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Encyclopedia > Covenant Theology
Part of a series of articles on
Christianity
Christianity

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New Covenant · Supersessionism
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Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed () and, in part, in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). ... Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... As a current in Protestant Christian theology, Dispensationalism is a form of premillennialism which teaches biblical history as a number of successive economies or administrations, called dispensations, each of which emphasizes the discontinuity of the Old Testament covenants God made with His various people. ... For other uses, see Twelve Apostles (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era to the present. ...


Bible
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Inspiration · Hermeneutics This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


Christian theology
Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
History of · Theology · Apologetics
Creation · Fall of Man · Covenant · Law
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Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... In Christian religions that trace their roots to belief in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit (Hebrew: Ruah haqodesh; Greek: ; Latin: ; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity or the Godhead. ... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Christian apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of Christianity. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys purported transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) ... the gospel I preached to you. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis (Greek: , meaning divinization (or deification, or to make divine) is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


History and traditions
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Great Awakenings · Great Apostasy
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Congregationalism The term Early Christianity here refers to Christianity of the period after the Death of Jesus in the early 30s and before the First Council of Nicaea in 325. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Revivalism. ... The Great Apostasy is a disparaging term used by some religious groups to allege a general fallen state of traditional Christianity, or especially of Catholicism, magisterial Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy, that it is not representative of the faith founded by Jesus and promulgated through his twelve Apostles: in short, that... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration Restorationism refers to unaffiliated religious movements that attempted to circumvent Protestant denominationalism and orthodox Christian creeds to restore Christianity to their constructions of its original form. ... Nontrinitarianism is any of various Christian beliefs that reject the doctrine that God is three distinct persons in one being, (the Trinity). ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...


Eastern Christianity
Eastern Orthodox · Oriental Orthodox
Syriac Christianity · Eastern Catholic
Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


Western Christianity
Western Catholicism · Protestantism
Anabaptism · Lutheranism · Calvinism
Anglicanism · Baptist · Methodism
Evangelicalism · Fundamentalism
Unitarianism . Liberalism
Adventism · Pentecostalism
Latter-Day Saints · Christian Science
Jehovah's Witnesses · Unity Church
Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, and developed in the Anglican Communion. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... For school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine). ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... It has been suggested that Unitarian Christianity be merged into this article or section. ... Liberal Christianity, sometimes called liberal theology, is an umbrella term covering diverse, philosophically-informed religious movements and moods within late 18th, 19th and 20th century Christianity. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (First published in 1875). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Topics in Christianity
Movements · Denominations
Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer
Music · Liturgy · Calendar
Symbols · Art · Criticism
Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See of the Bishop of Rome) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Gallican Rite Eastern Rite, e. ... This article is about the Liturgical year; for Dom Guérangers series of books, see The Liturgical Year. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...


Important figures
Apostle Paul · Church Fathers
Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine
Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe
Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley
Arius · Marcion of Sinope
Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... The Pope, (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1], is the Bishop of Rome, the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church and the absolute monarch of Vatican City. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ...

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Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters

Covenant Theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology or Federalism) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. Covenantalism uses the theological concept of "Covenant" as an organizing principle for Christian theology. The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Covenantal theology is a distinctive approach to Catholic biblical theology stemming from the mid-twentieth century recovery of Patristic methods of interpreting Scripture by scholars such as Henri de Lubac. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ...

Contents

General description

Typically, Covenant Theology views the history of God's dealings with mankind in all of history, from Creation to Fall to Redemption to Consummation, under the framework of three overarching theological covenants: History studies the past in human terms. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys purported transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • the Covenant of Redemption (Latin: Pactum Salutis)
  • the Covenant of Works (Latin: Foedus Operum)
  • the Covenant of Grace (Latin: Foedus Gratiae)

These three covenants are called "theological covenants" because they are not explicitly presented as such in the Bible, but are thought to be theologically implicit, describing and summarizing the wealth of Scriptural data. Within historical Reformed Christian systems of thought, Covenant Theology is not merely treated as a locus of doctrine, neither is it treated as a central dogma. Rather, Covenant is viewed as the Architectonic Principle of Scripture: the structure by which the Biblical text organizes itself. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For the film Dogma, see Dogma (film) Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ...


God established two covenants with mankind and one from eternity within the Godhead which deals with how the other two relate. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Look up Mankind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ...


