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Encyclopedia > Covent Garden

Covent Garden is a district in London, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest corner of the London Borough of Camden. The area is dominated by shopping, street performers and entertainment facilities and contains an entrance to the Royal Opera House Covent Garden, which is also widely known simply as "Covent Garden", and the bustling Seven Dials area. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The City of Westminster is a borough of London, England with city status. ... The London Borough of Camden is a borough of London, England, which forms part of Inner London. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... The Seven Dials sundial pillar, 2004. ...


The area is bounded by High Holborn to the north, Kingsway to the east, the Strand to the south and Charing Cross Road to the west. Covent Garden Piazza is located in the geographical centre of the area and was the site of a flower, fruit and vegetable market from the 1500s until 1974 , when the wholesale market relocated to New Covent Garden Market in Nine Elms. Nearby areas include Soho, St James's, Bloomsbury and Holborn. Holborn Bars, built as the headquarters of the Prudential Assurance Company, is one of the most striking buildings on High Holborn. ... Kingsway is a major road in central London in the United Kingdom. ... Strand, May 2001 St. ... Charing Cross Road, London, looking North from its junction with Long Acre. ... The decade of years from 1500 to 1509, inclusive. ... New Covent Garden Market is a wholesale fruit, vegetable and flower market located in the Nine Elms area of Vauxhall, South West London. ... Nine Elms is a district of London, situated in the far north-eastern corner of the London Borough of Wandsworth between Battersea and Vauxhall. ... Cast-iron architecture in Greene Street SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... St James is an area of west central London, England. ... Bloomsbury is an area of central London between Holborn and Euston station, developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a fashionable residential area. ... Holborn (pronounced ho-bun or ho-burn) is a place in London, named after a tributary to the river Fleet that flowed through the area, the Hole-bourne (the stream in the hollow). ...

Covent Garden
OS grid reference TQ303809
London borough Westminster
Camden
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region London
Constituent country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district WC2
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament Cities of London and Westminster
Holborn and St. Pancras
London Assembly West Central
Barnet and Camden
European Parliament London
List of places: UKEnglandLondon

Coordinates: 51°30′43″N 0°07′22″W / 51.51197, -0.1228 Image File history File links Greater_london_outline_map_bw. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... The City of Westminster is a borough of London, England with city status. ... The London Borough of Camden is a borough of London, England, which forms part of Inner London. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping; thus the OECD has used the phrase in reference to the former Yugoslavia[1], the Soviet Union and European institutions such as the Council of... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A post town is a required part of all UK postal addresses. ... The London postal districts are divisions of the London post town in England and are primarily used for the direction of mail. ... UK postal codes are known as postcodes. ... Map of central postal districts The WC (Western Central) postcode area, also known as the London WC postcode area,[1] is a group of postcode districts in central London, England. ... The UK telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Numbering Plan, is regulated by the Office of Communications (Ofcom), which replaced the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel) in 2003. ... 020 is the dial code for Greater London in the United Kingdom. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... A Fire Appliance belonging to the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service The fire service in the United Kingdom has undergone dramatic changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process that has been propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational... The London Fire Brigade (LFB) is the statutory fire and rescue service for London, England. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The London Ambulance Service (LAS) is the largest ambulance service in the world that does not directly charge its patients for its services. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... Cities of London and Westminster is a constituency covering the area comprising the City of London and the City of Westminster in Central London. ... Holborn & St. ... Greater London is divided into a number of constituencies for London Assembly elections. ... West Central is a constituency represented in the London Assembly. ... Barnet and Camden is a constituency represented in the London Assembly. ... This is a list of Members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom in the 2004 to 2009 session, ordered by name. ... London is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places within counties List of places in Bedfordshire List of places in Berkshire List of places in Buckinghamshire List of places in Cambridgeshire List of places in Cheshire List of places in Cleveland List of places... This is a partial list of places in London, England. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

The exterior of Covent Garden market
The exterior of Covent Garden market
The interior of Covent Garden Market
The interior of Covent Garden Market

Contents

Covent Garden Market taken by C Ford 7th March 04. ... Covent Garden Market taken by C Ford 7th March 04. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2916x1876, 2245 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): London Covent Garden Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2916x1876, 2245 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): London Covent Garden Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or...

History

Roman times to the 1500s

A settlement has existed in the area since the Roman times of Londinium. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Londinium may refer to: An ancient Roman name for London (see History of London) Londinium (movie) A song by Catatonia A fictional planet in the TV show Firefly, (see moons and planets in Firefly) Londinivm, a free MMORPG. Londinium (album), an album by the band Archive This is a disambiguation...


