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Encyclopedia > Cowboy
A classic vision of the American cowboy, as portrayed by C.M. Russell.
A classic vision of the American cowboy, as portrayed by C.M. Russell.

A cowboy (Spanish: vaquero) tends cattle and horses on cattle ranches in North and South America. The cowboy is normally an animal herder most commonly in charge of the horses and/or cattle, whereas the wrangler's work is more specific to horses. In addition to ranch work, some cowboys work in and participate in rodeos, and many cowboys work only in the rodeo. A cowboy may be a North - or Latin American cowherd or other ranch hand, particularly one who works from horseback, or a rodeo performer; by extension applied elsewhere; many equivalent terms exist in various languages, also in the Americas. ... (From user talk:MyRedDice), Yes, all my images are in public domain. ... (From user talk:MyRedDice), Yes, all my images are in public domain. ... Charles Marion Russell (1864, Oak Hill, Missouri – 1926, Great Falls, Montana), also known as C.M. Russell, was one of the great artists of the American West. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... A herder is a worker who lives a semi-nomadic life, caring for various domestic animals, especially in places where these animals wander unfenced pasture lands. ... In North America a wrangler is someone employed to handle animals professionally, especially horses, but also others. ... It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Etymology

The English word cowboy has an origin from several earlier terms that referred to both age and to cattle or cattle-tending work.


The word "cowboy" first appeared in the English language about 1715–25 CE.[1] It appears to be a direct English translation of vaquero, a Spanish word for an individual who managed cattle while mounted on horseback. It was derived from vaca, meaning "cow."[2] This Spanish word has a long history, developed in part from the Latin word vacca. In addition to Latin roots, there may be Arabic influence as well. Another English word for a cowboy, buckaroo, an Anglicization of vaquero,[3] reflects the archaic Spanish pronunciation of vaquero, suggesting the possibility of a close relationship to the Arabic word bakara or bakhara, also meaning "heifer" or "young cow."[4][5] The Spanish language contains a number of words based on Arabic, most originating with Islamic people from North Africa and the Middle East, who had a powerful influence on Spanish history beginning with the Muslim conquest of Hispania in the 8th century and the Andalusian society they established. American cowboy circa 1887 A cowhand tends livestock, especially cattle. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Cattle the charitable organization Heifer International This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


The word cowboy also had English language roots beyond simply being a translation from Spanish. Because of the time and physical ability needed to develop necessary skills, the American cow "boy," (as well as the vaquero) often began his career as an adolescent, earning wages as soon as he had enough skill to be hired, (often as young as 12 or 13) and who, if not crippled by injury, might handle cattle or horses for the rest of his working life. In the United States, a few women also took on the tasks of ranching and learned the necessary skills, though the "cowgirl" (discussed below) did not become widely recognized or acknowledged until the close of the 19th century.


Originally, the English word "cowherd" (similar to "shepherd," a sheep herder) was used to describe a cattle herder, and often referred to a preadolescent or early adolescent boy, who usually worked on foot. (Equestrianism required skills and an investment in horses and equipment rarely available to or entrusted to a child, though in some cultures boys rode a donkey while going to and from pasture) This word is very old in the English language, originating prior to the year 1000 CE.[6] In Antiquity, herding of sheep, cattle and goats was often the job of minors, and still is a task for young people in various third world cultures. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Look up minor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Though the term "cowboy" became somewhat disassociated from age (even today, the phrase "old cowboy" is not considered an oxymoron), the low wages and low social status of the job kept the term "boy" in use, though ultimately it became simply a label for the job itself, and even a term of pride However, the word "boy" was also used to refer to any hired help (sometimes with racist overtones), or, more positively, to refer to closeknit groups of men as in the expression "one of the boys" — a brotherhood. Today, use of the term "boy" to refer to hired help is an anachronism, and terms such as "hand," "ranch hand" or "hired hand" are used to refer to ranch workers in general. Look up oxymoron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On western ranches today, the working cowboy is usually an adult. Sole responsibility for herding cattle or other livestock is no longer considered a job suitable for children or early adolescents. However, both boys and girls growing up in a ranch environment often learn to ride horses and perform basic ranch skills as soon as they are physically able, usually under adult supervision. Such youths, by their late teens, are often given responsibilities for "cowboy" work on the ranch, and ably perform work that requires a level of maturity and levelheadedness that is not generally expected of their urban peers. This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


History

American cowboy circa 1887
American cowboy circa 1887

The Spanish developed what we now consider the cowboy tradition, beginning with the hacienda system of medieval Spain. This style of cattle ranching spread throughout much of the Iberian peninsula and later, was imported to the Americas. Both regions possessed a dry climate with sparse grass, and thus large herds of cattle required vast amounts of land in order to obtain sufficient forage. The need to cover distances greater than a person on foot could manage gave rise to the development of the horseback-mounted vaquero. Cowboy circa 1887 Free Public Domain Image from http://www. ... Cowboy circa 1887 Free Public Domain Image from http://www. ... Hacienda is a Spanish word describing a vast ranch, common in the Pampa. ... After the disorders of the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 409, the history of Medieval Spain begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arian Visigoths (507 – 711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Forage is the herbaceous plant material (mainly grasses and legumes) eaten by grazing animals. ... American cowboy circa 1887 A cowhand tends livestock, especially cattle. ...


During the 16th century, the Conquistadors and other Spanish settlers brought their cattle-raising traditions as well as their horses and cattle to the Americas, starting with their arrival in what today is Mexico and Florida. The traditions of Spain were transformed by the geographic, environmental and cultural circumstances of New Spain, which later became Mexico and the southwestern United States. In turn, the land and people of the Americas also saw dramatic changes due to Spanish influence. Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ...


The arrival of horses was particularly significant, as equines had been extinct in the Americas since the end of the prehistoric ice age. However, horses quickly multiplied in America and became crucial to the success of the Spanish and later settlers from other nations. The earliest horses were originally of Andalusian, Barb and Arabian ancestry, but a number of uniquely American horse breeds developed in North and South America through selective breeding and by natural selection of animals that escaped to the wild. The Mustang and other colonial horse breeds are now called "wild," but in reality are feral horses — descendants of domesticated animals. horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Andalusian horse or Spanish horse is one of the oldest breeds of horses in the world today. ... Developed on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, the Barb is a desert horse, with great hardiness and stamina. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... // This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... This article is about the feral horse of the American west. ... Feral horse in the Pentland Hills, Scotland. ...


Thus, though popularly considered as a North American icon, the traditional cowboy actually comes from a Hispanic tradition, which evolved further, particularly in the Central States of Mexico, Jalisco and Michoacán, where the Mexican cowboy would eventually be known as a "charro", as well as areas to the north that later became the Southwestern United States. Most vaqueros were men of mestizo and Native American origin while most of the hacendados (owners) were ethnically Spanish.[7] North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Guadalajara Government  - Governor Emilio González Márquez (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 18 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Eva Contreras (PAN) Héctor Pérez (PAN) Ramiro Hernández (PRI) Area Ranked 6th  - State 79,085 km²  (30,534. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 113 Government  - Governor Salvador Lopez Orduna (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 10 PRI:1  - Federal Senators Jesús Garibay Gonzalez (PAN) Silvano Aureoles Camacho (PRI) Marko A. Cortés (PAN) Area Ranked 16th  - State 59,928 km²  (23,138. ... For the Spanish entertainer whose full name is Maria Rosario Pilar Martinez Molina Baeza, see Charo. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... ...


