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Encyclopedia > Coup d'état

A coup d'état (pronounced 'kū dā ta'), or simply a 'coup', is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. It is different from a revolution, which is staged by a larger group and radically changes the political system. The term is French for "a sudden stroke, or blow, of a state". The term coup can also be used in a casual sense to mean a gain in advantage of one nation or entity over another; e.g. an intelligence coup. By analogy, the term is also applied to corporations, etc; e.g. a boardroom coup. A revolution is a relatively sudden and absolutely drastic change. ...


Since the unsuccessful coup attempts of Wolfgang Kapp in 1920, and of Adolf Hitler in 1923, the German word "putsch" is often used also, even in France (such as the putsch of November 8, 1942 and the putsch of April 21, 1961, both in Algiers). Wolfgang Kapp (July 24, 1858 - June 12, 1922) was an East Prussian civil servant and journalist. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see Algiers (disambiguation). ...


Tactically, a coup usually involves control of some active portion of the military while neutralizing the remainder of a country's armed services. This active group captures or expels leaders, seizes physical control of important government offices, means of communication, and the physical infrastructure, such as streets and power plants. The coup succeeds if its opponents fail to dislodge the plotters, allowing them to consolidate their position, obtain the surrender or acquiescence of the populace and surviving armed forces, and claim legitimacy. Tactics is the collective name for methods of winning a small-scale conflict, performing an optimization, etc. ... The word legitimacy comes from the Latin word legitimare and it has two uses: Legitimacy (political science) is whether or not people accept the validity of a law or ruling or the validity of a governing regime. ...


Coups typically use the power of the existing government for its own takeover. As Edward Luttwak remarks in his Coup d'état: A practical handbook: "A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the state apparatus, which is then used to displace the government from its control of the remainder." In this sense, use of military or other organized force is not the defining feature of a coup d'état. Any seizure of the state apparatus by extra-legal tactics may be considered a coup, according to Luttwak. Edward Nicolae Luttwak (born 1942) is an economist and historian known for his many publications on military strategy and international relations. ...

Contents

History

Coups have long been part of political tradition. Indeed, Julius Caesar made a coup and was the victim of another coup. Many Roman emperors, such as Claudius, came to power in coups. Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... Emperor Claudius Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar Drusus (August 1, 10 BC - October 13, 54), originally known as Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus, was the fourth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from January 24th 41 to his death in 54. ...


In the late 20th century coups occurred most commonly in developing countries, particularly in Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina), Africa and Asia (Pakistan), but also in the Pacific (Fiji) and in Europe (Greece, Portugal, Spain, Soviet Union). Since the 1980s, the coup has been seen somewhat less frequently. A significant reason is the general inability to resolve the economic and political problems of developing nations, which has made armed forces, particularly in Latin America, much more reluctant to intervene in politics. Hence, in contrast to past crises, the armed forces have sat on the sidelines through economic crises such as the Asian crisis in Thailand in 1998 or the Argentine crisis of 2002 and have tended to act only when the military perceives itself as institutionally threatened by the civilian government, as occurred in Pakistan in 1999. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A developing country is a country with a low income average, a relatively backwards infrastructure and a poor human development index when compared to the global norm. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand, and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices of several Asian countries, many part of the East Asian Tigers. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The South American Economic Crisis is the economic disturbances which have developed in 2002 in the South American countries of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Coups d'état have often been seen as a means for powerful nations to assure favorable outcomes in smaller foreign states. In particular, the American CIA and Soviet KGB developed a reputation for supporting coups in states such as Chile and Afghanistan, respectively. Such actions are substitutes for direct military intervention which would have been more politically unpopular. The governments of France and Britain have engineered coups as well. The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is one of the American foreign intelligence agencies, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Committee for State Security, or KGB, (Russian: Комите́т Госуда́рственной Безопа́сности; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti  listen), was the name of the main Soviet Security Agency and intelligence agency, as well as the main secret police agency from March 13, 1954 to November 6, 1991. ...


New styles of coups

In recent years, the traditional military coup has declined massively in use. A new, more contemporary form of military intervention which some regard as a coup d'état is simple threat of military force to remove a particularly unpopular leader. This has occurred twice in the Philippines. In contrast to previous coups d'état, the military does not directly assume power, but rather serves as an arbiter for civilian leaders.


