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Encyclopedia > Couserans
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Couserans coat of arms

Couserans (pronounced /kuzəʀɑ̃/ in French) (Gascon: Coseran, pronounced /kuzeˈɾa/) is a small former province of France located in the Pyrenees mountains. Today Couserans makes up the western half of the Ariège département, around the towns of Saint-Girons and Saint-Lizier. A small part of Couserans is also in the extreme south of Haute-Garonne, just across the border from Ariège. The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... The kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (French: Pyrénées; Spanish: Pirineos; Occitan: Pirenèus or Pirenèas; Catalan Pirineus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... Ariège is a département in southwestern France named after the Ariège River. ... Haute-Garonne is a département in the southwest of France named after the Garonne river. ...


Couserans has a land area of 1,162 km² (449 sq. miles). At the 1999 census there were 21,260 inhabitants on the territory of the former province of Couserans, which means a density of only 18 inh. per km² (47 inh. per sq. mile), one of the lowest densities in western Europe. The only urban area is Saint-Girons (which includes Saint-Lizier), with 9,484 inhabitants in 1999 (44.6% of the whole population of Couserans). To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Couserans was inhabited by a people which the Romans called Consoranni. It seems the original inhabitants were Aquitanian, like in the rest of Gascony, and spoke a language related to the old Basque language. Later some Iberians who, like the Aquitanians, were non-Indo-European people, may have come from the Spanish peninsula and mixed with the inhabitants. Later in the 3rd century BC came the first Indo-Europeans, a Celtic Gallic tribe called the Volcae Tectosages, originally from Belgium or southern Germany, who settled in Toulouse, and may also have penetrated Couserans. However, if they entered Couserans, there were certainly not many of them, and the people which the Romans called Consoranni were probably essentially Aquitanian. The Consoranni were closest to their western neighbors the Convenae (i.e. "the assembled") whose territory is known today as Comminges (a name derived from Convenae). Gascony (Gascogne in French) is a region in southwest France. ... Basque (Euskara in Basque) is the language spoken by the Basque people, who live in northern Spain and the adjoining area of southwestern France. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... A Celtic cross. ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... The Volcae Tectosages were one branch of the Gallic nation of the Volcae, the other branch being the Volcae Arecomici. ... The Capitole, the 18th century city hall of Toulouse and best known landmark in the city; in the foreground is the Place du Capitole, a hub of urban life at the very center of the city Toulouse (pronounced in standard French, in local Toulouse accent) ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced ) is a... Coat of arms of the counts of Comminges This is a list of counts of Comminges. ...

Saint-Lizier and the Pyrenees
Saint-Lizier and the Pyrenees

The Consoranni had an oppidum on the hill which is now the town of Saint-Lizier, from which they controlled the area. The Romans seem to have come in contact with the Consoranni around 80 BC, and integrated the area inside the Roman Provincia (Provincia Romana — the usual name for what was officially called the province of Transalpine Gaul) which also included Toulouse and Narbonne on the Mediterranean Coast. After there conquest of Aquitania in around 50 BC, the Romans integrated Couserans inside the new province of Aquitania. Later when Aquitania was split, Couserans became part of the province of Novempopulana, like the rest of Gascony. Novempopulana was roughly corresponding to the old territory of the Aquitanians, south of the Garonne River. Couserans was made one of the nine civitas of Novempopulana, known as the Civitas Consorannorum. The capital of the civitas was the old oppidum of the Consoranni, which the Romans named Austria, and which in the Middle Ages was renamed Saint-Lizier. The name Couserans comes from Consoranni. The Consoranni slowly adopted the Latin language, which later evolved into the Gascon language, like in the rest of Gascony. To the Romans, an oppidum was the main settlement in any administrative area. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Transalpine Gaul was a Roman province whose name was chosen to distinguish it from Cisalpine Gaul. ... Narbonne (Narbona in Occitan) is a city and commune of southwestern France, in the Aude département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... The Garonne (Latin: Garumna, Occitan: Garona) is a river in southwest France, with a length of 575 km (357 miles). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish...