As English-speaking traders and settlers moved into the Western United States, English and Spanish traditions, language and culture merged to some degree, with the vaquero tradition providing the foundation of the American cowboy. Before the Mexican American War in 1848, New England merchants who traveled by ship to California encountered both hacendados and vaqueros, trading manufactured goods for the hides and tallow produced from vast cattle ranches. American traders along what later became known as the Santa Fe Trail had similar contacts with vaquero life. Starting with these early encounters, the lifestyle and lingo of the vaquero began a transformation which merged with English cultural traditions and produced what became known in American culture as the "cowboy". The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... American cowboy circa 1887 A cowhand tends livestock, especially cattle. ... The Mexican-American War was a war fought between the United States and Mexico between 1846 and 1848. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Trail logo The Santa Fe Trail was an historic 19th century transportation route across southwestern North America connecting Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. ...


Development of traditions in the United States

Geography, climate and cultural traditions caused differences to develop in cattle-handling methods and equipment from one part of the United States to another. In the modern world, remnants of two major and distinct cowboy traditions remain, known today as the "Texas" tradition and the "Spanish", "Vaquero", or "California" tradition. Less well-known but equally distinct traditions also developed in Hawaii and Florida. Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...


Texas tradition

In the early 1800s, the Spanish Crown, and later, independent Mexico, offered empresario grants in what would later be Texas to non-citizens, such as settlers from the United States. In 1821, Stephen F. Austin and his East Coast comrades became the first Anglo-Saxon community speaking Spanish. Following Texas independence in 1836, even more Americans immigrated into the empresario ranching areas of Texas. Here the settlers were strongly influenced by the Mexican vaquero culture, borrowing vocabulary and attire from their counterparts, but also retaining some of the livestock-handling traditions and culture of the Eastern United States and Great Britain. The Texas cowboy was typically a bachelor who hired on with different outfits from season to season.[8] An empresario was somebody who, in the early years of the settlement of Texas, had been granted the right to settle on Mexican land in exchange for recruiting and taking responsibility for new settlers. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Stephen F. Austin Stephen Fuller Austin (November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836), known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by the United States. ... Combatants Texas Mexico Commanders Stephen F. Austin Sam Houston Antonio López de Santa Anna Martin Perfecto de Cos Strength c. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... (See also List of types of clothing) Introduction Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ...


Following the American Civil War, vaquero culture diffused eastward and northward, combining with the cow herding traditions of the eastern United States that evolved as settlers moved west. Other influences developed out of Texas as cattle trails were created to meet up with the railroad lines of Kansas and Nebraska, in addition to expanding ranching opportunities in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Front, east of the Continental Divide. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... Chief Mountain in Glacier National Park is a prominent peak along the Rocky Mountain Front The Rocky Mountain Front is an area extending over 100 miles (160 km) from the central regions of the U.S. state of Montana to southern Alberta, Canada. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of...


Thus, the Texas cowboy tradition arose from a combination of cultural influences, in addition to the need for adaptation to the geography and climate of west Texas and the need to conduct long cattle drives to get animals to market.


California tradition

The vaquero, the Spanish or Mexican cowboy who worked with young, untrained horses, had flourished in California and bordering territories during the Spanish Colonial period. Settlers from the United States did not enter California until after the Mexican War, and most early settlers were miners rather than livestock ranchers, leaving livestock-raising largely to the Spanish and Mexican people who chose to remain in California. The California vaquero or buckaroo, unlike the Texas cowboy, was considered a highly-skilled worker, who usually stayed on the same ranch where he was born or had grown up and raised his own family there. In addition, the geography and climate of much of California was dramatically different from that of Texas, allowing more intensive grazing with less open range, plus cattle in California were marketed primarily at a regional level, without the need (nor, until much later, even the logistical possibility) to be driven hundreds of miles to railroad lines. Thus, a horse- and livestock-handling culture remained in California and the Pacific Northwest that retained a stronger direct Spanish influence than that of Texas. American cowboy circa 1887 A cowhand tends livestock, especially cattle. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... ...


Cowboys of this tradition were dubbed buckaroos by English-speaking settlers. and the term officially appeared in American English in 1889. It is believed to have originated as an anglicized version of vaquero. Buckaroo also contains derivations from "bucking", which is folk etymology for a behavior seen in some young horses. The words "buckaroo" and Vaquero are still used on occasion in the Great Basin, parts of California and, less often, in the Pacific Northwest. Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) The Great Basin is a large, arid region of the western United States. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ...


Florida Cowhunter or "Cracker cowboy"

A cracker cowboy artist: Frederick Remington.
A cracker cowboy
artist: Frederick Remington.

The Florida "cowhunter" or "cracker cowboy" of the 19th and early 20th centuries was distinct from the Texas and California traditions. Florida cowboys did not use lassos to herd or capture cattle. Their primary tools were bullwhips and dogs. Florida cattle and horses were small. The "cracker cow", also known as the "native cow", or "scrub cow" averaged about 600 pounds, had large horns and large feet.[9] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 469 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 767 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Remington, Frederic, 1861-1909. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 469 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 767 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Remington, Frederic, 1861-1909. ... White cracker, or simply cracker, was originally a pejorative term for a white person mainly used by blacks in the Southern United States, a usage that is now somewhat archaic. ... Lariat redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Since the Florida cowhunter didn't need a saddle horn for anchoring a lariat, many did not use Western saddles, instead using a McClellan saddle. While some individuals wore boots that reached above the knees for protection from snakes, others wore brogans. They usually wore inexpensive wool or straw hats, and used ponchos for protection from rain.[10] A lasso is a loop of rope that is designed to be thrown around a target and tighten when pulled. ... Parts of a Western saddle Western saddles are used for western riding and are the saddles used on working horses on cattle ranches throughout the United States, particularly in the west. ... The McCellan Saddle was that saddle designed by George B. McClellan, a career Army officer in the U.S. Army, and adopted by the Army in 1859. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Brogan is a surname in Ireland. ... Typical Andes poncho in a flea market in Genoa, Italy Clear Plastic Rain Poncho modeled by Mark Allyn in Seattle, Washington A poncho is a simple garment designed to keep the body warm, or if made from an impermeable material, to keep dry during rain. ...


Cattle and horses were introduced into Florida late in the 16th century. Throughout the 17th century, cattle ranches owned by Spanish officials and missions operated in northern Florida to supply the Spanish garrison in St. Augustine and markets in Cuba.[11] These ranches brought in some vaqueros from Spain, but many of the workers were Timucua Indians.[12] Diseases and Spanish suppression of rebellions severely reduced the Timucua population, plus raids by soldiers from the Province of Carolina and their Indian allies reduced the Timucuas to a remnant and ended the Spanish ranching era by the beginning of the 18th century. This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... A Mission station is a location for missionary work. ... Nickname: Location in St. ... Pre-contact distribution of Timucua One of the sketches by Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues showing a Timucua village The Timucua were an American Indian people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. ... The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ...


In the 18th century, Creek, Seminole, and other Indian people moved into the former Timucua areas and started herding the cattle left from the Spanish ranches. In the 19th century, most tribes in the area were dispossessed of their land and cattle and pushed south or west by white settlers and the United States government. By the middle of the 19th century white ranchers were running large herds of cattle on the extensive open range of central and southern Florida. The hides and meat from Florida cattle became such a critical supply item for the Confederacy during the American Civil War that a "Cow Cavalry" was organized to round up and protect the herds from Union raiders.[13] After the Civil War, Florida cattle were periodically driven to ports on the Gulf of Mexico and shipped to market in Cuba.[14] The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... For other uses, see Seminole (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


Hawaiian Paniolo

The Hawaiian cowboy, the paniolo, is also a direct descendant of the vaquero of California and Mexico. Experts in Hawaiian etymology believe "Paniolo" is a Hawaiianized pronunciation of español. (The Hawaiian language has no /s/ sound, and all syllables and words must end in a vowel.) Paniolo, like cowboys on the mainland of North America, learned their skills from Mexican vaqueros. Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kānaka ōiwi or kānaka maoli) are the Polynesian peoples of the Hawaiian Islands who trace their ancestry back to Marquesan and possibly Tahitian settlers (starting circa AD 400), before the arrival of British explorer Captain James Cook in 1778. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from HawaiÊ»i, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...