In recent years mass street protests have also often been able to force leaders from office in a coup-like fashion. In situations of this sort, such as in Serbia (2000), Argentina (2001), Bolivia (2003), Haiti (2004), and Lebanon and Ecuador (2005), popular uprisings simply forced the sitting president to resign his office, causing someone new to assume the presidency. This often results in a period of stability and calm, in which an unknown and uncontroversial Vice President can rule the nation until new elections can be held. Serbia and Montenegro  – Serbia    – Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    – Vojvodina  – Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  – Total  – % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  – Density  7. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


Types of coups

Samuel P. Huntington has divided coups into three types (ignoring Luttwak's non-military coups) Samuel Phillips Huntington (born April 18, 1927) is a political scientist known for his analysis of the relationship between the military and the civil government, his investigation of coup detats, and his thesis that the central political actors of the 21st century will be civilizations rather than nation-states. ...

  • Breakthrough coups - In which a revolutionary army overthrows a traditional government and creates a new bureaucratic elite. Breakthrough coups are generally led by non-commissioned officers (NCOs) or junior officers and only happen once. Examples include China in 1911, Egypt in 1956 and Greece in 1967.
  • Guardian coups - These coups have been described as musical chairs. The stated aim of this form of coup is to improve public order, efficiency, or to end corruption. There is usually no fundamental shift in the structure of power, and the leaders of these types of coups generally portray their actions as a temporary and unfortunate necessity. Many nations with guardian coups undergo many shifts between civilian and military governments. Examples include Pakistan, Turkey, and Thailand.
  • Veto coups - These coups occur when the army vetoes mass participation and social mobilization. In these cases the army must confront and suppress large-scale and broad-based opposition and as a result they tend to be repressive and bloody. Examples include Chile in 1973 and Argentina in 1975. Overthrown of the President Fujimori of Peru in 2000. An abortive and botched veto coup occurred in Venezuela in 2002.

Coups can also be classified by the level of the military that leads the coup. Veto coups and guardian coups tend to be led by senior officers. Breakthrough coups tend to be led by junior officers or NCOs. In cases where the coup is led by junior officers or enlisted men, the coup is also a mutiny which can have grave implications for the organizational structure of the military. A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), or NCO, is an enlisted member of an armed force who has been delegated leadership or command authority by a commissioned officer. ... 1911 is a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Musical Chairs is a game played by a group of people, often in an informal setting purely for entertainment such as a birthday party. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori (born July 28, 1938) was President of Peru from July 28, 1990, to November 17, 2000. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mutiny is the crime of conspiring to disobey orders that the mutineer is legally obliged to obey, for example by crew members of a ship. ...


There is also a category known as bloodless coups in which the mere threat of violence is enough to force the current government to step aside. Bloodless coups are so called because they involve no violence and thus no bloodshed. Napoleon's 18 Brumaire coup is often pointed out as an example of bloodless coup, showing that bloodless coups are not really bloodless: on 18 Brumaire, several members of parliament were thrown out the windows of the building where they assembled. More recently, Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan came to power in a bloodless coup in 1999. Bonaparte as general, by Antoine-Jean Gros. ... 18 Brumaire, the coup of 18 Brumaire or sometimes simply Brumaire refers to the coup détat by which General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the government of the Directory to replace it by the Consulate. ... General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943, Delhi, India) became de facto Head of Government (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive powers) of Pakistan on October 12, 1999 following a bloodless coup détat. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


The term self-coup is used when the current government assumes extraordinary powers not allowed by the legislation. An example is Alberto Fujimori in Peru, who was democratically elected, but later took control of the legislative and judicial powers, or the coup of French President Louis Napoléon Bonaparte in 1851 against the powerful National Assembly. A self-coup occurs when a countrys leader dissolves the national legislature and assumes extraordinary powers not granted under normal circumstances. ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori (アルベルト・ケンヤ・フジモリ Aruberuto Kenya Fujimori, born July 28, 1938), also known as Kenya Fujimori (藤森 謙也 Fujimori Kenya), was President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Events January 23 - The flip of a coin determines whether a new city in Oregon is named after Boston, Massachusetts, or Portland, Maine, with Portland winning. ... The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ...


Post-military-coup governments

After the coup, the military is faced with the issue of the type of government to establish. In Latin America, it was common for the post-coup government to be led by a junta, a committee of the chiefs of staff of the various armed forces. A common form of African post-coup government is the revolutionary assembly, a quasi-legislative body made of members elected by the army. In Pakistan, the military leader typically assumes the title of chief martial law administrator. There are a number of things that junta (hUn-tah) could refer to: The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines a junta as a body of persons acting towards a common aim, especially political clique or faction after revolution or coupe détat. ... A committee comprises a mechanism of bureaucracy or of proto-bureaucracy whereby a limited number of people receive delegated functions of government or administration. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice (and usually of the whole state). ...


According to Huntington, most coup leaders act under the concept of right orders: they believe that the correct approach to government is to issue correct orders. This view of government underestimates the difficulty in implementing government policy and the amount of possible political resistance to certain orders.


