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Encyclopedia > Courage
Fortitudo, by Sandro Botticelli
Fortitudo, by Sandro Botticelli

Courage, also known as bravery and fortitude, is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. It can be divided into "physical courage" — in the face of physical pain, hardship, and threat of death — and "moral courage" — in the face of shame, scandal, and discouragement. Look up courage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up bravery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up fortitude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (419x800, 276 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Courage Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (419x800, 276 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Courage Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... “Hurting” redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... “Uncertain” redirects here. ... Intimidation is generally used in the meaning of criminal threatening. ... Antonym of psychical. ... This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... A scandal is a widely publicized incident involving allegations of wrong-doing, disgrace, or moral outrage. ...

Contents

Theories of courage

As a virtue, courage is covered extensively in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, its vice of deficiency being cowardice, and its vice of excess being recklessness. Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Nicomachean Ethics Nicomachean Ethics (sometimes spelled Nichomachean), or Ta Ethika, is a work by Aristotle on virtue and moral character which plays a prominent role in defining Aristotelian ethics. ... Cowardice is a vice that is conventionally viewed as the corruption of prudence, to thwart all courage or bravery. ... Recklessness is wanton disregard for the dangers of a situation. ...


It is well understood that physical and moral courage matters in the military, and there are ample illustrations of courage in religion, sometimes to the point of martyrdom. Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...


Courage is one of the Four Cardinal Virtues (along with Prudence, Justice, and Temperance) in Roman Catholicism. "Cardinal" meaning "pivotal" is applied to this virtue because to possess any virtue, a person must be able to sustain it in the face of difficulty. In Catholicism and Anglicanism, courage is also one of the Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. In the Christian church, there are four cardinal virtues. ... Prudence, by Luca Giordano Allegory of Prudence, by Simon Vouet Look up Prudence, prudence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Temperance may refer to: Temperance (virtue) Temperance movement Temperance (Tarot card) Temperance (band) See also Astrud Gilberto, for the album Temperance This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... In this Tree of Jesse the seven gifts, represented as doves, encircle a bust of Christ. ...


The precise view of what constitutes courage not only varies among cultures, but among individuals. For instance, some define courage as lacking fear in a situation that would normally generate it. Others, in contrast, hold that courage requires one to have fear and then overcome it.


There are also more subtle distinctions in the definition of courage. For example, some distinguish between courage and foolhardiness in that a courageous person overcomes a justifiable fear for an even more noble purpose. If the fear is not justifiable or if the purpose is not noble, then the courage is either false or foolhardy. SUNNY


Moral courage, more than physical courage, is widely debated. It is frequently regarded as courage in following one's own ethics which may result in the individual feeling isolated from colleagues, or even family. Also moral courage is facing shame, scandal, prejudice or even discouragement and defeating it. This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ...


Kierkegaard opposed courage to angst, while Paul Tillich opposed an existential courage to be to non-being, fundamentally equating it with religion. Søren Kierkegaard Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (May 5, 1813 - November 11, 1855), a 19th century Danish philosopher, has achieved general recognition as the first existentialist philosopher, though some new research shows this may be a more difficult connection than previously thought. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American theologian and Christian existentialist philosopher. ...

"Courage is the self-affirmation of being in spite of the fact of non-being. It is the act of the individual self in taking the anxiety of non-being upon itself by affirm­ing itself ... in the anxiety of guilt and condemnation. ... every courage to be has openly or covertly a religious root. For religion is the state of being grasped by the power of being itself."

Defenition: the defintion of courage is, being brave and having a go


J. R. R. Tolkien in his 1936 lecture Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics identified a "Northern 'theory of courage'", the heroic or "virtuous pagan" insistence to do the right thing even in the face of certain defeat without promise of reward or salvation: Tolkien redirects here. ... This article is about the type of character. ... Virtuous paganism is a concept of Christian theology parallel to the Righteous Among the Nations in Judaism. ...

It is the strength of the northern mythological imagination that it faced this problem, put the monsters in the centre, gave them victory but no honour, and found a potent and terrible solution in naked will and courage. 'As a working theory absolutely impregnable.' So potent is it, that while the older southern imagination has faded for even into literary ornament, the northern has power, as it were, to revive its spirit even in our own times. It can work, as it did even with the goðlauss viking, without gods: martial heroism as its own end. (p. 25f.) Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Although the term atheism originated in the 16th century, based on Ancient Greek ἄθεος godless, denying the gods, ungodly[1] and open admission to positive atheism in modern times was not made earlier than in the late 18th century, atheistic ideas and beliefs, as well as their political influence, have a...