By the early 1800s, Capt. George Vancouver's gift of cattle to Pai`ea Kamehameha, monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom, had multiplied astonishingly, and were wreaking havoc throughout the countryside. About 1812, John Parker, a sailor who had jumped ship and settled in the islands, received permission from Kamehameha to capture the wild cattle and develop a beef industry. A life sized statue covered in gold of George Vancouver on top of the British Columbia Parliament Buildings Captain George Vancouver RN (June 22, 1757 – May 12, 1798) was an officer of the Royal Navy, best known for his exploration of North America, including the Pacific coast along the modern... Kamehameha I, King of Hawaii, also known as Kamehameha I and Kamehameha the Great (circa 1758 – 1819), unified the Hawaiian Islands in battle and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in 1810. ...


The Hawaiian style of ranching originally included capturing wild cattle by driving them into pits dug in the forest floor. Once tamed somewhat by hunger and thirst, they were hauled out up a steep ramp, and tied by their horns to the horns of a tame, older steer (or ox) that knew where the paddock with food and water was located. The industry grew slowly under the reign of Kamehameha's son Liholiho (Kamehameha II) Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Look up paddock in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kamehameha II, King of Hawaii (1797 - 1824) was the second king of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i. ...


Later, Liholiho's son, Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III), visited California, then still a part of Mexico. He was impressed with the skill of the Mexican vaqueros, and invited several to Hawai`i in 1832 to teach the Hawaiian people how to work cattle. Kamehameha III, King of Hawaii (born Kauikeaouli) (August 11, 1813?–December 15, 1854) was the king of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1824 to 1854. ...


Even today, traditional paniolo dress, as well as certain styles of Hawaiian formal attire, reflect the Spanish heritage of the vaquero. The traditional Hawaiian saddle and many other tools of the cowboy's trade have a distinctly Mexican/Spanish look and many Hawaiian ranching families still carry the names of the vaqueros who married Hawaiian women and made Hawai`i their home.


Ethnicity of the traditional cowboy

Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho youths learning to brand cattle at the Seger Indian School, Oklahoma Territory, ca. 1900.
Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho youths learning to brand cattle at the Seger Indian School, Oklahoma Territory, ca. 1900.

Much has been written about the racial mix of the cowboys in the American West, but because cowboys ranked low in the social structure of the period, there are no firm figures. One writer states that cowboys are "… of two classes—those recruited from Texas and other States on the eastern slope; and Mexicans, from the south-western region. …".[15] Census records bear that out. The cowboy occupation also appealed to freed slaves following the Civil War. It is estimated that about 15% of all cowboys were of African-American ancestry—ranging from about 25% on the trail drives out of Texas, to very few in the northwest. Similarly, cowboys of Mexican descent also averaged about 15%, but were more common in Texas and the southwest. American Indian students branding cattle. ... American Indian students branding cattle. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


American Indians also found employment as cowboys. In fact, many early vaqueros were Indian people trained to work for the Spanish missions in caring for the mission herds. Later, particularly after 1890, when American policy promoted "assimilation" of Indian people, some Indian boarding schools also taught ranching skills to Indian youth. Today, some Native Americans in the western United States own cattle and small ranches, and many are still employed as cowboys, especially on ranches located near Indian Reservations. The "Indian Cowboy" also became a commonplace sight on the rodeo circuit. A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... For the song, see Indian Reservation (song) BIA map of reservations in the United States Tribal sovereignty: Map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ... It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ...


End of the open range

Waiting for a Chinook, by C.M. Russell. Overgrazing and harsh winters were factors that brought an end to the age of the Open Range.

By the 1890s, railroads had expanded to cover most of the nation, making long cattle drives from Texas to the railheads in Kansas unnecessary. The invention of barbed wire allowed cattle to be confined to designated area to prevent overgrazing of the range, which had resulted in widespread starvation, particularly during the harsh winter of 1886-1887. Hence, the age of the open range was gone and large cattle drives were over. Smaller cattle drives continued at least into the 1940s, as ranchers, prior to the development of the modern cattle truck, still needed to herd cattle to local railheads for transport to stockyards and packing plants. Meanwhile, ranches multiplied all over the developing West, keeping cowboy employment high, if still low-paid and somewhat more settled. Image File history File links Chinook2. ... Image File history File links Chinook2. ... Charles Marion Russell (1864, Oak Hill, Missouri – 1926, Great Falls, Montana), also known as C.M. Russell, was one of the great artists of the American West. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ... The cattle drives started in the late 1800s. ... A stockyard is a place for the sale and shipping of livestock. ...


In the 1930s and 1940s, Western movies popularized the cowboy lifestyle but also formed persistent stereotypes. In pop culture, the cowboy and the gunslinger are often associated with one another. In reality, working ranch hands had very little time for anything other than the constant, hard work involved in maintaining a ranch. Likewise, cowboys are often shown fighting with American Indians. However, the reality was that, while cowboys were armed against both predators and human thieves, and often used their guns to run off people of any race who attempted to steal, or rustle cattle, nearly all actual armed conflicts occurred between Indian people and cavalry units of the U.S. Army. Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... For the term used in computing, see stereotype (UML). ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Gunslinger from The Great Train Robbery Gunslinger, also gunfighter, is a name given to men in the American Old West who had gained a reputation as being dangerous with a gun. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


Development of the modern cowboy

Over time, the cowboys of the American West developed a personal culture of their own, a blend of frontier and Victorian values that even retained vestiges of chivalry. Such hazardous work in isolated conditions also bred a tradition of self-dependence and individualism, with great value put on personal honesty, exemplified in their songs and poetry. The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Cowboy songs are often associated with songs that the cowboys sang at night around the campfire with a lot of yodeling and sometimes accompanied by a guitar, banjo (and perhaps some canned beans). ... Cowboy poetry is a form of poetry that focuses on the culture, features and lifestyle of the West, both the Old West and its modern equivalents. ...


Today, the Texas and California traditions have merged to some extent, though a few regional differences in equipment and riding style still remain, and some individuals choose to deliberately preserve the more time-consuming but highly skilled techniques of the pure vaquero tradition. The popular "horse whisperer" style of natural horsemanship was originally developed by practitioners who were predominantly from California and the Northwestern states, clearly combining the attitudes and philosophy of the California vaquero with the equipment and outward look of the Texas cowboy. For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... Staranzano(Italy), Cona Island. ...


Cowboys in Canada

Ranching in Canada has traditionally been dominated by one province, Alberta. The most successful early settlers of the province were the ranchers, who found Alberta's foothills to be ideal for raising cattle. Most of Alberta's ranchers were English settlers, but cowboys such as John Ware — who brought the first cattle into the province in 1876 — were American.[16] American style open range dryland ranching began to dominate southern Alberta (and, to a lesser extent, Saskatchewan) by the 1880s. The nearby city of Calgary became the centre of the Canadian cattle industry, earning it the nickname "Cowtown". The cattle industry is still extremely important to Alberta, and cattle outnumber people in the province. While cattle ranches defined by barbed wire fences replaced the open range just as they did in the US, the cowboy influence lives on. Canada's first rodeo, the Raymond Stampede, was established in 1902. In 1912, the Calgary Stampede began, and today it is the world’s richest cash rodeo. Each year, Calgary’s northern rival Edmonton, Alberta stages the Canadian Finals Rodeo, and dozens of regional rodeos are held through the province. Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increases in hilly areas at the base of a mountain range. ... English Canada is a term used to describe either: the anglophone residents of Canada or the Canadian provinces other than Quebec and, sometimes, New Brunswick, in which French is an official language of the provincial governments. ... John Ware (c. ... Southern Alberta is a region located in the Canadian province of Alberta. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... This article is about the Canadian city. ... The Raymond Stampede is an annual rodeo that is held in the town of Raymond, Alberta, Canada every July 1. ... Rider at the Stampede Rodeo Statue at Stampede Grounds, with the Calgary Tower in the background Stampede grounds The Calgary Stampede, which bills itself as The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth, is a large, non-profit festival, exhibition, and rodeo held in Calgary, Alberta for 10 days in the second... For other places with the same name, see Edmonton (disambiguation). ... The Canadian Finals Rodeo is the national championships of Canadian rodeos. ...