During the Middle Ages, Novempopulana became known as Vasconia (a name meaning "land of the Basques"), which evolved into Gascony. Gascony was split between several rival counties, one of which was the county of Comminges (Pagus Convenicus) which included Couserans. In the 11th century, the viscounty of Couserans was created, separating Couserans from Comminges, and thus reverting to the Roman situation when there was a Civitas Consorannorum (Couserans) distinct from the Civitas Convenarum (Comminges). The viscounty of Couserans was united to the French crown in the 1450s like the rest of the county of Comminges. Couserans became a French province of its own at that time, although some people still consider that Couserans is a sub-province inside the larger province of Gascony. In the Middle Ages, Couserans was not affected by the Cathar heresy, unlike the rest of southern France, and in the 16th century the bishops of Saint-Lizier successfully fought against Protestantism. A viscount is a member of the European nobility, especially of France, and of the British peerage, where a viscount ranks above a baron, below an earl (a count in France), and corresponds in Britain to the Anglo-Saxon shire reeve. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Saint-Lizier was the historical capital of Couserans, but it lost its status as seat of a Roman Catholic diocese (bishopric) at the time of the French Revolution, and has now been reduced to a small town, although it preserves some of the best medieval and Romanesque architecture in southern France. Saint-Girons, once a small suburb of Saint-Lizier is now the largest town in Couserans and is regarded as its capital. In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... Romanesque St. ...


In 1789 Couserans sent three representatives to the Estates-General in Versailles. When French départements were created in 1790, Couserans could have joined with Comminges to form a département, as history and geography suggested, but Saint-Girons and Saint-Gaudens (the largest town of Comminges) could not agree on which town would be the préfecture (capital). At the initiative of a representative of Pamiers (largest town in the County of Foix), Couserans was joined with the province of County of Foix to form the Ariège département. It was promised to Couserans that the préfecture would alternate between Foix, Pamiers, and Saint-Girons, but eventually the promise was betrayed and Foix became the only préfecture of Ariège. What's more, Pamiers replaced Saint-Lizier as the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese (bishopric). Despite being united inside a single département, the Gascon Couserans and the Occitan County of Foix have always ignored each other, and still remain quite distinct. 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Estates-General of 1789 was the first meeting of the French Estates-General, a general assembly consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry, since 1614. ... Versailles, formerly the capital city of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Saint-Gaudens is a commune of the Haute-Garonne département in the Midi-Pyrénées region of France Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Haute-Garonne ... In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ... The Comté de Foix in 1328 The independent Counts of Foix, with their castle overlooking the town of Foix, now in southernmost France, governed their county of Foix, which corresponded roughly to the eastern part of the modern departement of Ariège. ... The Comté de Foix in 1328 The independent Counts of Foix, with their castle overlooking the town of Foix, now in southernmost France, governed their county of Foix, which corresponded roughly to the eastern part of the modern departement of Ariège. ... Foix is a small town and commune, the préfecture (capital) of the Ariège département in France. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ...


Today, Couserans has no official status, although the arrondissement of Saint-Girons (one of the three arrondissements of Ariège) is what corresponds best to the old province of Couserans. Couserans has suffered tremendously from rural exodus in the 20th century, and is now left with only 21,260 inhabitants, 44.6% of whom live in the urban area of Saint-Girons (which includes Saint-Lizier). The 100 French départements are divided into 342 arrondissements. ... Rural exodus is a term used to describe the migratory patterns that normally occur in a region following the mechanisation of agriculture. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Couserans - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (941 words)
In the Middle Ages, Couserans was not affected by the Cathar heresy, unlike the rest of southern France, and in the 16th century the bishops of Saint-Lizier successfully fought against Protestantism.
At the initiative of a representative of Pamiers (largest town in the County of Foix), Couserans was joined with the province of County of Foix to form the Ari├Ęge d├ępartement.
Couserans has suffered tremendously from rural exodus in the 20th century, and is now left with only 21,260 inhabitants, 44.6% of whom live in the urban area of Saint-Girons (which includes Saint-Lizier).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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