"Convent Garden" (later corrupted to Covent Garden as we know it today) was the name given, during the reign of King John (11991216), to a 40 acre (160,000 m²) patch in the county of Middlesex, bordered west and east by what is now St. Martin's Lane and Drury Lane, and north and south by Floral Street and a line drawn from Chandos Place, along Maiden Lane and Exeter Street to the Aldwych. This article is about the King of England. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... The Middlesex Guildhall at Westminster Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and was the second smallest (after Rutland). ... St. ... Drury Lane is a street in the Covent Garden area of London, running between Aldwych and High Holborn. ... Aldwych is a place and road in the City of Westminster in London. ...


In this quadrangle the Abbey or Convent of St. Peter, Westminster, maintained a large kitchen garden throughout the Middle Ages to provide its daily food. Over the next three centuries, the monks' old "convent garden" became a major source of fruit and vegetables in London and was managed by a succession of leaseholders by grant from the Abbot of Westminster.


This type of lease eventually led to property disputes throughout the kingdom, which Henry VIII solved in 1540 by the stroke of a pen when he dissolved the monasteries and appropriated their land. “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ...


King Henry VIII granted part of the land to Baron Russell, Lord High Admiral and, later, Earl of Bedford. In fulfilment of his father's dying wish, King Edward VI bestowed the remainder of the convent garden in 1547 to his maternal uncle, Edward Seymour, the Duke of Somerset who began building Somerset House on the south side of Strand the next year. When Seymour was beheaded for treason in 1552 , the land once again came into royal gift, and was awarded four months later to one of those who had contributed to Seymour's downfall. Forty acres (160,000 m²), known as "le Covent Garden" plus "the long acre", were granted by royal patent in perpetuity to the Earl of Bedford. John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford (c. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... The titles of Earl or Duke of Bedford were created several times in the peerage of England. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... Edward Seymour Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. ... The central courtyard of Somerset House in London. ... Strand, May 2001 St. ... Beheading. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... A land patent is the right of ownership to a tract of land, usually granted by the federal or state government to an individual or private company. ...


1600s to 1800s

The modern-day Covent Garden has its roots in the early 17th century when land ("the Convent's Garden") was redeveloped by Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford. The area was designed by Inigo Jones, the first and greatest of English Renaissance architects. He was inspired by late 15th century and early 16th century planned market towns known as bastides (themselves modelled on Roman colonial towns by way of nearby monasteries, of which "Convent" Garden was one). The centrepiece of the project was an arcaded piazza. The church of St Paul's, Covent Garden stood at the centre of the western side of the piazza. A market, which was originally open air, occupied the centre of the piazza. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford (1593-1641), was the only son of William Rusell, Lord Russell of Thornhaugh, to which barony he succeeded in August 1613. ... Inigo Jones, by Sir Anthony van Dyck Inigo Jones (July 15, 1573–June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant English architect. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Bastides are fortified towns built in medieval France starting around 1229, the date of the first recorded bastide. ... St Pauls Church, also commonly known as the Actors Church, is a church located in Covent Garden, London, England. ...


The area rapidly became a base for market traders, and following the Great Fire of London of 1666 which destroyed 'rival' markets towards the east of the city, the market became the most important in the country. Exotic items from around the world were carried on boats up the River Thames and sold on from Covent Garden. The first mention of a Punch and Judy show in Britain was recorded by diarist Samuel Pepys, who saw such a show in the square in May 1662. Today Covent Garden is the only part of London licensed for street entertainment with performers having to undertake auditions for the Market's management and representatives of the performers' union and signing up to timetabled slots. In 1830 a grand building reminiscent of the Roman baths such as those found in Bath was built to provide a more permanent trading centre. Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... A traditional Punch and Judy booth. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... The term thermae was the word the Ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths. ... For alternate meanings see Bath (disambiguation) Palladian Pulteney Bridge and the weir at Bath Bath is a city in south-west England, most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ...


Modern day period

By the end of the 1960s, traffic congestion in the surrounding area had reached such a level that the use of the square as a market, which required increasingly large lorries for deliveries and distribution, was becoming unsustainable. The whole area was threatened with complete redevelopment. Following a public outcry, in 1973 the Home Secretary, Robert Carr, gave dozens of buildings around the square listed building status, preventing redevelopment. The following year the market finally moved to a new site (called the New Covent Garden Market) about three miles south-west at Nine Elms. The square languished until its central building re-opened as a shopping centre and tourist attraction in 1980. Today the shops largely sell novelty items, though street performers can be seen almost every day of the year, both on the pitches within the market, and on the West and East Piazza's/James Street outside. More serious shoppers gravitate to Long Acre, which has a range of clothes shops and boutiques, and Neal Street, noted for its large number of shoe shops. London's Transport Museum and the rear entrance to the Royal Opera House are also located on the Piazza. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Lorry Look up Lorry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Can mean: A truck, in the sense of a commercial large goods vehicle. ... A moral panic is a reaction by a group of people based on the false or exaggerated perception that some cultural behavior or group, frequently a minority group or a subculture, is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to society. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... For other people called Robert Carr please see Robert Carr (disambiguation). ... Buckingham Palace, a Grade I listed building. ... New Covent Garden Market is a wholesale fruit, vegetable and flower market located in the Nine Elms area of Vauxhall, South West London. ... Nine Elms is a district of London, situated in the far north-eastern corner of the London Borough of Wandsworth between Battersea and Vauxhall. ... Neal Street is a street in the Covent Garden area of the West End of London. ... Metropolitan Railway steam locomotive number 23, the only surviving locomotive from the worlds first underground railway, is preserved in the museum Londons Transport Museum, formerly known as the London Transport Museum, is a museum which seeks to conserve and explain the transport heritage of London, the capital city... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ...


