when it has learnt that a light pressure of the right rein against its neck on that side means for the horse to turn left, and a light pressure of the other rein against its neck on the left side means for the...


Tack:

  • Western Saddle; a saddle specially designed for working with cattle; the rider's feet rest in stirrups to allow the rider to stand or resist the pull of livestock while working; a horn sits low in front of the rider, to which the lariat can be snubbed, "saddle strings" or tiedowns to provide secure mountings for any additional equipment needed for work on the ranch; and various other modifications.
  • Saddle blanket; a blanket or pad is required under the Western saddle to provide comfort and protection for the horse.
  • Bridle; a Western bridle usually has a curb bit and long split reins to control the horse in many different situations.
  • Saddle bags (leather or nylon) can be mounted to the saddle, to carry various sundry items and extra supplies.
  • Wade Saddle: One of the most popular saddle styles today is the Wade saddle, a "buckaroo style" saddle made popular by clinicians such as Ray Hunt and Buck Brannaman. See more of the history of the Wade saddle at http://www.cowboyshowcase.com/wade_saddle.htm

A Western Saddle Western Saddles are saddles used in — or based on the ones used in — cattle ranching in the United States. ... A saddle blanket is the woven blanket, usually made of wool, which is folded and inserted under the Western Saddle in order to absorb sweat, cushion the saddle, and help it conform to the horses back. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ...

Vehicles

The most common vehicle driven in ranch work is the pickup truck. Sturdy and roomy, with a high ground clearance, it can haul ranch supplies from town and still handle rough trails on the ranch. It is used to pull stock trailers transporting cattle and livestock from one area to another and to market. With a horse trailer attached, it carries horses to distant areas where they may be needed. Motorcycles are sometimes used, but the most common smaller vehicle is the four-wheeler. It will carry a single cowboy quickly around the ranch for small chores. In areas with heavy snowfall, snowmobiles are also common. Mazda compact Pickup truck with extended cabin and homebuilt lumber rack. ... A group of “quad bike” all terrain vehicles The term all-terrain vehicle is used in a general sense to describe any of a number of small open motorised buggies and tricycles designed for off-road use. ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park, note the snowdust in the air (NPS Photo) A 1997 Arctic Cat ZR 580 Snowmobile A snowmobile (or snow scooter, often referred to by enthusiasts as a sled and in the Canadian north and Alaska as a snowmachine) is a land vehicle propelled...


Rodeo cowboys

In the beginning there was no difference between the working cowboy and the rodeo cowboy, and in fact, the term working cowboy did not come into use until the 1950s. Prior to that it was assumed that all cowboys were working cowboys. The early cowboys worked on the ranches and displayed their skills at the roundups. The word rodeo is from the Spanish rodear (to turn), which means roundup.


The advent of professional rodeos allowed cowboys, like many athletes, to earn a living by performing their skills before an audience. The rodeos also provided employment for the many working cowboys needed to handle the livestock. Many rodeo cowboys are also working cowboys and most have working cowboy experience. Look up Athlete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ...


The dress of the rodeo cowboy is not very different from that of the working cowboy on his way to town. What is known as the cowboy shirt was adapted from the early movie industry especially for the rodeo. Snaps, used in lieu of buttons, allowed the cowboy to escape from a shirt snagged by the horns of steer or bull. Rodeo competitors add sequins, colors, silver and long fringes to excite the bucking animal, increasing competitors' scores and making a good show for spectators too. Example EU engergy label According to an EU Directive most white goods and light bulb packaging must have an EU Energy Label clearly displayed when offered for sale or rent. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, kine or kyne in pre-modern English, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...


Synonyms

Other names for a cowboy in American English include cowman, cattleman, cowpoke, cowhand, cowherd, waddie and puncher.


The term "cowpuncher" was especially popular with cowboys who worked in the Cherokee Strip since they were entitled to join the Cherokee Strip Cowpunchers Association which was organized in 1920. There were two Cherokee Strips in the United States: The more well known Cherokee Outlet in present-day Oklahoma. ...