Cowboys of other nations

In addition to the original Mexican vaquero, the Mexican charro, the North American cowboy, and the Hawaiian paniolo, the Spanish also exported their horsemanship and knowledge of cattle ranching to the gaucho of Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and (with the spelling "gaúcho") southern Brazil, the "chalan" in Peru, the llanero of the llano (South American prairie-like plains, as in Venezuela), the huaso of Chile, and, indirectly through the Americans, to Australia. In Australia, which has a large ranch (station) culture, cowboys are known as stockmen and drovers (with trainee stockmen referred to as jackaroos and jillaroos). For the Spanish entertainer whose full name is Maria Rosario Pilar Martinez Molina Baeza, see Charo. ... For other uses, see Gaucho (disambiguation). ... Chalan, in Hindustani classical music, refers to a development of a raga. ... A Llanero or the Llaneros is the name given to Venezuelan and Colombia cowboys and means plainsmen. ... Huaso in chilean rodeo A huaso (feminine huasa, although the term china is far more commonly used for his wife or sweetheart, whose dress can be seen in cueca dancing) is a Chilean countryman and skilled horseman, similar to the Argentinian or Uruguayan gaucho and the US cowboy. ... Station is the term for a large Australian landholding used for livestock production. ... Australian Stockmans Hall of Fame ( a museum in Longreach, Queensland, Australia ) A stockman is the name given to a person who looks after the livestock on a station. ... A drover in Australia is a person, typically an experienced stockman, who takes cattle over long distances, usually during a drought or season change in search of green pastures on which the cattle can feed. ...


The idea of horseback riders who guard herds of cattle, sheep or horses is common wherever wide, open land for grazing exists. In the French Camargue, riders called "gardians" herd cattle. In Hungary, the csikós guard horses. The herders in the region of Maremma, in Tuscany (Italy) are called butteros. A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Shoreline of the Étang de Vaccarès For other uses, see Camargue (disambiguation). ... The Maremma Coast, seen from the Old Town of Castiglione della Pescaia The Maremma is an area in Italy, consisting of part of southern Tuscany (and partly coincident with province of Grosseto area) and some part of northern Latium (a bordering region of the province of Viterbo). ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Modern working cowboys

Cattle drive in New Mexico, USA
Cattle drive in New Mexico, USA

On the ranch, the cowboy is responsible for feeding the livestock, branding and earmarking cattle (horses also are branded on many ranches), plus tending to animal injuries and other needs. The working cowboy usually is in charge of a small group or "string" of horses and is required to routinely patrol the rangeland in all weather conditions checking for damaged fences, evidence of predation, water problems, and any other issue of concern. On the 300 square mile Jornada Experimental Range near Las Cruces, New Mexico, technicians Rob Dunlap (left) and John Smith round up cattle. ... On the 300 square mile Jornada Experimental Range near Las Cruces, New Mexico, technicians Rob Dunlap (left) and John Smith round up cattle. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... A cattle rancher brands a young steer using an electric branding iron while another rancher makes an earmark. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


They also move the livestock to different pasture locations, or herd them into corrals and onto trucks for transport. In addition, cowboys may do many other jobs, depending on the size of the "outfit" or ranch, the terrain, and the number of livestock. On a smaller ranch with fewer cowboys—often just family members, cowboys are generalists who perform many all-around tasks; they repair fences, maintain ranch equipment, and perform other odd jobs. On a very large ranch (a "big outfit"), with many employees, cowboys are able to specialize on tasks solely related to cattle and horses. Cowboys who train horses often specialize in this task only, and some may "Break" or train young horses for more than one ranch. This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... WikiProject horse training is about methods of training horses, and all the related aspects of the relationship between people and horses. ... Horse breaking (or horse starting) refers to the process used by humans to get horses to let themselves be ridden or harnessed. ...


The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics collects no figures for cowboys, so the exact number of working cowboys is unknown. Cowboys are included in the 2003 category, Support activities for animal production, which totals 9,730 workers averaging $19,340 per annum. In addition to cowboys working on ranches, in stockyards, and as staff or competitors at rodeos, the category includes farmhands working with other types of livestock (sheep, goats, hogs, chickens, etc.). Of those 9,730 workers, 3,290 are listed in the subcategory of Spectator sports which includes rodeos, circuses, and theaters needing livestock handlers. The Bureau of Labor Statistics was founded in 1884 by President Chester A. Arthur. ... A stockyard is a place for the sale and shipping of livestock. ... It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ... Species See text. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Big Top of Billy Smarts Circus Cambridge 2004. ...


Attire

Most cowboy attire, sometimes termed Western wear, grew out of practical need and the environment in which the cowboy worked. Most items were adapted from the Mexican vaqueros. Gene Autry in the western wear typical of the singing cowboys of the 1950s. ...

  • Cowboy hat; a hat with a wide brim to protect from sun, overhanging brush, and the elements; there are many styles, initially influenced by John B. Stetson's "Boss of the Plains", a design blending elements of the Mexican sombrero and both Union and Confederate Cavalry hats of the Civil War period.
  • Cowboy boots; a boot with a high top to protect the lower legs, pointed toes to help guide the foot into the stirrup, and high heels to keep the foot from slipping through the stirrup while working in the saddle; with or without detachable spurs.
  • Chaps (pronounced "shaps") protect the rider's legs while on horseback, especially riding through heavy brush or during rough work with livestock.
  • Jeans or other sturdy, close-fitting trousers made of canvas or denim, designed to protect the legs and prevent the trouser legs from snagging on brush, equipment or other hazards. Properly made cowboy jeans also have a smooth inside seam to prevent blistering the inner thigh and knee while on horseback.
  • Gloves, usually of deerskin or other leather that is soft and flexible for working purposes, yet provides protection when handling barbed wire, assorted tools or clearing native brush and vegetation.

Many of these items show marked regional variations. Parameters such as hat brim width, or chap length and material were adjusted to accommodate the various environmental conditions encountered by working cowboys. A cowboys hat, usually with a four to six-inch brim, acts as an umbrella in stormy weather, and a shade from the sun in hot weather. ... The Stetson Cavalry Hat For the university, see Stetson University. ... Sombrero Sombrero means hat in Spanish. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Ad for Tony Lama featuring custom boots made for President Harry S. Truman. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ... Chaps are sturdy leather coverings for the legs. ... Blue Jeans (Levis 506) Jeans are trousers traditionally made from denim, but may also be made from a variety of fabrics including corduroy. ... A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a type of garment which covers the hand. ...