The Covenant of Redemption is the eternal agreement within the Godhead in which the Father appointed the Son Jesus Christ by the power of the Holy Spirit to redeem the elect from the guilt and power of sin. God appointed Christ to live a life of perfect obedience to the law and to die a penal, substitutionary, sacrificial death as the covenantal representative for all who trust in him. Some covenant theologians have denied the intra-Trinitarian Covenant of Redemption, whether the notion of the Son's works leading to the reward of gaining a people for God, or the covenantal nature of this arrangement. Those who have upheld this covenant point to passages such as Philippians 2:5-11 and Revelation 5:9-10 to support the principle of works leading to reward; and to passages like Psalm 110 in support that this is depicted in Scripture as a covenant. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology Representative...


The Covenant of Works was made in the Garden of Eden between God and Adam who ultimately represented all mankind in a covenantal sense. (Romans 5:12-21) It promised life for obedience and death for disobedience. Adam and all mankind in Adam failed to live as God intended and stood condemned. Adam disobeyed God and broke the covenant, and so the Covenant of Grace was made between God and all of mankind. The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן  ; Arabic جنة عدن  ; in Greek Οὐρανός [uƔɑNÉ’s] Starry Sky : גןַֹ֗ [אְוּגַ֗ןוֹסַ֗ ]) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Though it is not explicitly called a covenant in the opening chapters of Genesis, the comparison of the representative headship of Christ and Adam, as well as passages like Hosea 6:7 have been interpreted to support the idea. It has also been noted that Jeremiah 33:20-26 (cf. 31:35-36) compares the covenant with David to God's covenant with the day and the night and the statues of heaven and earth which God laid down at creation. This has led some to understand all of creation as covenantal: the decree establishing the natural laws governing heaven and earth. The Covenant of Works might then be seen as the moral law component of the broader creational covenant. Thus the Covenant of Works has also been called the Covenant of Creation indicating that it is not added, but constituitive of the human race; the Covenant of Nature in recognition of its consonance with the natural law in the human heart; and the Covenant of Life in regard to the promised reward. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... Hosea: Salvation The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ...


The Covenant of Grace promises eternal blessing for all people who trust in the successive promises of God, ultimately accepting Christ as the substitutionary covenantal representative fulfilling the Covenant of Works on our behalf, in both the positive requirements of righteousness and its negative penal consequences (commonly described as his active and passive obedience). It is the historical expression of the eternal covenant of redemption. Genesis 3:15, with the promise of a "seed" of the woman who would crush the serpent's head, is usually identified as the historical inauguration for the covenant of grace.


The Covenant of Grace became the basis for all future covenants that God made with mankind such as with Noah (Gen 6, 9), with Abraham (Gen 12, 15, 17), with Moses (Ex 19-24), with David (2 Sam 7), and finally in the New Covenant fulfilled and founded in Christ. These individual covenants are called the "biblical covenants" because they are explicitly described in the Bible. Under the Covenantal overview of the Bible, submission to God's rule and living in accordance with his moral law (expressed concisely in the Ten Commandments) is a response to grace - never something which can earn God's acceptance (legalism). Even in his giving of the Ten Commandments, God introduces his law by reminding the Israelites that he is the one who brought them out of slavery in Egypt (grace). Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bÉ™rîṯ, Standard Hebrew bÉ™rit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... Legalism, in Christian theology, is a term referring to an improper fixation on law or codes of conduct, or legal ideas, usually implying an allegation of pride and the neglect of mercy, and ignorance of the grace of God. ...


As a framework for biblical interpretation, Covenant Theology stands in direct contrast to Dispensationalism in regard to the relationship between the Old Covenant with national Israel and the New Covenant in Christ's blood. Regarding the theological status of modern day Jewish people Covenantalism is often referred to by its detractors as "Supersessionism" or "Replacement theology" due to the perception that it teaches that God has abandoned the promises made to the Jews and has replaced the Jews with Christians as His Chosen People in the earth. Defenders of Covenant Theology deny that God has abandoned his promises to Israel, but see the fulfillment of the promises to Israel in the person and the work of the Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth, who established the church in organic continuity with Israel, not a separate replacement entity. As a current in Protestant Christian theology, Dispensationalism is a form of premillennialism which teaches biblical history as a number of successive economies or administrations, called dispensations, each of which emphasizes the discontinuity of the Old Testament covenants God made with His various people. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew Arabic: , المسيح), Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Covenant theology is a prominent feature in Protestant theology, especially in churches holding a reformed view of theology such as the Reformed churches and Presbyterian churches and, in different forms, some Methodist churches and in some Baptist churches. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Reformed theology is a branch of Protestant Christian theology based primarily on the theology of Jesus. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... -1... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct Christian denomination, but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...


