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Encyclopedia > Coureur des bois

A coureur de bois was an individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. The coureurs de bois operated during the late 17th century and early 18th century in eastern North America. The term literally means "runner of the woods". Later, a limited number of permits were issued to coureurs de bois who became known as voyageurs. An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Background

"Coureur de bois" - A woodcut by Arthur Heming
"Coureur de bois" - A woodcut by Arthur Heming

During the 17th century, the fur trade was very lucrative for New France. Competition was fierce, and many colonists risked the journey west and north through hostile Iroquois territory from the settlements around Montreal to the pays d'en haut, or "upper country" (the area around the Great Lakes) to seek out Native trappers to trade with. These coureurs de bois were not looked upon favorably by Montreal authorities and royal officials. They disapproved of settlers leaving the developing agricultural areas to seek their fortune trading. The French authorities would rather have let the transportation of furs be handled by the natives rather than independent unregulated colonial traders, who were bringing in so many furs that the market was oversupplied. This traffic in furs also undermined Montreal's role as the focal point for the fur trade—where traders would exchange beaver pelts for trade goods such as clothing, muskets and copper pots. Some of these illicit traders also caused problems by trading alcohol for furs. Image File history File links Coureur_de_bois. ... Image File history File links Coureur_de_bois. ... Arthur Heming, 1912 Arthur Henry Howard Heming (1870-1940) was a Canadian painter and novelist known as the chronicler of the North for his paintings, sketches, essays and books about Canadas North. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (in unity, prosperity) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... A Hupa man. ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ...


Some coureurs de bois became famous, including Étienne Brulé, Louis Joliet, Médard des Groseilliers, Pierre-Esprit Radisson, Jean Nicolet, Guillaume Couture, Jean-Baptiste Chalifoux and Jacques de Noyon. Étienne Brûlé (c. ... Louis Joliet, also known Louis Jolliet (September 21, 1645–May 1700), was a Canadian explorer born in Quebec who is important for his discoveries in North America. ... Médard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618-1696) was a French explorer and fur trader in Canada. ... Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636 – 1710) was a French-born explorer and fur trader. ... Jean Nicolet (born 1598 - died November 1, 1642) was a French voyageur noted for exploring the Northwest Territory. ... Guillaume Couture (or Cousture) (1617-April 4, 1701) was a citizen of New France. ... Jacques de Noyon (1668 – 1745) was a French Canadian explorer and coureur des bois. ...


Voyageurs

"Canoe Manned by Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall" by Frances Anne Hopkins

By 1681, the French authorities realized the traders had to be controlled so that the industry remained profitable. They therefore legitimized and limited the numbers of coureurs de bois by establishing a system that used permits (or congés). This legitimization created a "second-generation" coureur de bois: the voyageur, which literally means "traveller". This name change came as a result of a need for the legitimate fur traders to distance themselves from the unlicensed ones. Voyageurs held a permit or were allied with a Montreal merchant who had one. Image File history File links Voyageur_canoe. ... Image File history File links Voyageur_canoe. ... Canoe Manned by Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall (Ontario), 1869, by Frances Anne Hopkins. ...


The fur trade was then controlled by a small number of Montreal merchants. New France also began a policy of expansion in an attempt to dominate the trade. French influence extended west, north and south. Forts and trading posts were built with the help of explorers and traders. Trade treaties were negotiated with native groups, and fur trading became very profitable and organized. The system became complex, and the voyageurs, many of whom had been independent traders, slowly became hired labourers.