Tools

Modern Texas cowboys. Note that their clothes are similar to those of the 19th century cowboy above
Modern Texas cowboys. Note that their clothes are similar to those of the 19th century cowboy above
  • Lariat; from the Spanish "la riata," meaning "the rope," a tightly twisted stiff rope with a loop at one end enabling it to be thrown to catch animals (sometimes called a lasso, especially in the East, or simply, a "rope").
  • Spurs; metal devices attached to the heel of the boot, featuring a small metal shank, usually with a small serrated wheel attached, used to allow the rider to provide a stronger (or sometimes, more precise) leg cue to the horse.
  • Rifle; a firearm used to protect the livestock from predation by wild animals. A pistol might also be carried. The 19th and 20th century American cowboy favored repeating rifles with inexpensive, fairly low powered, centerfire cartridges such as the .44-40 Winchester and .25-20 Winchester. The pistol often used the very same cartridge on a dual-use basis. Modern cowboys may carry a .22 caliber "varmit" rifle for modern ranch hazards, such as rattlesnakes, coyotes, and rabid skunks. In areas near wilderness, a ranch cowboy may carry a higher-caliber rifle to fend off larger predators such as mountain lions.
  • Knife; cowboys have traditionally favored the pocket knife, specifically the folding cattle knife evolved into the stock knife still popular today. The knife has multiple blades, usually including a leather punch and a "sheepsfoot" blade.
  • Other weapons; while the modern American cowboy came to existence after the invention of gunpowder, cattle herders of earlier times were sometimes equipped with heavy polearms, bows or lances.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 3376 KB) Summary I met these two cowboys near Benjamin, Texas as they were getting ready to go out and rope cattle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 3376 KB) Summary I met these two cowboys near Benjamin, Texas as they were getting ready to go out and rope cattle. ... Lariat redirects here. ... A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... .303 in. ... The . ... Species 27 species; see list of rattlesnake species and subspecies. ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... Rabies (Latin: rabies, madness, rage, fury) is a viral zoonotic disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in mammals if it is left untreated for 72 hours. ... Genera Conepatus Mydaus Mephitis Spilogale Skunks are mammals, usually with black-and-white fur, that are best known for their ability to excrete a strong foul smelling odor. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) The puma (Puma concolor) is a type of large cat found in North, Central and South America. ... This article is about the tool. ... A pocket knife is a type of folding knife with a blade that fits inside the handle. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... This image depicts a typical bow, as made by the Huns, lying against a tree. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ...

Horses & equipment

The traditional means of transport for the cowboy, even in the modern era, is on horseback. Horses can traverse terrain vehicles cannot. Horses, along with mules and burros, also serve as pack animals. The most important horse on the ranch is the everyday working ranch horse; horses trained to specialize exclusively in skills such as roping or cutting are very rarely used on ranches. Because the rider often needs to keep one hand free while working cattle, the horse must neck rein and have good cow sense—it must instinctively know how to anticipate and react to cattle. A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 The donkey, a. ... Calf roping is a rodeo event that features a calf and a mounted cowboy. ... Cutting is an equestrian event in the western riding style where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a calf away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time. ... A horse responds to neck rein techniques when it has learnt that a light pressure of the right rein against its neck on that side means for the horse to turn left, and a light pressure of the other rein against its neck on the left side means for the...


The horse

A stock type horse suitable for cattle work
A stock type horse suitable for cattle work

A good stock horse is on the small side, generally under 15.2 hands (62 inches) tall at the withers and under 1000 pounds, with a short back, sturdy legs and strong muscling, particularly in the hindquarters. While a steer roping horse may need to be larger and weigh more in order to hold a heavy adult cow, bull or steer, a smaller, quick horse is needed for herding activities such as cutting or calf roping. The horse has to be intelligent, calm under pressure and have a certain degree of 'cow sense" -- the ability to anticipate the movement and behavior of cattle. Download high resolution version (2368x3600, 867 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2368x3600, 867 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A hand is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm. ... The withers is the highest point on an animals back, on the ridge between its shoulder blades. ... Team roping also known as heading and heeling is a rodeo event that features a steer (typically a Corriente) and two mounted cowboys. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Example EU engergy label According to an EU Directive most white goods and light bulb packaging must have an EU Energy Label clearly displayed when offered for sale or rent. ... Cutting is an equestrian event in the western riding style where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a calf away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time. ... Calf roping is a rodeo event that features a calf and a mounted cowboy. ...


Many breeds of horse make good stock horses, but the most common today is the American Quarter Horse, which is a horse breed developed primarily in Texas from a combination of Thoroughbred bloodstock crossed on horses of Mustang and other Iberian horse ancestry, with influences from the Arabian horse and horses developed on the east coast, such as the Morgan horse and now-extinct breeds such as the Chickasaw and Virginia Quarter-Miler. A palomino Quarter Horse shown at halter. ... // This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Thoroughbred race horses The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. ... This article is about the feral horse of the American west. ... The Iberian horse is native to the Iberian peninsula. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... The Morgan is one of the first horse breeds developed in the United States. ...


Horse equipment or tack

Main article: Horse tack
A western saddle
A western saddle

Equipment used to ride a horse is referred to as tack and includes: Tack is any of the various accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Tack is any of the various accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ...

  • Western saddle; a saddle specially designed to allow horse and rider to work for many hours and to provide security to the rider in rough terrain or when moving quickly in response to the behavior of the livestock being herded. A western saddle has a deep seat with high pommel and cantle that provides a secure seat. Deep, wide stirrups provide comfort and security for the foot. A strong, wide saddle tree of wood, covered in rawhide (or made of a modern synthetic material) distributes the weight of the rider across a greater area of the horse's back, reducing the pounds carried per square inch and allowing the horse to be ridden longer without harm. A horn sits low in front of the rider, to which a lariat can be snubbed, and "saddle strings" allow additional equipment to be tied to the saddle.
  • Saddle blanket; a blanket or pad is required under the Western saddle to provide comfort and protection for the horse.
  • Bridle; a Western bridle usually has a curb bit and long split reins to control the horse in many different situations. In some areas, especially where the "California" style of the vaquero tradition is still strong, young horses are often seen in a bosal style hackamore.
  • Saddle bags (leather or nylon) can be mounted to the saddle, to carry various sundry items and extra supplies.
  • Martingales, or "tiedowns" are occasionally seen on horses that have training or behavior problems.

Parts of a Western saddle Western saddles are used for western riding and are the saddles used on working horses on cattle ranches throughout the United States, particularly in the west. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Parts of a Western saddle Western saddles are used for western riding and are the saddles used on working horses on cattle ranches throughout the United States, particularly in the west. ... A lasso is a loop of rope that is designed to be thrown around a target and tighten when pulled. ... A saddle blanket is the woven blanket, usually made of wool, which is folded and inserted under the Western Saddle in order to absorb sweat, cushion the saddle, and help it conform to the horses back. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... A curb bit is a type of bit used for riding that uses leverage. ... The reins are the leather straps attached to the outer ends of a bit. ... A hackamore is a shank-based bridle for a horse. ... In probability theory, a (discrete-time) martingale is a discrete-time stochastic process (i. ...

Vehicles

The most common vehicle driven in modern ranch work is the pickup truck. Sturdy and roomy, with a high ground clearance, and often four-wheel drive capability, it has an open box, called a "bed," and can haul supplies from town or over rough trails on the ranch. It is used to pull stock trailers transporting cattle and livestock from one area to another and to market. With a horse trailer attached, it carries horses to distant areas where they may be needed. Motorcycles are sometimes used, but the most common smaller vehicle is the four-wheeler. It will carry a single cowboy quickly around the ranch for small chores. In areas with heavy snowfall, snowmobiles are also common. The best selling North American pickup truck, the Ford F-Series. ... This article is about the class of vehicles. ... The term All-Terrain Vehicle or ATV is used in a general sense to describe any of a number of small open motorized buggies and tricycles designed for off-road use. ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park. ...