Covenant Theology and the biblical covenants

Covenant theology first sees a Covenant of Works administered with Adam in the Garden of Eden. Upon Adam's failure, God established the Covenant of Grace in the promised seed (Gen 3:15), and shows his redeeming care in clothing Adam and Eve in garments of skin -- perhaps picturing the first instance of animal sacrifice. The specific covenants after the fall of Adam are seen as administered under the overarching theological Covenant of Grace and include:

Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem by Rembrandt van Rijn. ... The Last Supper was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ...

Covenant Theology and the sacraments

Since Covenant Theology today is mainly Protestant and Reformed in its outlook, proponents view Baptism and The Lord's Supper as the only two sacraments, which are called "church ordinances" by some to avoid some of the sacerdotal connotations of the word "sacrament." The sacraments are a sign and a seal of the Covenant of Grace. Along with the preached word, they are identified as an ordinary Means of Grace for salvation. The benefits of these rites do not occur ex opere operato (working in and of themselves), but through the power of the Holy Spirit as they are received by faith. Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Lords Supper is a variation of the name and the service of The Last Supper or Eucharist. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... For the more specialised meaning of Connotation in semiotics, see connotation (semiotics). ... The Means of Grace in Christian theology are those things (the means) through which God gives His grace. ... In Christian religions that trace their roots to belief in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit (Hebrew: Ruah haqodesh; Greek: ; Latin: ; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity or the Godhead. ...


The Lord's Supper

The Eucharist or the "Lord's Supper" was instituted by Jesus at a Passover meal, to which he gave a radical reinterpretation. The festival of Passover commemorates the Israelites' deliverance from Egypt - specifically, how the lamb's blood which God commanded them to place on their door posts caused the Angel of Death to "pass over" their dwellings, so that their firstborn might be spared from the final plague. The New Testament writers understand this event typologically: as the lamb's blood saved the Israelites from the plague, so Jesus' substitutionary death saves God's New Covenant people from being judged for their sins. Covenant Theology has generally viewed the Eucharist as a mysterious participation in the Real Presence of Christ mediated by the Holy Spirit (i.e. Real Spiritual Presence or Pneumatic Presence). This differs from Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism which believe in the Real Presence as an actual bodily presence of Christ, as well as from the generally Baptist position that the Supper is merely a memorial commemoration. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The word typology literally means the study of types. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Substitutionary atonement is the act of restoring balances by substitution. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... In Christian religions that trace their roots to belief in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit (Hebrew: Ruah haqodesh; Greek: ; Latin: ; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity or the Godhead. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ...


Baptism

Paedobaptist Covenant theologians see the administration of all the biblical covenants, including the New Covenant, as including a principle of familial, corporate inclusion or "generational succession." In The Acts of the Apostles 2:38-39, the promise is seen to extend to the children of believers as it was in the Old Covenant. The biblical covenants between God and man include signs and seals that visibly represent the realities behind the covenants. These visible signs and symbols of God's covenant redemption are administered in a corporate manner (for instance, to households, cf. Acts 16:14-15; 16:31-34), not in an exclusively individualistic manner. Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ...


Baptism is considered to be the visible sign of entrance into the New Covenant and therefore may be administered individually to new believers making a public profession of faith. Paedobaptists further believe this extends corporately to the households of believers which typically would include children, or individually to children or infants of believing parents (see Infant baptism). In this view, baptism is thus seen as the functional replacement and sacramental equivalent of the Abrahamic rite of circumcision and symbolizes the internal cleansing from sin, among other things. Baptism in early Christian art. ... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ... “Children” redirects here. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... It has been suggested that Circumcision advocacy be merged into this article or section. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ...