Cowgirls

Although cowgirls share much with cowboys, their history is somewhat different. There is no record of any girls or women driving cattle up the cattle trails of the Old West. Although many of them undoubtedly helped on the ranches, and in some cases (especially when the men went to war) ran them, few routinely dressed in the suitable clothing for working cattle from horseback.


Charles Goodnight, however, did invent a side-saddle following the Civil War that allowed women to comfortably ride horses while fashionably dressed. The West was too vast for walking and too rough for carriages and buggies in many places. The traditional charras of Mexico ride such side-saddles today while exhibiting superb horsemanship in charreadas on both sides of the border. Charles Goodnight Charles Goodnight (March 5, 1836 – December 12, 1929) was a cattle rancher in the American West. ... The Sidesaddle is a type of saddle on which the rider sits aside rather than astride the mount. ... Charrería is the Mexican style of traditional Spanish horsemanship that developed in Mexico under the hacienda system. ...


It wasn't until the advent of the Wild West shows that cowgirls came into their own. Their riding, expert marksmanship, and trick roping entertained audiences around the world. By 1900, skirts split for riding came into design, freeing women to compete with the men in many events. In the movies that followed they expanded their roles in the popular culture and movie designers developed attractive clothing suitable for riding Western saddles.


The growth of the rodeo brought about another type of cowgirl—the rodeo cowgirl. In the early Wild West shows and rodeos, women competed in all events, sometimes with the men. That changed after 1925 when Eastern promoters started staging indoor rodeos in places like Madison Square Garden. Women were generally excluded from the men's events and the women's events dropped. In today's rodeos, cowgirls compete mostly in the timed riding events such as barrel racing, and most professional rodeos do not offer as many women's events as men's events. Cowgirls seldom compete in the men’s events once they reach adulthood although several do compete in all events in high-school and college rodeos. Outside of the rodeo, cowgirls also compete in Western Pleasure Riding, Reining, and Endurance Riding competitions. A professional barrel racer Barrel racing is a rodeo event that features a horse or barrel racer and one rider, also called a barrel racer, running a cloverleaf pattern around three barrels in a triangular arrangement. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ...


Today's cowgirls have adapted cowboy clothing and riding techniques to suit their own needs. Seldom does today's cowgirl ride sidesaddle. A cowgirl may wear either a skirt cut so as to allow her to sit in the saddle, or jeans. If working on the ranch, where they perform most of the same chores as cowboys (and are seldom referred to as cowgirls), they generally dress to suit the situation.


Popular culture

In today's world there is little social recognition of the daily realities of actual agricultural subcultures. Cowboys have become less known for their hard life of cow-tending, but from the imagery of wild fights with Native Americans (which most likely didn't happen). Cowboys and range living have become the topics of jokes as well.


In the American and Canadian West, as well as Australia, some vacationers will "play" cowboy by working on dude ranches, occasionally participating in cattle drives or accompanying wagon trains. Dude Ranch is a blink-182 album that was released on June 17, 1997 by Cargo Music/MCA. This was blink-182s second album, containing songs such as Dammit and Josie that helped the group gain popularity. ... A wagon train is a long chain of wagons, each moving together and forming a line. ...


Regional identification

The long history of the West in popular culture tends to define those clothed in Western clothing as cowboys or cowgirls whether they have ever been on a horse or not. This is especially true when applied to entertainers and those in the public arena who wear 'Western wear' as part of their persona.


Many people, however, particularly in the West, wear Western clothing as a matter of form and think of themselves as lawyers, bankers etc. — even those raised on ranches do not consider themselves cowboys or cowgirls unless so occupied.


Outside of the West, the cowboy became an archetypal symbol of American individualism. In the late 1950s, a Congolese youth subculture calling themselves the Bills based their style and outlook on Hollywood's depiction of cowboys in movies. Something similar occurred with Apache, which in early twentieth century Parisian society essentially meant an outlaw. The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... Motto: Justic - Paix - Travail (French: Justice - Peace - Work) Anthem(s): Debout Congolais Capital Kinshasa Largest city Kinshasa Official language(s) French Government Transitional  - President Joseph Kabila Independence    - From Belgium June 30, 1960  Area  - Total 2,344,858 km² (12th) 905,351 sq mi   - Water (%) 3. ... A bill can be one of: paper documents used as currency (notes in British English): see Banknote. ... ... Group of Apaches For other uses, see Apache (disambiguation). ...