Important coups in the 20th century

1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... The word Putsch literally means a thrust or blow. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Beer Hall Putsch occurred in the evening of Thursday, November 8 to early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923 when the nascent Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund, unsuccessfully tried to gain power in Munich... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Term of Office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political Party none, see Sanacja for details First Lady Maria Piłsudska Date of Birth December 5, 1867 Place of Birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of Death May 12, 1935 Place of Death... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Mäntsälä rebellion (Finnish: Mäntsälän kapina) was the failed coup attempt by the Lapua Movement to ovethrow the Finnish government. ... Lapua Movement (Lapuan liike) was a political movement in Finland, started in 1929, initially dominated by ardent anti-Communists, emphasizing the legacy of the nationalist activism, the White Guards and the Civil War in Finland, however soon turning into more of a Fascist movement. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... The May 15 incident occurred on 15 May 1932. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Order: 32th President Vice President: John N. Garner Henry A. Wallace Harry S. Truman Term of office: March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945 Preceded by: Herbert Hoover Succeeded by: Harry S. Truman Date of birth: January 30, 1882 Place of birth: Hyde Park, New York Date of death: April 12... The Business Plot or the The Plot Against FDR was a conspiracy against President Franklin D. Roosevelt by a group of millionaire businessmen, led by the Du Pont and J. P. Morgan empires. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... . Kārlis Ulmanis (b. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Konstantin Päts Konstantin Päts (February 23, 1874 - January 18, 1956) was an Estonian president and dictator. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... History of Spain Series -Timeline -Prehistoric Spain -Roman Spain -Visigothic Spain -Medieval Spain -Moorish Spain -Age of Reconquest -Age of Expansion -Age of Enlightenment -Reaction and Revolution -First Spanish Republic -The Restoration -Second Spanish Republic -Spanish Civil War -The Dictatorship -Modern Spain Topics -Economic History -Military History -Social History The... Francisco Franco Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 – November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The February 26 Incident (二・二六事件 Ni-niroku jiken) was an uprising against the Japanese government that took place in 1936. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see Algiers (disambiguation). ... Template:Campaignbox North African Campaign Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started November 8, 1942. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The July 20 Plot was a failed coup détat which involved an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Claus von Stauffenberg Claus Philip Maria Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg (November 15, 1907 – July 20, 1944) was a German aristocrat and army colonel during World War II. He was one of the leading figures of the July 20 Plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Getúlio Dornelles Vargas ( April 19, 1883 - August 24, 1954) was the president of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1950 to his suicide in 1954. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... A totalitarian régime or state attempts to control nearly every aspect of personal, economic, and political life. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The term satellite state, by analogy to stellar objects orbiting a larger object, such as planets revolving around the sun, refers to a country that is formally sovereign but that is in fact dominated by a larger hegemonic power. ... 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Juscelino Kubitschek and his wife Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (JK) (September 12, 1902-August 22, 1976) was a prominent Brazilian politician who was President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ayub Khan (May 14, 1907 – April 19, 1974) during the mid-1960s, was a Field Marshal and the political leader of Pakistan from 1958-1969. ... Iskander Mirza (November 15, 1899 - November 15, 1969) was the first President of Pakistan and held that position from 1956 until 1958. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 26th of July Movement (Movimiento 26 de Julio) was the revolutionary organization led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista regime in Cuba. ... Fidel Castro Fidel Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926), has led Cuba since 1959, when, leading the 26th of July Movement, he overthrew the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista, and transformed Cuba into the first Communist-led state in the Western Hemisphere. ... Che Guevara Dr. Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna (June 14, 1928¹ – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary and Cuban guerrilla leader. ... Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar General Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (January 16, 1901–August 6, 1973) was the de facto leader of Cuba from 1933 to 1940 and the countrys official president from 1940 to 1944 and again from 1952 to 1959. ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Park Chung-hee (September 30, 1917 - October 26, 1979) was President of South Korea from 1961 to 1979. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Ngô Đình Diệm (approximately pronounced Ngoh Din Yim  listen) (January 3, 1901–November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955-63). ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Dương Văn Minh (February 16, 1916–August 5, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Omar Torrijos Omar Torrijos Herrera (February 13, 1929 - August 1, 1981) was a Panamanian army officer and military ruler of Panama from 1968 to 1981. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 (Arabic: معمر القذافي Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī) (born 1942), leader of Libya since 1970 and a controversial Arab statesman. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... Ayub Khan (May 14, 1907 – April 19, 1974) during the mid-1960s, was a Field Marshal and the political leader of Pakistan from 1958-1969. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... The Coup by memorandum is the second military coup of Turkey carried out on March 12, 1971. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Chilean coup détat of September 11, 1973 was a watershed event in the history of Chile and the Cold War. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless left-leaning revolution started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy at the end of a two year process of a communist dominated military administration. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( 1920 - August 15, 1975), born in Gopalganj, Bangladesh, was a Bengali nationalist leader in East Pakistan and first Prime Minister and President of independent Bangladesh. ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... |} General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (August 12, 1924–August 17, 1988) ruled Pakistan from 1977 to 1988. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (January 5, 1928 - April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as President, from 1971 to 1973, and as Prime Minister, from 1973 to 1977, of Pakistan. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... The Coup détat of December Twelfth or the 12/12 Incident was a military coup détat taken place on December 12, 1979 in South Korea. ... Chun Doo-hwan (born 18 January 1931) was a Korean military officer and the President of South Korea from 1980 to 1988. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Désiré Delano Bouterse of Suriname (born 1945) has been a military sports instructor, coup leader, army leader and a politician in the Nationaal Democratische Partij (NDP). ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor Military rule may mean several things in modern terms: When a country or area is conquered after invasion and placed under Belligerent occupation, also known as Military occupation (see list of military occupations). ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Antonio Tejero with a gun in his hand, breaking into the Congress of Deputies February 23, 1981, attempting a coup. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Soviet Coup of 1991 or the August Coup crushed the hopes of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev that he could at least hold the union together in a decentralized form. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori (アルベルト・ケンヤ・フジモリ Aruberuto Kenya Fujimori, born July 28, 1938), also known as Kenya Fujimori (藤森 謙也 Fujimori Kenya), was President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. ...