Credobaptist Covenant theologians (such as the Baptist John Gill) hold that baptism is only for those who can understand and profess their faith, and they argue that the regulative principle of worship, which many paedobaptists also advocate and which states that elements of worship (including baptism) must be based on explicit commands of Scripture, is violated by infant baptism. Furthermore, because the New Covenant is described in Jeremiah 31:31-34 as a time when all who were members of it would have the law written on their hearts and would know God, Baptist Covenant Theologians believe only those who are born again are members of the New Covenant. Believer Baptism (also called credobaptism) is the Christian ritual of baptism as given only to adults and children who first proclaim to believe in Jesus as their personal savior, resurrected by the power of God the Father. ... John Gill (born at Kettering, Northamptonshire on November 23, 1697 and died October 14, 1771) was an English Baptist, Biblical scholar. ... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church... Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Born again is a term used originally and mainly in Christianity, where it is associated with salvation, conversion and spiritual rebirth. ...


History of Covenant Theology

Concepts foundational to covenant theology can be found in the writings of Church Fathers such as Irenaeus and Augustine, but the reformer John Calvin (Institutes 2:9-11) was the first to organize God's salvation economy under the categories of covenant theology. Early post-reformation developments include Caspar Olevianus (1536-1587) in Concerning the Substance of the Covenant of Grace between God and the Elect (De substantia foederis gratuiti inter deum et electos, 1585) and the Scottish Theologian Robert Rollock (1555-1599) in A Treatise of our Effectual Calling (Tractatus de vocatione efficaci, 1597). The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... Kaspar Olevianus (1536 - 1587) was a significant German protestant theologian. ... Robert Rollock (c. ...


The classical statement of covenant theology can be found in the British Westminster Confession of Faith (particularly chap. 7, 8, 19), as well as in the writings of English theologians such as John Owen (1616-1683), Biblical Theology, and An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews. The classical statements among 17th century continental theologians include Johannes Cocceius (c. 1603-1669) in The Doctrine of the Covenant and Testament of God (Summa doctrinae de foedere et testamento dei, 1648), Francis Turretin (1623-1687) in his Institutes of Elenctic Theology, and Hermann Witsius (1636-1708) in The Economy of the Covenants Between God and Man. It may also be seen in the writings of Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) in Collected Writings of Jonathan Edwards (Vol 2, Banner of Truth edition, p.950). The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ... There have been several well-known people named John Owen, including: Johnny Owen (boxer) John Owen (church leader) John Owen (chess player) John Owen (politician), Democratic governor of North Carolina, 1828-1830. ... Woodcut of Johannes Cocceius Johannes Cocceius (1603 - November 4, 1669), Dutch theologian, was born at Bremen. ... Francis Turretin (also known as François Turretini) was the son of Francesco Turrettini, who left his native Lucca in 1574 and settled in Geneva in 1592. ... Hermann Witsius (1636 - October 22, 1708), Dutch theologian, was born at Enkhuysen, North Holland, and studied at Groningen, Leiden and Utrecht. ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. ...


In the United States, the Princeton theologians (Charles Hodge, A. A. Hodge, B. B. Warfield, Geerhardus Vos, and J. Gresham Machen) and, in the Netherlands, Herman Bavinck followed the main lines of the classic view, teaching the Covenant of Redemption, the Covenant of Works (Law), and the Covenant of Grace (Gospel). The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Seminary, in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Charles Hodge Charles Hodge (1797-1878) was the principal of Princeton Theological Seminary between 1851 and 1878. ... Archibald Alexander Hodge (July 18 1823 _ November 12 1886) was the principal of Princeton Seminary between 1878 and 1887. ... Benjamin Breckinridge (B.B.) Warfield (1851 - 1921) was the principal of Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921. ... Geerhardus Vos (March 14, 1862 - August 13, 1949), the Father of Reformed Biblical Theology, was one of the best-known American theologians of the late-19th- and early-20th-centuries, and one of the most distinguished representatives of the Princeton Theology. ... Categories: Stub | 1881 births | 1937 deaths | American theologians | Christian fundamentalism | Presbyterianism | Reformed theologians ... Herman Bavinck (1854-1921) was born in the town of Hoogeveen in the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


Recent developments in Covenant Theology

There have been a number of recent developments in Covenant theology by a fast-growing minority of Reformed and Presbyterian pastors and theologians. The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