In August 2007, Covent Garden launched the UK's first ever food Night Market. Fresh produce from over 35 different stalls included Neal's Yard's specialist cheeses, Spore Boys' mushroom sandwiches, Gourmet Candy Company, Ginger Pig sausages and Burnt Sugar fudge. The aim of the Night Market was to bring Covent Garden back to its roots as the Larder of London. Organisers are hoping to make it a permanent event in 2008 as part of a wider initiative to regenerate interest in the Covent Garden area. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Royal Opera House

The Floral Hall, now part of the Royal Opera House
The Floral Hall, now part of the Royal Opera House
Main article: Royal Opera House

In the 1960s an extension to the rear of the Royal Opera House had somewhat improved its facilities, but as time passed, it became clear that a major remodelling was needed. In 1975 the government gave adjacent land for the modernisation, refurbishment and extension of the house and, by 1995, with the availability of National Lottery money, significant funds had been raised. A major reconstruction of the building took place between 1996 and 2000, involving the demolition of almost the whole site (except for the auditorium itself) including several adjacent buildings to make room for a major increase in the overall scale of the complex. In terms of volume, well over half of the complex is new. Royal Opera House - Floral Hall - Bow Street - London - England - 240404 Photo taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Royal Opera House - Floral Hall - Bow Street - London - England - 240404 Photo taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... A play here! sign outside a newsagent, incorporating the National Lotterys logo of a stylised hand with crossed fingers which emulates a smiling face. ...


The new opera house has greatly improved technical, rehearsal, office and educational facilities, a new studio theatre called the Linbury Theatre, and much more public space. The inclusion of the adjacent old Floral Hall, long a part of the old Covent Garden Market but in general disrepair for many years, into the actual opera house created a new and extensive public gathering place. The venue is now claimed by the ROH to be the most modern theatre facility in Europe.


St Paul's Church

In 2005 the path leading up to the front of St Paul's Church was given plaques similar to those in Leicester Square which became known as the Avenue of Stars. The plaques quickly deteriorated and only lasted a year before being removed. St Pauls Church, also commonly known as the Actors Church, is a church located in Covent Garden, London, England. ... St Pauls Church, also commonly known as the Actors Church, is a church located in Covent Garden, London, England. ... The Avenue of Stars in London is the citys version of the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ...

A street performer in front of the Market
A street performer in front of the Market

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 282 pixelsFull resolution (5363 × 1890 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 282 pixelsFull resolution (5363 × 1890 pixel, file size: 3. ...

Transport and locale

Nearest places

Aldwych is a place and road in the City of Westminster in London. ... Look up Strand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Holborn (pronounced ho-bun or ho-burn) is a place in London, named after a tributary to the river Fleet that flowed through the area, the Hole-bourne (the stream in the hollow). ... Leicester Square at night in 2005: a view towards the northeast corner. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ...

Nearest stations

Signage on the platforms Covent Garden is a London Underground station in Covent Garden. ... The Piccadilly Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured dark blue on the Tube map. ... Charing Cross London Underground station serves both the Northern and Bakerloo lines and provides an interchange with the National Rail network at Charing Cross station. ... For other uses, see Northern Line (disambiguation). ... The Bakerloo Line is a line of the London Underground and coloured brown on the Tube map. ... Charing Cross railway station. ... Leicester Square tube station Leicester Square Tube Station is a station on the London Underground, located on Charing Cross Road, a short distance to the east of Leicester Square itself. ... The Piccadilly Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured dark blue on the Tube map. ... For other uses, see Northern Line (disambiguation). ... Holborn tube station Decorated metal panels on Central Line platforms at Holborn, near the British Museum. ... The Piccadilly Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured dark blue on the Tube map. ... London Transport Portal The Central Line is a line of the London Underground and coloured red on the tube map. ... Embankment station, April 2002 Embankment tube station is a London Underground station in the City of Westminster. ... The Circle Line of the London Underground became known as such in 1949, when it was separated from its parent lines, the Metropolitan Line and the District Line, although it had been shown on Underground maps since 1947. ... The District Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured green on the Tube map. ... For other uses, see Northern Line (disambiguation). ... The Bakerloo Line is a line of the London Underground and coloured brown on the Tube map. ...