The state of Wyoming's nickname is The Cowboy State. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Negative associations

In the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, the term cowboy can be used as an adjective in a derogatory sense. It is usually applied to tradesmen whose work is of shoddy and questionable value, e.g., "a cowboy plumber". This usage predates the discovery of the New World and originates from the perception that herdsmen are unskilled laborers. Location of the British Isles Great Britain, Ireland and several thousand smaller surrounding islands and islets form an archipelago off the northwest coast of continental Europe which is most commonly known as the British Isles. ... A tradesman is a type of worker found in all cultures throughout the world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On the European continent the term 'cowboy' is sometimes used to someone who behaves as hot-headed and rash as the 'civilised' outsiders expect from the 'savage' inhabitants of the 'Wild West'. The term is also used in America. For example, TIME Magazine had a cover article about George W. Bush's "Cowboy Diplomacy." (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American businessman and politician, was elected in 2000 as the 43rd President of the United States of America, re-elected in 2004, and is currently serving his second term in that office. ...


In art and culture

The Cowboy Artists of America (often referred to as the CA, or sometimes the CAA) was founded in 1965 by four prominent western artists, Joe Beeler, Charlie Dye, John Hampton and George Phippen. ... Western fiction is a genre of literature that is typically set in any of the American states west of the Mississippi River and between the years of approximately 1860 and 1900. ... This is a list of some notable authors in the western fiction genre. ... Cowboy poetry is a form of poetry that focuses on the culture, features and lifestyle of the West, both the Old West and its modern equivalents. ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... This list consists largely of the more occasional, big budget, postmodern westerns, and is not representative of the genre across time. ... A western television show is a cowboy story which takes place in the old west and involves cowboys, cattle ranchers, miners, farmers, Indians, guns and horses. ... Poster from the Western Music, directly related to the old English, Scottish, and Irish folk ballads, was originally composed by and about the people settling and working in the American West and western Canada. ... Western swing, also known as Country Swing, is dance music with an up-tempo beat and a decidedly Southwestern US regional flavor. ... Cowboy songs are often associated with songs that the cowboys sang at night around the campfire with a lot of yodeling and sometimes accompanied by a guitar, banjo (and perhaps some canned beans). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Steer roping Fiesta de los Vaqueros, Tucson, AZ. Rodeo is a traditional North American sport with influences from the history of Mexican vaqueros (cowboys) and American cowboys. ... Indian rodeo is the rodeo subculture of Native American rodeo performers. ... Charrería is the Mexican style of traditional Spanish horsemanship that developed in Mexico under the hacienda system. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... A computer hacker is someone who enjoys getting around the technical limitations of computer systems. ... In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. ...