Current well-known covenant theologians include Michael Horton, Meredith G. Kline, J. I. Packer, Robert L. Reymond, O. Palmer Robertson and R. C. Sproul. This system is taught at schools such as Covenant Theological Seminary, Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Knox Theological Seminary, Reformed Theological Seminary, Westminster Theological Seminary, and Westminster Seminary California. Michael Horton Michael Scott Horton is Professor of Theology and Apologetics at Westminster Seminary California and is heard regularly as host of The White Horse Inn radio program. ... Meredith G. Kline is an American theologian and Old Testament scholar. ... J. I. Packer James Innell Packer (born July 22, 1926 in Gloucester, England) is a British-born Canadian Christian theologian in the Reformational Anglican tradition. ... Robert L. Reymond is a Christian theologian of the Protestant Reformed (Calvinist) tradition. ... R.C. Sproul Dr. Robert Charles Sproul (born 1939 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American, Calvinist theologian, and pastor. ... Covenant Theological Seminary is the denominational seminary of the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA). ... Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary is an conservative Presbyterian seminary in Greenville, South Carolina. ... Knox Theological Seminary is an advanced Seminary teaching program founded by Dr. D. James Kennedy. ... Reformed Theological Seminary (RTS) is a non-denominational, evangelical Protestant seminary dedicated to training current and future leaders (especially its Presbyterian and Reformed branches) to be pastors, missionaries, educators, and Christian counselors. ... Westminster Theological Seminary is a Presbyterian and Reformed Christian graduate educational institution with campuses located in Glenside, Pennsylvania (a suburb of Philadelphia), and Dallas, Texas, and programs of study in New York City, and London. ... Westminster Seminary California is a Reformed Christian graduate educational institution located 25 miles north of San Diego, California in Escondido. ...


Covenant structure

Meredith G. Kline did pioneering work in the field of Biblical studies in the 1960s and 1970s by identifying the form of the covenant with the common SuzerainVassal treaties of the Ancient Near East in the 2nd century BC. One of the highlights of his work has been the comparison of the Mosaic Covenant with the Hittite Suzerainty Treaty formula. A suggested comparison of the treaty structure with the book of Deuteronomy is as follows: Meredith G. Kline is an American theologian and Old Testament scholar. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Christian and Jewish Scriptures. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, In the Western world, the focus shifted from the social activism of the sixties to social activities for ones own pleasure, save for environmentalism, which continued in a very visible way. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The Hittites (also Hethites) and Children of Heth, translating Hebrew HTY and BNY-HT are the second of the eleven Canaanite nations in the Hebrew Bible. ...

  • Preamble (compare Deuteronomy 1:1-4)
  • Historical prologue (compare Deuteronomy 1:5-3:29)
  • Stipulations (compare Deuteronomy 4-26)
  • Document clause (compare Deuteronomy 27)
  • List of gods as witnesses (notably lacking in Deuteronomy)
  • Sanctions: curses and blessings (compare Deuteronomy 28; 31-34).

Kline has argued that comparisons between the suzerainty-vassal treaties and royal grants of the Ancient Near East provide insight in highlighting certain distinctive features of the Mosaic covenant as a law covenant, in contrast with the other historic post-Fall covenants. Many who have embraced Kline's insights have still insisted, however, in accordance with the Westminster Confession of Faith, that the Mosaic covenant was fundamentally an administration of the Covenant of Grace. The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ...


Contemporary revisions and controversy

A number of major 20th-century covenant theologians including Karl Barth, Klaas Schilder, and John Murray have departed from the traditional twofold or threefold covenant scheme to develop a monocovenantal scheme subsuming everything under one Covenant of Grace. The focus of all biblical covenants is then on grace and faith. This has not been developed consistently between the various theologians. For example, Barth, influential in the mainline churches and in certain evangelical circles, conceived of grace as the fundamental reality underlying all of creation. Influential among more conservative Presbyterian and Reformed churches, Murray acknowledged the traditional concept of a works principle and probationary period for Adam in the Garden of Eden, comparing Adam's works to the works of Christ. He disputed its label as a covenant, however, preferring to call this arrangement the Adamic Administration. Karl Barth. ... Klaas Schilder (Kampen 19 December 1890 - 23 March 1952) was a theologian and professor in the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Dutch: Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland or GKN) and later in the Gereformeerde Kerken (Vrijgemaakt). ... John Murray (October 14, 1898–May 8, 1975) was a Scottish-born Reformed theologian who taught at Princeton Seminary and then left to help found Westminster Theological Seminary, where he taught for many years. ... Look up Grace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ... Karl Barth. ... In the United States, the mainline (also sometimes called mainstream) denominations are those Protestant denominations with a potpourri of conservative, moderate, and liberal theologies. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... John Murray (October 14, 1898–May 8, 1975) was a Scottish-born Reformed theologian who taught at Princeton Seminary and then left to help found Westminster Theological Seminary, where he taught for many years. ...