Rodeo cowboys

Main article: Rodeo

The word rodeo is from the Spanish rodear (to turn), which means roundup. In the beginning there was no difference between the working cowboy and the rodeo cowboy, and in fact, the term working cowboy did not come into use until the 1950s. Prior to that it was assumed that all cowboys were working cowboys. Early cowboys both worked on ranches and displayed their skills at the roundups. It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ...


The advent of professional rodeos allowed cowboys, like many athletes, to earn a living by performing their skills before an audience. Rodeos also provided employment for many working cowboys who were needed to handle livestock. Many rodeo cowboys are also working cowboys and most have working cowboy experience. Look up athlete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about work. ...


The dress of the rodeo cowboy is not very different from that of the working cowboy on his way to town. Snaps, used in lieu of buttons on the cowboy's shirt, allowed the cowboy to escape from a shirt snagged by the horns of steer or bull. Styles were often adapted from the early movie industry for the rodeo. Some rodeo competitors, particularly women, add sequins, colors, silver and long fringes to their clothing in both a nod to tradition and showmanship. Modern riders in "rough stock" events such as saddle bronc or bull riding may add safety equipment such as kevlar vests or a neck brace, but use of safety helmets in lieu of the cowboy hat is yet to be accepted, in spite of constant risk of injury. Example EU engergy label According to an EU Directive most white goods and light bulb packaging must have an EU Energy Label clearly displayed when offered for sale or rent. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... This article or section should be merged with Bareback bronc Saddle bronc riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a saddle on an untamed equine or bronco, weighing between 800 and 1,500 pounds, which is held in a small pipe enclosure called a bucking chute. ... Bull Riding in Del Rio, Texas Bull riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a large male bovine, and attempting to stay mounted for at least 8 seconds. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... A rider with a modern GPS style ASTM/SEI approved safety helmet. ... A cowboys hat, usually with a four to six-inch brim, acts as an umbrella in stormy weather, and a shade from the sun in hot weather. ...


Cowgirls

"Rodeo Cowgirl" by C.M. Russell.
Fannie Sperry Steele, Champion Lady Bucking Horse Rider, Winnipeg Stampede, 1913
Fannie Sperry Steele, Champion Lady Bucking Horse Rider, Winnipeg Stampede, 1913

The history of women in the west, and women who worked on cattle ranches in particular, is not as well documented as that of men. However, institutions such as the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame have made significant efforts in recent years to gather and document the contributions of women.[17] Cowgirl refers to the female equivalent of cowboy. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (505x663, 135 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (505x663, 135 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Charles Marion Russell (1864, Oak Hill, Missouri – 1926, Great Falls, Montana), also known as C.M. Russell, was one of the great artists of the American West. ... Image File history File links FannieSperrySteele. ... Image File history File links FannieSperrySteele. ... The National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame is located in Forth Worth, Texas. ...


There are few records mentioning girls or women driving cattle up the cattle trails of the Old West, even though women undoubtedly helped on the ranches, and in some cases (especially when the men went to war) ran them. There is little doubt that women, particularly the wives and daughters of men who owned small ranches and could not afford to hire large numbers of outside laborers, worked side by side with men and thus needed to ride horses and be able to perform ranch work. The largely undocumented contributions of women to the west were acknowledged in law; the western states led the United States in granting women the right to vote, beginning with Wyoming in 1869.[18] Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...


Following the Civil War, Charles Goodnight developed a western-styled side-saddle that allowed women to ride horses while fashionably dressed. The traditional charras of Mexico preserve a similar tradition and ride side-saddles today while exhibiting superb horsemanship in charreadas on both sides of the border. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Charles Goodnight Charles Goodnight (March 5, 1836 – December 12, 1929) was a cattle rancher in the American West. ... The Sidesaddle is a type of saddle on which the rider sits aside rather than astride the mount. ... Charrería is the Mexican style of traditional Spanish horsemanship that developed in Mexico under the hacienda system. ...


It wasn't until the advent of the Wild West shows that cowgirls came into their own. Their riding, expert marksmanship, and trick roping entertained audiences around the world. Women such as Annie Oakley became household names. By 1900, skirts split for riding astride, allowing women to compete with the men without scandalizing Victorian Era audiences by wearing men's clothing or, worse yet, bloomers. In the movies that followed, women expanded their roles in the popular culture and movie designers developed attractive clothing suitable for riding Western saddles. Annie Oakley (August 13, 1860 – November 3, 1926) b. ... 1850s fashion bloomers 1851 caricature of fashion bloomers as being similar to Turkish attire An example of late 19th-century / Edwardian athletic bloomers: the Smith College class of 1902 basketball team 1890s caricature of athletic bloomers as leading women to adopt masculine habits Bloomers is a word which has been...


The growth of the rodeo brought about another type of cowgirl—the rodeo cowgirl. In the early Wild West shows and rodeos, women competed in all events, sometimes against other women, sometimes with the men. Performers such as Fannie Sperry Steele rode the same "rough stock" and took the same risks as the men (and all while wearing a heavy split skirt that was still more encumbering than men's trousers) and gave show-stopping performances at major rodeos such as the Calgary Stampede and Cheyenne Frontier Days.[19] It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ... Rider at the Stampede Rodeo Statue at Stampede Grounds, with the Calgary Tower in the background Stampede grounds The Calgary Stampede, which bills itself as The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth, is a large, non-profit festival, exhibition, and rodeo held in Calgary, Alberta for 10 days in the second... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ...


Competition for women changed after 1925 when Eastern promoters started staging indoor rodeos in places like Madison Square Garden. Women were generally excluded from the men's events and many of the women's events were dropped. In today's rodeos, men and women compete equally together only in the event of team roping, though technically women today could enter other open events. There also are all-women rodeos where women compete in bronc riding, bull riding and all other traditional rodeo events. However, in open rodeos, cowgirls compete in the timed riding events such as barrel racing, and most professional rodeos do not offer as many women's events as men's events. Team roping also known as heading and heeling is a rodeo event that features a steer (typically a Corriente) and two mounted cowboys. ... Plunging bronco, Bar Diamond Bar range Bronc riding, either as saddle bronc or bareback bronc is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on an untamed horse or bronco, weighing between 800 and 1,500 pounds, which is held in a small pipe enclosure called a bucking chute. ... Bull Riding in Del Rio, Texas Bull riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a large male bovine, and attempting to stay mounted for at least 8 seconds. ... // Barrel racing at the Calgary Stampede Barrel Racing is a timed rodeo event that demands some of the most athletic horses and dedicated riders in order to be successful in terms of financial earnings. ...


Boys and girls are more apt to compete against one another in all events in high-school rodeos as well as O-Mok-See events, where even boys can be seen competing in barrel racing. Outside of the rodeo, women compete equally with men in nearly all other equestrian events, including the Olympics, and western riding events such as cutting, reining, and endurance riding. Gymkhana is a term used in the United Kingdom, east coast of the United States, and other English-speaking nations to describe an equestrian event consisting of timed games for riders on horses. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... Cutting is an equestrian event in the western riding style where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a calf away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ... Competitors on an endurance ride Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long distance races. ...


Today's cowgirls generally use clothing indistinguishable from that of men, other than in color and design, usually preferring a flashier look in competition. Sidesaddles are only seen in exhibitions and a limited number of specialty horse show classes. A cowgirl wears jeans, close-fitting shirts, boots, hat, and when needed, chaps and gloves. If working on the ranch, they perform most of the same chores as cowboys and dress to suit the situation. A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ...


Synonyms

Other names for a cowboy in American English include cowpoke, cowhand, cowherd, and cowpuncher.


