The first count of Holland, Dirk I, was probably the son of Count Gerulf II of Frisia. He received land around Egmond from Charles the Fat in 922. This is seen as the beginning of the county of Holland. However, until about 1100, the usual name of the county was West-Friesland.
Note that the chronology of the first counts is uncertain. The existence of a count between Dirk I and Dirk II was only discovered in recent research.
During the rule of Margaretha, her son William V had the real power in the county. He became ruler in his own right as a result of the Hook and Cod wars. He was also Duke William I of Bavaria-Straubing.
There was a war of succession between John and Jacqueline. This war was won by Philip of Burgundy, who had inherited John's claims on the duchy. Philip was a nephew of William VI, who had married a daughter of Philip the Bold of Burgundy. In 1432 he forced Jacqueline to abdicate from Hainaut and Holland on his behalf.
During the 'foreign rule' by Burgundy and Habsburg, the county was governed by a stadtholder in name of the count. In 1581, the Estates General of the United Provinces declared themselves independent from the Spanish rule of Philip II (who was Philip III of Holland). Until the Treaty of Munster in 1648, the kings of Spain used the title Count of Holland, but they had lost the actual power over the county.
Holland is a former county of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the Count of Holland, and later the leading member of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden, 1581–1795).
The greatest cities of the provinces were located within the province of Holland such as Amsterdam (capital of The Netherlands), Rotterdam, Leiden, Alkmaar, the Hague (the seat of government), Delft and Haarlem (capital of Holland).
Holland arose as a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the 9th century.
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