At Westminster Theological Seminary in the late 1970s, Norman Shepherd, a professor of systematic theology, was dismissed due to controversy over his teaching on justification. His views involved a reconfiguration of Covenant Theology that went beyond those of his predecessor, John Murray. Shepherd denied any notion of a works or merit principle. He argued that Jesus' acceptance and glorification was due to his faith and obedience which is not to be considered meritorious. In the same way then, the believer must be justified before God by faith and his or her own personal obedience. He explains in The Call of Grace (2000, p. 39): Westminster Theological Seminary is a Presbyterian and Reformed Christian graduate educational institution with campuses located in Glenside, Pennsylvania (a suburb of Philadelphia), and Dallas, Texas, and programs of study in New York City, and London. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, In the Western world, the focus shifted from the social activism of the sixties to social activities for ones own pleasure, save for environmentalism, which continued in a very visible way. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... John Murray (October 14, 1898–May 8, 1975) was a Scottish-born Reformed theologian who taught at Princeton Seminary and then left to help found Westminster Theological Seminary, where he taught for many years. ...

God does not tempt his children to try to earn their salvation by the merit of their works. Nor does he tease them by offering a way of salvation that he knows will not work. More pointedly, the very idea of merit is foreign to the way in which God the Father relates to his children. Rather, in love the Lord leads his people to trust him. In the Mosaic covenant, he teaches his people how to live happy and productive lives in the Promised Land in union and communion with the Lord of the Covenant. He promises forgiveness of sins and eternal life, not as something to be earned, but as a gift to be received by a living and active faith.

Writers who follow Shepherd deny that God ever made a covenant where humanity was required to earn anything by their works. Their claim is that the Covenant of Works between Adam and God in the Garden of Eden was not originally part of covenant theology. A Covenant of Works at creation does not receive explicit mention in early confessions such as the French Confession (1559), the Scots Confession (1560), the Belgic Confession (1561), the Thirty-Nine Articles (1562), the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), and the Second Helvetic Confession (1566) (John Murray, Collected Writings of John Murray: 4, Studies in Theology, pp. 217-218). Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן  ; Arabic جنة عدن  ; in Greek Οὐρανός [uƔɑNÉ’s] Starry Sky : גןַֹ֗ [אְוּגַ֗ןוֹסַ֗ ]) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived... The Gallic Confession of Faith or Confession de La Rochelle (1559) is the French Calvinist Confession of Faith. ... The Scots Confession was written in 1560 by six leaders of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, coincidentally all named John. The Confession was the first Book of Faith for the Protestant Scottish Kirk. ... The Confession of Faith, popularly known as the Belgic Confession, following the seventeenth-century Latin designation Confessio Belgica. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... The Heidelberg Catechism is a document taking the form of a series of questions and answers, for use in teaching Reformed Christian doctrine. ... Helvetic Confessions, the name of two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland. ... John Murray (October 14, 1898–May 8, 1975) was a Scottish-born Reformed theologian who taught at Princeton Seminary and then left to help found Westminster Theological Seminary, where he taught for many years. ...


However, the concept of a works principle distinct from a Covenant of Grace is evident in the commentaries and dogmatic works of the earliest covenant thelogians, particularly in the distinction made between Law and Gospel (for instance, Zacharias Ursinus, Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism). Additionally, there is explicit articulation of a Covenant of Works in the writings of those such as Olevianus and Rollock. Defenders of the traditional view have argued that the concept of this works principle operating in the pre-Fall state in the Garden of Eden as a covenant is present in the early confessions even if the Covenant of Works is not explicitly named. Examples include Belgic Confession, article 14, which speaks of Adam having received and transgressed the "commandment of life"; or Heidelberg Catechism, Q&A 6 affirming the goodness of man in creation. The later Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) explicitly names the Covenant of Works which Adam transgressed (7.2; 19.1), and which "continues to be a perfect rule of righteousness" in the form of the moral law (19.2, 3). Biblical exegesis (from the Greek ἐξηγεῖσθαι to lead out) is an extensive and critical interpretation of the Bible. ... DOGMATIC THEOLOGY, the name usually given in modern times to the systematic study of Christian doctrine or of dogma in the widest sense possible. ... The relationship between Gods Law and the Gospel is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology. ... Zacharias Ursinus (1534-1583), a sixteenth century German theologian, born Zacharias Baer in Breslau (today a city in Poland). ... Kaspar Olevianus (1536 - 1587) was a significant German protestant theologian. ... Robert Rollock (c. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן  ; Arabic جنة عدن  ; in Greek Οὐρανός [uƔɑNÉ’s] Starry Sky : גןַֹ֗ [אְוּגַ֗ןוֹסַ֗ ]) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived... The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ...