See also

A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A drover is a person that drives livestock to a new location, usually referring to the pre-20th century practice of walking with them and herding them similar to a cowhand. ... A goatherd is a person who herds goats for a living. ... In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... Station is the term for a large Australian landholding used for livestock production. ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... Branding irons Livestock branding in the American west has evolved into a complex marking system still in use today. ... Photo of a Texas longhorn. ... Free-roaming mustangs (Utah, 2005) Mustangs at the Palomino Valley Adoption Center A mustang is a small, hardy, free-roaming horse of the North American west, descendant of Spanish conquistador horses. ... Steer roping Fiesta de los Vaqueros, Tucson, AZ. Rodeo is a traditional North American sport with influences from the history of Mexican vaqueros (cowboys) and American cowboys. ... Bull Riding in Del Rio, Texas Bull riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a large male bovine, and attempting to stay mounted for at least 8 seconds. ... This article or section should be merged with Saddle bronc Bareback bronc riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on an untamed equine or bronco, weighing between 800 and 1,500 pounds, which is held in a small pipe enclosure called a bucking chute. ... This article or section should be merged with Bareback bronc Saddle bronc riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a saddle on an untamed equine or bronco, weighing between 800 and 1,500 pounds, which is held in a small pipe enclosure called a bucking chute. ... Calf roping is a rodeo event that features a calf and a mounted cowboy. ... Steer roping also known as steer tripping is a rodeo event that features a steer and one mounted cowboy. ... Steer wrestling, also known as bull dogging, is a rodeo event that features a steer and two mounted cowboys, along with a number of supporting characters. ... Team roping also known as heading and heeling is a rodeo event that features a steer (typically a Corriente) and two mounted cowboys. ... A professional barrel racer Barrel racing is a rodeo event that features a horse or barrel racer and one rider, also called a barrel racer, running a cloverleaf pattern around three barrels in a triangular arrangement. ... Breakaway roping is a rodeo event that features a calf and one mounted cowgirl. ... Similar in every way to calf-roping, except the outright stubborness and unpredictability of the goat. ... Pole Bending is an amateur rodeo event that features a horse and one mounted cowgirl, running a weaving or serpentine path around six poles arranged in a line. ... Charrería is the Mexican style of traditional Spanish horsemanship that developed in Mexico under the hacienda system. ... For the entertainer whose full name is Maria Rosario Pilar Martinez Molina Baeza, see: Charo A Charro is a traditional cowboy of central and northern Mexico. ... Cowboy churches Within the cowboy culture are local Christian churches that are distinctively country in character. ... Vaqueiros de alzada (nomadic cowherds in Asturian language) were a northern Spanish nomadic people who practiced transhumance, the practice of moving seasonally with cattle. ...

Additionally

The All Indian Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (AIPRCA) is a Native American organization which promotes Indian rodeo. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... A typical archetype, the cowboy, in the Wild West. ... The following list of cowboys and cowgirls from the frontier era of the American West (appoximately 1830 to 1910) was compiled to show examples of the cowboy and cowgirl genre. ...

Further reading

  • Beck, Warren A., Haase, Ynez D.; Historical Atlas of the American West. University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma, 1989. ISBN 0-8061-2193-9
  • Jordan, Teresa; Cowgirls: Women of the American West. University of Nebraska Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8032-7575-7
  • Nicholson, Jon. Cowboys: A Vanishing World. Macmillan, 2001. ISBN 0-333-90208-4
  • Phillips, Charles; Axlerod, Alan; editor. The Encyclopedia of the American West. Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996. ISBN 0-02-897495-2
  • Roach, Joyce Gibson; The Cowgirls . University of North Texas Press, 1990. ISBN 0-929398-15-7
  • Slatta, Richard W. The Cowboy Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, California, 1994. ISBN 0-87436-738-7
  • Ward, Fay E.; The Cowboy at Work: All About His Job and How He Does It. University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma, 1987. ISBN 0-8061-2051-7

Sources and external references

Cowboy Showcase - Home of the Western Spirit featuring authentic cowboy gear, art, stories, and photos. http://www.cowboyshowcase.com


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cowboy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3010 words)
The cowboy is normally a ranch hand in charge of the horses and/or cattle, as is the wrangler.
Cowboy hat; a hat with a wide brim to protect from the sun and the elements; there are many styles, probably influenced by both the Mexican sombrero and US (and Confederate) Cavalry hats.
Cowboy boots; a boot with a high top to protect the lower legs, pointed toes to help guide the foot into the stirrup, and high heels to keep the foot from slipping through the stirrup while working in the saddle; with our without spurs (often detachable).
Cowboy Bebop - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3120 words)
Cowboy Bebop is strongly influenced by American culture, especially the jazz movements of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s (hence "bebop") with nearly all of its action sequences, from space battles to hand-to-hand martial arts combat, are set and timed to music.
Cowboy Bebop was popular enough that a movie, Cowboy Bebop: Tengoku no Tobira (Knockin' on Heaven's Door), was commissioned and released in Japan in 2001 and later released in the United States as Cowboy Bebop: The Movie in 2003.
Cowboy Bebop by Hajime Yatate and Yutaka Nanten
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