Contemporary actor costumed as a voyageur at a historic site in Minnesota

For the most part, voyageurs were the crews hired to man the canoes that carried trade goods and supplies to "rendezvous posts" (example: Grand Portage) where goods and supplies were exchanged for furs. The canoes traveled along well-established water routes. They then transported the furs back to Lachine near Montreal. Some voyageurs stayed in the back country over the winter and transported the trade goods from the rendezvous posts to farther-away French outposts. These men were known as the hivernants (winterers). They also helped negotiate trade in native villages. In the spring they would carry furs from these remote outposts back to the rendezvous posts. Voyageurs also served as guides for explorers (such as Pierre La Vérendrye). The majority of these canoe men were French Canadian and/or Métis. They were usually from Island of Montreal or seigneuries and parishes along or near the St. Lawrence River. Many were from France and many were members of Native Aboriginal tribes. Actor in historical costume of a voyageur at the North West Company Post State Historic Site near Pine City, Minnesota (taken Oct. ... Actor in historical costume of a voyageur at the North West Company Post State Historic Site near Pine City, Minnesota (taken Oct. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Grand Portage National Monument, located within the boreal forest on the north shore of Lake Superior in northeastern Minnesota, preserves a vital center of fur trade activity and Anishinaabeg Ojibwe heritage dating back to the 18th century. ... Beginning in the 1600s, voyageurs would launch their canoes from this location to transport trade goods thousands of miles into Native American lands. ... Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye (November 17, 1685 – December 5, 1749) was a French Canadian military officer, fur trader and explorer. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, Countryborn, or Black Scots, are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... The Island of Montreal (in French, île de Montréal), in extreme southwestern Quebec, Canada, is located at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. ... This article is about the seigneurial system in New France. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ...


The voyageurs were highly valued employees of trading companies, such as the North West Company (NWC) and the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). Because of the effectiveness of voyageurs, the NWC was able to challenge the HBC. The HBC started hiring their own voyageurs in 1815 to help them compete with the NWC. Today, the North West Company is a grocery vendor in remote communities across northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland. ... The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ...


The voyageurs are legendary, especially in French Canada. They are folk heroes celebrated in folklore and music. The reality of their lives was that of toil. For example, they had to be able to carry two 90 pound bundles of fur over portages; more suffered from strangulated hernias than any other injury.[citation needed] A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or tissue out of the body cavity in which it normally lies. ...


Voyageurs who only paddled between Montreal and Grand Portage were known as "mangeurs de lard" (pork eaters) because of their diet, much of which consisted of salt pork. This is considered to be a derogatory term. Those who overwintered and ate "off the land" (mainly fish, pemmican and Rubaboo) were called "homme du nord" or "winterer". Voyageurs were expected to work 14 hours per day and paddle at a rate of 55 strokes per minute.[citation needed] Few could swim. Many drowned in rapids or in storms while crossing lakes. Portages and routes were often indicated by lob trees, or trees that had their branches cut off just below the top of the tree. Pemmican is a concentrated food consisting of dried pulverized meat, dried berries, and rendered fat. ... Rubaboo was a basic stew or porridge consumed by the voyageurs and Métis people. ... For the Gentoo Linux package manager, see Portage (software). ... Lob trees were prominent trees used as guides or landmarks along voyageur canoe routes. ...

Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded The Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... The History of Newfoundland and Labrador starts with two separate regions, the Colony of Newfoundland and the region of Labrador, then converge after 1946, with the creation of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Image File history File links LouisXIV.gif‎ Pavillon de Louis XIV File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): New France History of Quebec Monarchy in Quebec ... The Habitation at Port-Royal is a National Historic Site located at Port Royal in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... // French Rule Quebec City was founded on July 3, 1608 by Samuel de Champlain. ... Location City Information Established: January 1, 2002 Area: 228. ... The human history of Montréal spans some 8,000 years and started with the Algonquin, Huron, and Iroquois tribes of North America. ... Costumed interpreters perform a dance in the street at Fortress Louisbourg. ... Nickname: The Azalea City Coordinates: Country US State Alabama County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded a fort and settlement at the site of Detroit in 1701. ... The history of New Orleans, Louisiana traces its development from its founding by the French, through its period under Spanish control, then back to French rule before being sold to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. ... Panorama of Placentia. ... Fort Rouillé was a French trading post located in Toronto, Ontario, which was established around 1750 but abandoned in 1759. ... Fort Michilimackinac was an 18th century French, and later British, fort and trading post in the Great Lakes of North America. ... Fort de Chartres existed as a succession of three French fortifications built during the 1700s on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area of upper Louisiana known as the Illinois Country. ... Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701. ... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson... An artist’s rendering of Fort Duquesne Fort Duquesne was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... This is a list of all Forts built by the French government or French Chartered companies in what later became Canada and the United States. ... Governor General of New France was the vice-regal post in New France from 1663 until 1763. ... New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ... The Sovereign Council of New France was a political body appointed by the King of France and consisting of a Governor General, an intendant and a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Diocese of Quebec is the oldest Catholic see in the New World north of Mexico. ... This is a list of governors of Montreal. ... Categories: Canadian history | Acadia | Canadian historical figures ... This is a list of viceroys for the colony, dominion and province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This is a list of Governors of [[Louisiana== First French Era == Sauvole de la Villantry 1699-1701 Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville 1701-1713 Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac 1713-1716 Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville 1716-1717 Jean-Michel de Lepinay 1717-1718 Jean... The title of intendant (French: , Spanish intendente) has been used in a number of countries through history. ... Admiralty courts, also known as maritime courts, are courts exercising jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries and offences. ... Provost is from the Latin praepositus (set over, from praeponere, to place in front). It may mean: Provost (religion), a church official. ... An ecclesiastical court (also called Court Christian) is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters. ... An attorney is someone who represents someone else in the transaction of business: For attorney-at-law, see lawyer, solicitor, barrister or civil law notary. ... Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian (cf. ... The Code noir (French language: The Black Code), was a decree passed by Frances King Louis XIV in 1689. ... The seigneurial system of New France was the semi-feudal system of land distribution used in the colonies of New France. ... The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in Canada (and indeed in North America). ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... The Company of One Hundred Associates was a business enterprise created at a time when all territories explored by the French and seized as a part of the French colonial empire were the property of the King of France. ... Antoine Crozat, Marquis du Chatel (Toulouse, ca. ... In August 1717 Scottish businessman John Law acquired a controlling interest in the then derelict Mississippi Company and renamed it the Compagnie d’Occident (or Compagnie du Mississippi). ... The Compagnie de lOccident was a French Crown corporation that existed from 1664 to 1667. ... Habitants by Cornelius Krieghoff (1852) Habitants is the name used to referred to the French settlers who established a colony in the Haudenosaunee First Nations territory along the shores of the St. ... The Kings Daughters (in French: filles du roi) were between 700 and 900 Frenchwomen (accounts vary as to the exact numbers) who immigrated to New France (now part of Canada) between 1663 and 1673 under the monetary sponsorship of Louis XIV, as an attempt to rectify the numerical inequality... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... A Hupa man. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... The French and Iroquois Wars (also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars) commonly refer to a brutal series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century in eastern North America, in which the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between... The Great Upheaval (le Grand Dérangement), also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation or the Acadian Expulsion, was the forced population transfer of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755 and 1763, ordered by British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council. ... The Great Peace of Montreal was a peace treaty between New France and 39 First Nations of North America. ... Early in 1690, a party of over 200 French and Sault and Algonquin Indian raiders set out from Montreal to attack English outposts to the south. ... The Deerfield massacre occurred during Queen Annes War on February 29, 1704, when joint French and Native American forces under the command of Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville attacked the English (predominantly puritan) settlement at Deerfield, Massachusetts at dawn, razing the town and killing fifty-six colonists. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... -1... Quebec has played a special role in Canada, and its history has taken a somewhat different path from the rest of Canada. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded The Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... The term French West Indies (see also Antilles françaises) refers to the two French overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique. ... The Carib Expulsion took place in 1660. ... It has been suggested that Impact of Slave Trade on Africa be merged into this article or section. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Époques - Mot voyageur - Coureur des bois (154 words)
Le coureur des bois parcourt environ 70 km par jour.
La nourriture du coureur des bois consiste en une pinte de maïs et une once de gras.
À partir de 1681, on institue le système des permis de traite.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

davycrockett
22nd September 2010
Wintering in Northern Quebec is not my idea of a good time. Freezing all day just doesn't seem worth trading a copper pot for a couple of beaver pelts.

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