The Coup by memorandum is the second military coup of Turkey carried out on March 12, 1971. The same definition can be attained to the 1997 resignation of Necmettin Erbakan on a similar warning by the army.
After the general elections of 1969, reacting to the ruling Justice Party, unrest climbed especially within leftist circles, resulting in street clashes. Uncomfortable with the threat of public unrest, and a suspected preparation for a leftist coup within the military itself, the chief of the general staff presented a letter of memorandum to the president Cevdet Sunay demanding a strong and credible government. Upon the warning of the civilian officers that unless the current government led by prime minister Süleyman Demirel were dissolved, the army could take over the rule of the country, Demirel resigned the same day. Nihat Erim, a university professor and a member of the Republican People's Party replaced him to be an "above parties" prime minister and to form a "national unity" government to be supported by the majority of the parliament.
Following the coup, many leftist organizations were dissolved. Leftist militants were arrested and those officers in the army suspected of a coup plot were dismissed.
The coup succeeds if its opponents fail to dislodge the plotters, allowing them to consolidate their position, obtain the surrender or acquiescence of the populace and surviving armed forces, and claim legitimacy.
An abortive and botched veto coup occurred in Venezuela in 2002.
In cases where the coup is led by junior officers or enlisted men, the coup is also a mutiny which can have grave implications for the organizational structure of the military.
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