Virtuous pagan heroism or courage in this sense is "trusting in your own strength", as observed by Jacob Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology, The Brothers Grimm on a 1000DM banknote. ...

men who, turning away in utter disgust and doubt from the heathen faith, placed their reliance on their own strength and virtue. Thus in the Sôlar lioð 17 we read of Vêbogi and Râdey â sik þau trûðu, "in themselves they trusted", The Sólarljóð is an Old Norse poem that is sometimes included in editions of the Poetic Edda due to its imagery from Norse mythology. ...

This "virtuous godlessness" is the nontheism of Pema Chodron, the "relaxing with the ambiguity and uncertainty of the present moment without reaching for anything to protect ourselves [...] finally realizing there is no babysitter you can count on."[1] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Pema Chodron portrait Pema Chödrön (formerly Deirdre Blomfield-Brown, born 1936) is a fully ordained Buddhist nun in the Tibetan vajrayana tradition, and a teacher in the lineage of Chögyam Trungpa. ...


Civil courage

Civil courage (sometimes also referred to as 'Social courage') is defined by many different standards, but the term is usually referred to when civilians stand up against something that is deemed unjust and evil, knowing that the consequences of their action might lead to their death, injury, or any other negative effect. For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ...


In many countries, such as France and Germany, civil courage is enforced by law; this means that if a crime is committed in public, the public is obliged to act, either by alerting the authorities, or by intervening in the conflict. If the crime is committed in a private environment, those that witness the crime are either to report it, or try to stop it.


Valour

Crest of the Royal Military College of Canada

Valour is the moral strength required to perform one’s duties honestly. It is not physical courage. Very few will have the opportunity to display a disregard for their personal safety under hazardous conditions. Rather, valour is the concept that bridges the ideas of truth and duty. It is the moral courage to live honestly and to do one’s duties, no matter the circumstances. Source - Royal Military College of Canada Officer Cadet Handbook p,15. Image File history File links RMCcrest. ... Image File history File links RMCcrest. ... This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), is the military academy of the Canadian Forces and is a full degree-granting university. ... Officer Cadet is a rank held by military cadets during their training to become commissioned officers. ...


Bystander effect

Main article: Bystander effect

The death of Kitty Genovese in 1964, Queens, New York, is often cited as a classic example of civil-courage failure. It is said that during a half-hour long attack, Kitty Genovese was raped and murdered in full view of thirty-eight witnesses, while none interfered. (Accounts differ, though; none of the witnesses claims to have witnessed the entire attack, many claim that they were not aware that Genovese was in danger, and some shouted at the attacker and called authorities.) The bystander effect (also known as bystander apathy) is a psychological phenomenon where persons are less likely to intervene in an emergency situation when others are present than when they are alone. ... Catherine Susan Genovese (July 7, 1935[1] — March 13, 1964), commonly known as Kitty Genovese, was a New York City woman who was stabbed to death near her home in the Kew Gardens section of Queens, New York. ...


Criminologists argue that such passivity is a result of "big-city life," cultural emphasis on individualism, or a common expectation that "someone else" will intervene. Others believe that simple cowardice is another explanation of passivity.


Symbolism

Its accompanying animal is the tiger. Often, Fortitude is depicted as having tamed the ferocious lion. Cf. e.g. the Tarot trump called Strength. It is sometimes seen as a depiction of the Catholic Church's triumph over sin. It also is a symbol in some cultures as a savior of the people who live in a community with sin and a corrupt church or religious body. For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general history, iconography, and uses of tarot cards. ... Strength (VIII) Strength is Major Arcana Tarot card, numbered either XI or VIII, depending on the deck. ...


References

  • Catholic Encyclopedia "Fortitude"
  • Summa Theologica "Second Part of the Second Part" See Questions 123-140
  • Paul Tillich, The Courage To Be (London: Collins, 1952), Chapter VI, "Courage and Transcendence", pp.152-183.
  • Ernest Becker, The Denial of Death (New York: The Free Press, 1973).
  • Douglas N. Walton, Courage: A philosophical investigation (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986).
  • Stephen Palmquist, Angst and the Paradox of Courage (2000) [1]

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Courage
Look up Courage in
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Courage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (781 words)
Courage, also known as fortitude, is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation.
Courage is one of the Four Cardinal Virtues of the Catholic Church.
Civil courage (sometimes also referred to as 'Social courage') is defined by many different standards, but the term is usually referred to when civilians stand up against something that is deemed unjust and evil, knowing that the consequences of their action might lead to their death, injury, or any other negative effect.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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