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Encyclopedia > County of Mark
County of Mark in 1477.
County of Mark in 1477.

The County of the Mark (German: Grafschaft Mark, colloquially known as Die Mark) was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle. It lay on both sides of the Ruhr River along the Volme and Lenne Rivers. Image File history File links KBMG1477. ... Image File history File links KBMG1477. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... This article is a rough translation of an article in German. ... The Lenne is a river in the Sauerland area in western Germany. ...


The Counts of the Mark were some of the most powerful and influential Westphalian lords in the Holy Roman Empire. The name Mark is recalled in the Märkischer Kreis, a district in lands north of the Ruhr River in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The northern portion (north of the Lippe River) is still called Hohe Mark ("Higher Mark"). The former "Lower Mark" (between the Ruhr and Lippe Rivers) is - for the most part - the present Ruhr area and is no longer called "Mark". Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... The Märkische Kreis is a district (Kreis) in central North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... North Rhine-Westphalia (German: Nordrhein-Westfalen, usually shortened to: NRW) is - in terms of population and economic output - the largest Federal State of Germany. ... The Lippe is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquially Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott or simply Pott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large (former) industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to...

Contents

Geography

County of the Mark and Ravensberg, 1645.
County of the Mark and Ravensberg, 1645.

The County of the Mark enclosed an area of approximately 3,000 km² and extended between the Lippe and Agger Rivers (north-south) and between Gelsenkirchen and Bad Sassendorf (west-east) for about 75 km. The Lippe is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The confluence of the Sülz and Agger Rivers near Lohmar The Agger is a river in Germany, a right tributary of the Sieg in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Gelsenkirchen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


The east-west flowing Ruhr separated the county in two different regions: the northern, fertile lowlands of Hellweg-Börde; and the southern hills of the Süderbergland (Sauerland). In the south-north direction the southern part of the county was crossed by the Lenne. In the region of the Lower Lenne was the County of Limburg (1243-1808), a fiefdom of Berg. For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... The Sauerland is a rural hilly area spreading across most of the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, heavily forested and sparsely inhabited. ... Map of the duchies of Jülich, Cleves, and Berg circa 1477 Berg was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


The seat of the Counts of the Mark was originally the Burg Altena in Sauerland, but they moved to Burg Mark near Hamm in the 1220s. The county was bordered by Vest Recklinghausen, the County of Dortmund, the Bishopric of Münster, the County of Limburg, Werden Abbey, and the Monastery of Essen. Map of Germany showing Hamm Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ... The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of todays North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony. ... Hagen-Hohenlimburg (formerly known as Limburg an der Lenne, changed to Hohenlimburg in 1903), on the Lenne river, is a borough of the city of Hagen in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Kloster Werden or Werden Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Essen-Werden (Germany), situated on the Ruhr. ... [Essen], german for Meal [essen], german for eat Essen is the name of the following places: Essen, Germany, one of the major cities of the Ruhr area Essen, Belgium Essen, Netherlands, a village in the province of Groningen German: to eat, eating, food This is a disambiguation page — a navigational...


Coat of arms

Coat of arms
Coat of arms

The coat of arms of the county was a red and white checkered fess of three rows on a gold field. These arms are used today by the city of Hamm. Many other places in the area include the red and white checkered fess in their arms as a reference to the county. A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A fess is a term used in heraldry to describe a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running from the left to the right side of the shield, centered from top to bottom. ... Map of Germany showing Hamm Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


History

County of Mark in 1681.
County of Mark in 1681.

Originally belonging to a collateral line of the counts of Berg, the territory emerged under the name of Berg-Altena in 1160. The Counts of Altena then purchased Burg Mark ("Oberhof Mark") near Hamm from the Counts of Rüdenberg and made it the residence of the new "Counts of the Mark". The town of Hamm near Burg Mark was founded by Count Adolf I in 1226 and was soon the most important town of the county. Mark was the German word for a border march. Map of the duchies of Jülich, Cleves, and Berg circa 1477 Berg was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Hamm Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Hamm Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ...