In contrast to the modern revisionists, Meredith Kline has reemphasized the idea of a covenant of works as expressed in the Westminster Confession of Faith 7:2 as a means to protect a gospel of grace. Kline writes in Kingdom Prologue (Two Age Press, 2000), p. 108-109: Meredith G. Kline is an American theologian and Old Testament scholar. ...

If meritorious works could not be predicated of Jesus Christ as second Adam, then obviously there would be no meritorious achievement to be imputed to his people as the ground of their justification-approbation. The gospel invitation would turn out to be a mirage. We who have believed on Christ would still be under condemnation. The gospel truth, however, is that Christ has performed the one act of righetousness and by his obedience of the one the many are made righteous (Rom 5:18, 19)…. Underlying Christ's mediatorship of a covenant of grace for the salvation of believers is his earthly fulfillment, through meritorious obedience, of his heavenly covenant of works with the Father.… What begins as a rejection of works ends up as an attack, however unintentional, on the biblical message of saving grace.

Kline, Horton and others have sought to uphold the classical distinction of two sorts of covenant traditions: one based on law (works) and the other on promise (grace). While works in Reformed theology are antithetical to grace as the means of justification, they are on the other hand ultimately the basis for grace since God requires perfect upholding of the law for salvation and heaven must be earned. However, since this is seen as an impossible task for the corrupted sinner, it is Christ, who perfectly obeyed the law and who, earning the reward, graciously bestows it to his people. The sinner is thus saved by Christ's works and not his own. Right standing before God is then due to an alien or imputed righteousness, not by personal faithfulness which is recognized as the fruition of salvation and not its ground. For example, in Getting the Gospel Right (Baker Books, 1999), p. 160, R.C. Sproul writes: Michael Horton Michael Scott Horton is Professor of Theology and Apologetics at Westminster Seminary California and is heard regularly as host of The White Horse Inn radio program. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ... Imputed righteousness is a concept in Christian theology directly related to the Protestant doctrine of justification. ... R.C. Sproul Dr. Robert Charles Sproul (born 1939 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American, Calvinist theologian, and pastor. ...

Man's relationship to God in creation was based on works. What Adam failed to achieve, Christ, the second Adam, succeeded in achieving. Ultimately the only way one can be justified is by works.

Sproul articulates the traditional mainstream view, that Jesus was glorified in his death and resurrection because of his merit in fulfillment of the Covenant of Works as the second Adam. His merit in his active and suffering obedience is then counted for those he came to save, so that by faith alone, the believer is justified before God, having received the righteousness of another. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


See also

Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... As a current in Protestant Christian theology, Dispensationalism is a form of premillennialism which teaches biblical history as a number of successive economies or administrations, called dispensations, each of which emphasizes the discontinuity of the Old Testament covenants God made with His various people. ... New Covenant Theology here is a technical term referring to a theological view of redemptive history primarily found in Baptist circles and contrasted with Covenant Theology and Dispensationalism. ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ...

References

Historical documents

The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition. ... The Helvetic Consensus (Latin: Formula consensus ecclesiarum Helveticarum) is a Swiss Reformed symbol drawn up in 1675 to guard against doctrines taught at the French academy of Saumur, especially Amyraldism. ...