The term "cowpuncher" was especially popular with cowboys who worked in the Cherokee Strip since they were entitled to join the Cherokee Strip Cowpunchers Association which was organized in 1920. There were two Cherokee Strips in the United States: The more well known Cherokee Outlet in present-day Oklahoma. ...


A rancher who owns land and livestock is often referred to as a "cattleman," or less often, "cowman." This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ...


Popular culture

As the frontier ended, the cowboy life came to be highly romanticized. Exhibitions such as those of Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show helped to popularize the image of the cowboy as an idealized representative of the tradition of chivalry. Buffalo Bill (February 26, 1846 – January 10, 1917) was born William Frederick Cody in the American state of Iowa. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ...


In today's society, there is little understanding of the daily realities of actual agricultural life. Cowboys are more often associated with (mostly fictitious) Indian-fighting than with their actual life of ranch work and cattle-tending. Actors such as John Wayne are thought of as exemplifying a cowboy ideal, even though western movies seldom bear much resemblance to real cowboy life. Arguably, the modern rodeo competitor is much closer to being an actual cowboy, as many were actually raised on ranches and around livestock, and the rest have needed to learn livestock-handling skills on the job. This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... For other persons named John Wayne, see John Wayne (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ...


However, in the United States and the Canadian West, as well as Australia, dude ranches offer people the opportunity to ride horses and get a taste of the western life--albeit in far greater comfort. Some dude ranches also offer vacationers the opportunity to actually "play" cowboy by participating in cattle drives or accompanying wagon trains. This type of vacation was popularized by the 1991 movie City Slickers, starring Billy Crystal. Dude Ranch is a Blink-182 album that was released on June 17, 1997 by Cargo Music/MCA. This was Blink-182s second album, containing songs such as Dammit and Josie that helped the group gain popularity. ... Wagon Train was a television series on NBC from 1957 to 1962 and on ABC from 1962 to 1965. ... For other uses, see Vacation (disambiguation). ... City Slickers is a 1991 movie comedy starring Billy Crystal, Bruno Kirby, Daniel Stern, Helen Slater, and Jack Palance. ... For the American political commentator, see William Kristol. ...


The cowboy is also portrayed as a masculine ideal via images ranging from the Marlboro Man to the Village People. Wayne McLaren as the Marlboro Man in 1976. ... Village People is a concept disco group formed in the late 1970s. ...


Regional identification

The long history of the West in popular culture tends to define those clothed in Western clothing as cowboys or cowgirls whether they have ever been on a horse or not. This is especially true when applied to entertainers and those in the public arena who wear western wear as part of their persona. Gene Autry in the western wear typical of the singing cowboys of the 1950s. ...


However, many people, particularly in the West, wear elements of Western clothing, particularly cowboy boots or hats, as a matter of form even though they have other jobs, up to and including lawyers, bankers, and other white collar professionals. Conversely, some people raised on ranches do not necessarily define themselves cowboys or cowgirls unless they also compete in rodeos or feel their primary job is to work with livestock. Ad for Tony Lama featuring custom boots made for President Harry S. Truman. ... White-collar workers perform tasks which are less laborious yet often more highly paid than blue-collar workers, who do manual work. ...


Actual cowboys in general tend to value personal honesty and have derisive expressions for individuals who adopt cowboy mannerisms as a fashion pose without any actual understanding of the culture. For example, a "drugstore cowboy" means someone who wears the clothing but cannot actually ride anything but the stool of the drugstore soda fountain--or, in modern times, a bar stool. The phrase, "all hat and no cattle," is used to describe someone (usually male) who boasts about himself, far in excess of any actual accomplishments. The word "dude" (or the now-archaic term "greenhorn") indicates an individual unfamiliar with cowboy culture, especially one who is trying to pretend otherwise. Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is the profession of compounding and dispensing medication. ... Soda fountain is a North American term referring to the carbonated drink dispensers found in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in the US and Canada. ... Two modern bar stools in front of a kitchen counter Barstools are a type of stool often with a foot rest which, because of their height and narrowness, are designed for seating in a public house or bar. ...


Cowboy symbolism

Outside of the West, the cowboy became an archetypal symbol of American individualism. In the late 1950s, a Congolese youth subculture calling themselves the Bills based their style and outlook on Hollywood's depiction of cowboys in movies. Something similar occurred with the term "Apache," which in early twentieth century Parisian society was a slang term for an outlaw. Motto Justice – Paix – Travail(French) Justice – Peace – Work Anthem Debout Congolais Capital (and largest city) Kinshasaa Official languages French Recognised regional languages Lingala, Kongo/Kituba, Swahili, Tshiluba Demonym Congolese Government Semi-Presidential Republic  -  President Joseph Kabila  -  Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga Independence  -  from Belgium June 30, 1960  Area  -  Total 2,344... A bill can be one of: paper documents used as currency (notes in British English): see Banknote. ... ... For other uses, see Apache (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


The state of Wyoming's nickname is The Cowboy State. Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...


Negative associations

Worldwide, the term "cowboy" can be used in a derogatory sense to describe someone who is violent, impulsive, or who behaves in a hot-headed and rash manner. For example, TIME Magazine had a cover article referring to George W. Bush's foreign policy as "Cowboy Diplomacy," and Bush has been described in European newspapers as a "cowboy". (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... TIME Magazine cover from July 17, 2006. ...


In the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, "cowboy" is used as an adjective when applied to tradesmen whose work is of shoddy and questionable value, e.g., "a cowboy plumber". Similar usage is seen in the United States to describe someone in the skilled trades who operates without proper training or licenses. In the eastern United States, "cowboy" as a noun is sometimes used to describe a fast or careless driver on the highway. This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... A tradesman is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft. ... Joe Kessler is a plumber! A plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage, drainage, venting, heating and air-conditioning, or industrial process plant piping. ...


In art and culture

Gene Autry in the western wear typical of the singing cowboys of the 1950s. ... Rhinestone Cowboy refers to several things: The song by Glen Campbell, Rhinestone Cowboy Glen Campbells autobiography was also called Rhinestone Cowboy (book) Country music singer David Allan Coe used to be called The Mysterious Rhinestone Cowboy. ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... This list consists largely of the more occasional, big budget, postmodern westerns, and is not representative of the genre across time. ... The Hunters Supper, 1909, National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Frederic Remington (October 4, 1861 - December 26, 1909) was an American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer who specialized in depictions of the American West. ... There are different people with the name Charles Russell: Charles Albert George Russell (1887-1961); Essex and England batsman Charles Taze Russell - 1852–1916, founder of the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, which after his death, was renamed The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society whose members are now known as... Earl W. Bascom (June 19, 1906 - August 28, 1995) was an American painter, printmaker and sculptor, raised in Canada, who portrayed his own experiences cowboying and rodeoing across the American and Canadian West. ... The Cowboy Artists of America (often referred to as the CA, or sometimes the CAA) was founded in 1965 by four prominent western artists, Joe Beeler, Charlie Dye, John Hampton and George Phippen. ... Cover of a book by Louis LAmour, one of Western fictions most prolific authors. ... This is a list of some notable authors in the western fiction genre. ... Cowboy poetry is a form of poetry that focuses on the culture, features and lifestyle of the West, both the Old West and its modern equivalents. ... Poster from the Western Music, directly related to the old English, Scottish, and Irish folk ballads, was originally composed by and about the people settling and working in the American West and western Canada. ... Western swing is, first and foremost, a fusion of country music, several styles of jazz, pop music and blues aimed at dancers. ... Cowboy songs are often associated with songs that the cowboys sang at night around the campfire with a lot of yodeling and sometimes accompanied by a guitar, banjo (and perhaps some canned beans). ... A western television show is a cowboy story which takes place in the old west and involves cowboys, cattle ranchers, miners, farmers, Indians, guns and horses. ... Cowboy Action Shooting (CAS), also known as Western Action Shooting or Single Action Shooting, is a competitive shooting sport that originated in California, USA, in the early 1980s. ... It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ... Indian rodeo is the rodeo subculture of Native American rodeo performers. ... Charrería is the Mexican style of traditional Spanish horsemanship that developed in Mexico under the hacienda system. ...