Cultural connections

The marketplace and Royal Opera House were memorably brought together in the opening of George Bernard Shaw's play, Pygmalion, where Professor Henry Higgins is waiting for a cab to take him home from the opera when he comes across Eliza Doolittle selling flowers in the market. George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ... Play cover, depicting Mrs Campbell as Eliza Pygmalion (1913) is a play by George Bernard Shaw based on Ovids tale of Pygmalion. ... Play cover, depicting Mrs Campbell as Eliza Pygmalion (1913) is a play by George Bernard Shaw based on Ovids tale of Pygmalion. ... Eliza Doolittle is a fictional character who appears in the play Pygmalion (George Bernard Shaw, 1912) and, by extension, the musical version of that play My Fair Lady. ...


In the mid-1950s, before he directed such films as If... and O Lucky Man!, Lindsay Anderson directed a short film about the daily activities of the Covent Garden market called Every Day Except Christmas. It shows 12 hours in the life of the market and market people, now long gone from the area, but it also reflects three centuries of tradition in the operation of the daily fruit and vegetable market. The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... If. ... O Lucky Man! (1973) is a surreal British film directed by Lindsay Anderson. ... Lindsay Anderson (April 17, 1923 - August 30, 1994), English film and documentary director. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Alfred Hitchcock's 1972 film, Frenzy, likewise takes place amongst the pubs and fruit markets of Covent Garden. The serial sex killer in Frenzy is a local fruit vendor, and the film features several blackly comic moments suggesting a metaphorical correlation between the consumption of food and the act of rape–murder. Hitchcock was the son of a Covent Garden merchant and grew up in the area; and so, the film was partly conceived (and marketed) as a semi-nostalgic return to the neighbourhood of the director's childhood. Supermodel Naomi Campbell was also discovered by a model scout at the age of 15 whilst walking through the streets of Covent Garden.[citation needed] Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE (August 13, 1899 – April 29, 1980) was an iconic and highly influential British-born film director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... For other uses, see Frenzy (disambiguation). ... Brazilian supermodel Gisele Bündchen. ... Naomi Campbell (born May 22, 1970) is an English supermodel, actress, singer, and author of Jamaican/Chinese descent. ...


Covent Garden is one of the levels played on the PlayStation 3 game Resistance: Fall of Man. It can be played on the Single Campaign, Co-Operative Campaign and Multiplayer modes. The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ...


Streets

Neal Street was home to the punk club The Roxy in 1977[1]. Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... The Roxy is a nightclub on Neal Street (named after nathan neale of colyton Grammar) in Londons Covent Garden, known for hosting the punk music scene such as steps in its infancy. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...

Neal Street
Neal Street

It is the centre of a fashion-focused mid-market retailing district which caters mainly for young people[2]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... See Adult. ...

Bibliography

  • Boursnell, Clive, Covent Garden Market, London: Studio Vista, 1977, ISBN 0-289-70806-0 (mainly author's photographs of the Market activities and people)

References

  1. ^ http://www.stereosociety.com/RoxyNealSt.html
  2. ^ http://london.openguides.org/index.cgi?Neal_Street

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Covent Garden

  Results from FactBites:
 
Covent Garden Restaurants, London restaurant & restaurants in central London for dinner, lunch & restaurant ... (506 words)
Covent Garden Restaurants is central to London's most important dining, entertainment and shopping hot spot with millions of visitors coming to Covent Garden and Trafalgar Square each year to enjoy some of the best shops, restaurants, bars, hotels, theatres and attractions anywhere on the planet.
Covent Garden Restaurants offers an incredible diversity of amazing venues to satisfy the ever-changing tastes of all who live in, work from or visit Covent Garden and Trafalgar Square and offer ideal destinations for breakfast, lunch, early evening, dinner and late night.
Covent Garden Restaurants' bars, restaurants and clubs boast a wide variety of popular menus, amazing cocktails, private dining rooms, eclectic dance floors, luxurious VIP bars and a team of people who will make you feel comfortable when you contact and visit our venues, whatever the occasion.
Covent Garden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (999 words)
Covent Garden is a district in central London and within the easterly bounds of the City of Westminster.
Covent Garden Piazza is located in the geographical centre of the area and was the site of a flower, fruit and vegetable market from the 1500s until 1974, when the wholesale market relocated to New Covent Garden Market in Nine Elms.
The modern-day Covent Garden has its roots in the early seventeenth century when land ("the Convent's Garden") was redeveloped by Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford.
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