Advocates

  • Ball, John (1645). A Treatise of the Covenant of Grace. Facsimile reprint: Dingwall, Peter and Rachel Reynolds (2006), ISBN 1-84685-278-1
  • Horton, Michael (2006). God of Promise: Introducing Covenant Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Books. ISBN 0-8010-1289-9
  • Kline, Meredith (2000). Kingdom Prologue: Genesis Foundations for a Covenantal Worldview. Overland Park: Two Age. ISBN 0-9706418-0-X
  • Murray, John (1982). Covenant Theology. In Collected Writings of John Murray, vol. 4. Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth Trust. ISBN 0-85151-340-9
  • Reymond, Robert L. (1998). A New Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith. Nashville: Nelson. ISBN 0-8499-1317-9
  • Robertson, O. Palmer (1981). Christ of the Covenants. Phillipsburg: Presbyterian & Reformed. ISBN 0-87552-418-4
  • Van Til, Cornelius (1955). Covenant Theology. In L. A. Loetscher (Ed.), The New Schaff-Herzog Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Grand Rapids: Baker. ISBN 99914-2-980-8.
  • Vos, Geerhardus (2001). "The Doctrine of the Covenant in Reformed Theology." In R. B. Gaffin, Jr. (Ed.), Redemptive History and Biblical Interpretation: The Shorter Writings of Geerhardus Vos. Phillipsburg: Presbyterian & Reformed. ISBN 0-87552-513-X
  • Witsius, Hermann (Reprint 1990). The Economy of the Covenants Between God and Man, 2 vols. Phillipsburg: Presbyterian & Reformed. ISBN 0-87552-870-8.
  • Malone, Fred (2003). The baptism of disciples alone: A covenantal argument for credobaptism versus paedobaptism. Founders Press. ISBN 0-9713361-3-X

John Ball (October 1585 - 1640) was an English puritan divine, born in Cassington, Oxfordshire. ... Michael Horton Michael Scott Horton is Professor of Theology and Apologetics at Westminster Seminary California and is heard regularly as host of The White Horse Inn radio program. ... Meredith G. Kline is an American theologian and Old Testament scholar. ... John Murray (October 14, 1898–May 8, 1975) was a Scottish-born Reformed theologian who taught at Princeton Seminary and then left to help found Westminster Theological Seminary, where he taught for many years. ... The Banner of Truth Trust is an evangelical and Reformed Christian publishing house founded in 1957 by Iain Murray and Jack Cullum. ... Robert L. Reymond is a Christian theologian of the Protestant Reformed (Calvinist) tradition. ... Cornelius Van Til Cornelius Van Til (May 4, 1895 - April 17, 1987), born in Grootegast, the Netherlands, was a Christian philosopher, Reformed theologian, and presuppositional apologist. ... Geerhardus Vos (March 14, 1862 - August 13, 1949), the Father of Reformed Biblical Theology, was one of the best-known American theologians of the late-19th- and early-20th-centuries, and one of the most distinguished representatives of the Princeton Theology. ... Hermann Witsius (1636 - October 22, 1708), Dutch theologian, was born at Enkhuysen, North Holland, and studied at Groningen, Leiden and Utrecht. ...

Critics

  • Showers, Renald (1990). There Really Is a Difference: A Comparison of Covenant and Dispensational Theology. Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry. ISBN 0-915540-50-9

External links

Meredith G. Kline is an American theologian and Old Testament scholar. ... Meredith G. Kline is an American theologian and Old Testament scholar. ... Westminster Seminary California is a Reformed Christian graduate educational institution located 25 miles north of San Diego, California in Escondido. ...

Criticism


  Results from FactBites:
 
Covenant Theology (1149 words)
The doctrine of the covenant was one of the theological contributions that came to the church through the Reformation of the sixteenth century.
According to covenant theology, the covenant of grace, established in history, is founded on still another covenant, the covenant of redemption, which is defined as the eternal pact between God the Father and God the Son concerning the salvation of mankind.
Herein is seen the close relation between the covenant of grace and the covenant of redemption, with the former resting on the latter.
Covenant Theology Illustrated, by S. M. Baugh (3112 words)
Covenant theology is as vast as any systematic theology, touching on all the standard theological loci (topics), because it is simply systematic theology focused on the Bible's own organizing principle of covenant.
Furthermore, in the covenant of works, Adam was a "publik person." The more modern term is that Adam was the "federal head" of the human race.8 As covenantal or federal head, Adam acted on behalf of his whole race in the covenant of works.
In biblical theology, this substitution is the act of a federal representative, or using biblical terms, a "Mediator" or "Guarantor of the new covenant" (Heb.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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