Recent coups and coup attempts

1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori (born July 28, 1938) was President of Peru from July 28, 1990, to November 17, 2000. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hugo Chávez, surrounded by resolute supporters, makes a dramatic return to power on April 12, 2002 after the collapse of the first Latin American coup of the twenty-first century. ... Hugo Chavez in 1999, as President of Venezuela Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (born July 28, 1954) is the President of Venezuela. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up São Tomé and Príncipe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Government Assembleia Nacional de São Tomé e Príncipe official site São Tomé and Príncipe Government & Political Resources Page News allAfrica - São Tomé and Principe Overviews BBC News - Country Profile: Sao Tome and... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2004 Haiti rebellion was a conflict fought for several weeks in Haiti during February 2004 that resulted in the premature end of President Jean-Bertrand Aristides second term. ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... Note: as an adjective (stressed on the second syllable instead of the first), august means honorable. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...

Currently-serving leaders who came to power via coups

Fidel Castro Fidel Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926), has led Cuba since 1959, when, leading the 26th of July Movement, he overthrew the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista, and transformed Cuba into the first Communist-led state in the Western Hemisphere. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Cuba. ... Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 (Arabic: معمر القذافي Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī) (born 1942), has been the leader of Libya since 1969. ... General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943, Delhi, India) became de facto Head of Government (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive powers) of Pakistan on October 12, 1999 following a bloodless coup détat. ... Omar al-Bashir Field Marshal Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir (born January 1, 1944) is the president of the Sudan. ... Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (b. ... Idriss Déby (born 1952) is the president of Chad and the head of the Patriotic Salvation Movement. ... Categories: People stubs | 1965 births ... Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (زين العابدين بن علي; born September 3, 1936) has been president of Tunisia since 1987, only the second since its independence from France in 1956. ... Blaise Compaoré (born February 3, 1951) has been the president of Burkina Faso since 1987. ... Lansana Conté Lansana Conté (born 1934) has been the President of Guinea since 1984. ... Maaouya Ould SidAhmed Taya (Arabic: معاوية ولد سيد أحمد الطايع) (b. ... Azali Assoumani (born January 1, 1959) is the current president of the Comoros. ... François Bozizé (born October 14, 1946) is the current President of the Central African Republic. ... Gérard Latortue Gérard Latortue (born June 19, 1934) is the current Prime Minister of Haiti. ... The Caribbean Community and Common Market or CARICOM was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas which came into effect on August 1, 1973. ...

Coups and coup attempts in fiction

Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith is the third episode of the Star Wars film series (but the sixth film to be produced), to be released on Thursday, May 19, 2005. ... Samuel L. Jackson as Mace Windu. ... The Jedi Council is a fictional institution from the Star Wars series of films. ... Palpatine (84 BBY - 4 and 10 ABY), also known as Darth Sidious, and later His Majesty Emperor Palpatine, is an important character in the Star Wars fictional universe and the major villain of the Star Wars series. ...

Reference

  • Edward Luttwak, Coup d'etat: A practical handbook, Harvard University Press, 1969, 1980. ISBN 06-741-75476.
  • Curzio Malaparte, Technique du Coup d'Etat (Published in French), Paris, 1931.
  • D. J. Goodspeed, Six Coups d'Etat, Viking Press inc., New-York, 1962.

 
 

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