See also

A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A drover is a person that drives livestock to a new location, usually referring to the pre-20th century practice of walking with them and herding them similar to a cowhand. ... A goatherd is a person who herds goats for a living. ... Shepherd in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... Station is the term for a large Australian landholding used for livestock production. ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... A cattle rancher brands a young steer using an electric branding iron while another rancher makes an earmark. ... The Texas longhorn is ecologically adapted to the sparse and rugged grazing land of Texas. ... This article is about the feral horse of the American west. ... It has been suggested that History of rodeo be merged into this article or section. ... Bull Riding in Del Rio, Texas Bull riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a large male bovine, and attempting to stay mounted for at least 8 seconds. ... This article or section should be merged with Saddle bronc Bareback bronc riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on an untamed equine or bronco, weighing between 800 and 1,500 pounds, which is held in a small pipe enclosure called a bucking chute. ... This article or section should be merged with Bareback bronc Saddle bronc riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a saddle on an untamed equine or bronco, weighing between 800 and 1,500 pounds, which is held in a small pipe enclosure called a bucking chute. ... Calf roping is a rodeo event that features a calf and a mounted cowboy. ... Steer roping also known as steer tripping is a rodeo event that features a steer and one mounted cowboy. ... Steer wrestling, also known as bulldogging, is a rodeo event where a steer is released from a chute and a horse-mounted rider chases the steer, jumps off the horse next to the steer, and wrestles the steer to the ground by twisting its horns. ... Team roping also known as heading and heeling is a rodeo event that features a steer (typically a Corriente) and two mounted cowboys. ... // Barrel racing at the Calgary Stampede Barrel Racing is a timed rodeo event that demands some of the most athletic horses and dedicated riders in order to be successful in terms of financial earnings. ... Breakaway roping is a rodeo event that features a calf and one mounted cowgirl. ... Goat-roping is a rodeo event that is similar in every way to calf roping, except for the outright stubbornness and unpredictability of the goat. ... Pole Bending is an amateur rodeo event that features a horse and one mounted cowgirl, running a weaving or serpentine path around six poles arranged in a line. ... Charrería is the Mexican style of traditional Spanish horsemanship that developed in Mexico under the hacienda system. ... For the Spanish entertainer whose full name is Maria Rosario Pilar Martinez Molina Baeza, see Charo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vaqueiros de alzada (nomadic cowherds in Asturian language) were a northern Spanish nomadic people who practiced transhumance, the practice of moving seasonally with cattle. ...

Additionally

The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... The cowboy, the quintessential symbol of the American Old West, circa 1887. ... An audition is a sample performance by an actor, singer, musician, dancer or other performing artist. ... The following list of cowboys and cowgirls from the frontier era of the American West (approximately 1830 to 1910) was compiled to show examples of the cowboy and cowgirl genre. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Definition of "cowboy"
  2. ^ Royal Spanish Academy Dictionary
  3. ^ Cassidy, F.G., Hill, A.A. "Buckaroo Once More." American Speech, Vol. 54, No. 2 (Summer, 1979), pp. 151-153 doi:10.2307/455216
  4. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  5. ^ Cassidy, F.G. "Another Look at Buckaroo," American Speech, Vol. 53, No. 1 (Spring, 1978), pp. 49-51 doi:10.2307/455339
  6. ^ Definition of "Cowherd"
  7. ^ [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/08/0814_030815_cowboys.html Haeber, Jonathan."Vaqueros: The First Cowboys of the Open Range." National Geographic News. August 15, 2003. Web page accessed September 2, 2007
  8. ^ from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company:2000. Web site accessed January 19, 2007
  9. ^ Tasker, Georgia. 2007. "Rancher preserves Florida's Cracker history". Miami Herald. February 06, 2007. Web site. Retrieved February 21, 2007
  10. ^ Tinsley, Jim Bob. 1990. Florida Cow Hunter. University of Central Florida Press. ISBN 0-8130-0985-5 Pp. 42-3
  11. ^ Friends of Payne's Prairie: Spanish Florida retieved February 21, 2007
  12. ^ Florida Cracker Cattle and Cracker Horse Program retrieved February 22, 2007
  13. ^ Raid on Gopher Ridge retrieved February 21, 2007
  14. ^ Tinsley, Jim Bob. 1990. Florida Cow Hunter. University of Central Florida Press. ISBN 0-8130-0985-5 Pp. 47-51
  15. ^ Ambulo, John. "The Cattle on a Thousand Hills" The Overland Monthly March 1887.
  16. ^ Government of Alberta - About Alberta - History
  17. ^ Cowgirl Hall of Fame website
  18. ^ "This Day in History 1869: Wyoming grants women the vote"
  19. ^ McKelvey Puhek, Lenore. "Fannie Sperry Made the Ride of Her Life"

is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Further reading

  • Beck, Warren A., Haase, Ynez D.; Historical Atlas of the American West. University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma, 1989. ISBN 0-8061-2193-9
  • Jordan, Teresa; Cowgirls: Women of the American West. University of Nebraska Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8032-7575-7
  • Nicholson, Jon. Cowboys: A Vanishing World. Macmillan, 2001. ISBN 0-333-90208-4
  • Phillips, Charles; Axlerod, Alan; editor. The Encyclopedia of the American West. Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996. ISBN 0028974956
  • Roach, Joyce Gibson; The Cowgirls . University of North Texas Press, 1990. ISBN 0-929398-15-7
  • Slatta, Richard W. The Cowboy Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, California, 1994. ISBN 0-87436-738-7
  • Ward, Fay E.; The Cowboy at Work: All About His Job and How He Does It. University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma, 1987. ISBN 0-8061-2051-7

Sources and external links

  • American Cowboy Information – History, facts, and current trends.
  • Na Paniola Pipi – The Hawaiian Cowboy
  • Etymology OnLine & [1]
  • WordNet, Princeton University
  • IMDb references to cowboys in screen productions
  • A list of famous cowboy names.
  • The Cowboys of Borneo
  • National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum
  • Cowgirl Hall of Fame Website
  • Working Ranch Cowboys Association
  • Vaqueros: The First Cowboys of the Open Range National Geographic News article on the origins of the American cowboy
  • "Cowboy Myths and realities"
  • Black American West Museum Denver, Colorado

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cowboy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3010 words)
The cowboy is normally a ranch hand in charge of the horses and/or cattle, as is the wrangler.
Cowboy hat; a hat with a wide brim to protect from the sun and the elements; there are many styles, probably influenced by both the Mexican sombrero and US (and Confederate) Cavalry hats.
Cowboy boots; a boot with a high top to protect the lower legs, pointed toes to help guide the foot into the stirrup, and high heels to keep the foot from slipping through the stirrup while working in the saddle; with our without spurs (often detachable).
Cowboy Bebop - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3120 words)
Cowboy Bebop is strongly influenced by American culture, especially the jazz movements of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s (hence "bebop") with nearly all of its action sequences, from space battles to hand-to-hand martial arts combat, are set and timed to music.
Cowboy Bebop was popular enough that a movie, Cowboy Bebop: Tengoku no Tobira (Knockin' on Heaven's Door), was commissioned and released in Japan in 2001 and later released in the United States as Cowboy Bebop: The Movie in 2003.
Cowboy Bebop by Hajime Yatate and Yutaka Nanten
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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