In the Battle of Worringen (1288), Count Eberhard I fought on the side of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Berg. He fought against his liege, Archbishopric Sigfried II von Westerburg (in his capacity as Duke of Westphalia). Because Brabant and its allies were victorious, the County of Mark gained supremacy in southern Westphalia and became independent of the Archbishopric of Cologne. The territory of Mark was for long restricted to the lands between the Ruhr and Lippe rivers ("Lower Mark"). New territories in the north ("Higher Mark") were gained during the 14th century in wars against the Prince-bishops of Münster. The Battle of Worringen was fought on June 5, 1288 near the town of Worringen (also called Woeringen), nowadays a suburb of Cologne. ... Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries, and a former province of Belgium. ... The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


Count Adolf III, the son of Adolf II married Margarete of Cleves, acquired the Duchy of Cleves on the western banks of the Rhine in 1368 and united it with Mark as "Cleves-Mark" in 1394. The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ...

County of the Mark in 1791.
County of the Mark in 1791.

The heir to the throne of Cleves-Mark married the daughter of the Duke of Berg in 1510, resulting in a personal union of Cleves-Mark and Berg (1521). Almost all of present North Rhine-Westphalia (except for the clerical states) was then ruled by the dukes. The ducal dynasty became extinct in 1609, when the insane last duke had died. A long dispute about the succession followed, before the territory was granted to Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg in the 1614 Treaty of Xanten (generally accepted in 1666). It then became part of the Kingdom of Prussia after 1701. A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... North Rhine-Westphalia (German: Nordrhein-Westfalen, usually shortened to: NRW) is - in terms of population and economic output - the largest Federal State of Germany. ... John or Johann Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) succeeded his father Joachim Friedrich as margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Ducal Prussia in 1608. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ...

County of the Mark in 1791.
County of the Mark in 1791.

In 1807 the County of the Mark passed from Prussia to France in the Treaties of Tilsit. In 1808 Napoleon then gave Mark to the elevated Grand Duchy of Berg, which was divided into four departments along the lines of Napoleonic France. Mark was in the Ruhr Department until the collapse of French power in 1813, when it returned to Prussia. The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Map of the duchies of Jülich, Cleves, and Berg circa 1477. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties and are now grouped into 22 metropolitan and four overseas régions. ...


The Prussian administrative reform of 30 April 1815 placed Mark within Regierungsbezirk Arnsberg, Province of Westphalia. The title, in the form "Count of the Mark", survived the territory as a subsidiary title of the Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and as such passed briefly through the British Royal Family.[source?] Although the dukes abdicated in 1919, their descendants continue. The Hohenzollern Prussian sovereigns remained nominal lords of the "Prussian County of the Mark" until the abolition of Prussia by the Allied Control Council on 25 February 1947. April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Westphalia and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony Close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom are known by the appellation The Royal Family. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


The "County of the Mark" has no official meaning anymore, but is used to informally refer to the region in North Rhine-Westphalia. North Rhine-Westphalia (German: Nordrhein-Westfalen, usually shortened to: NRW) is - in terms of population and economic output - the largest Federal State of Germany. ...


Rulers of Mark

Altena-Mark

  • 1160-1180 Eberhard IV of Berg, count of Altena
  • 1180-1198 Friedrich I count of Altena

Mark

  • 1198-1249 Adolf I
  • 1249-1277 Engelbert I
  • 1277-1308 Eberhard II
  • 1308-1328 Engelbert II
  • 1328-1347 Adolf II
  • 1347-1391 Engelbert III
  • 1391-1394 Adolf III
  • 1394-1398 Dietrich

Cleves-Mark

  • 1398-1417 Adolf IV
  • 1417-1461 Gerhard
  • 1461-1481 Johann I
  • 1481-1521 Johann II "The Pious"

Cleves-Mark-Jülich-Berg-Ravensberg

John III The Peaceful, Duke of Kleve-Mark, (Johann III Der Friedfertige, Herzog von Kleve-Jülich-Berg) (10 November 1490 - 6 February 1538/9) was a son of Johann II der Kindermacher Duke of Kleve-Mark and Matilda von Hessen. ...

References

This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding German Wikipedia article as of January 23, 2007. January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ...


External links

  • Edicts of the Duchy of Berg and the County of Mark, 1418-1816 (Coll. Scotti) online (German)
  • Map of the County of Mark in 1789

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