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Encyclopedia > County of Bentheim

Bentheim was a county of Holy Roman Empire, located in modern southwestern Lower Saxony, Germany. The borders of the county correspond largely to the modern borders of the District of Bentheim. Originally, the county was comprised largely of fens, with settlement concentrated along the banks of the rivers which passed through the county. Sandstone was exported at decent profit from Bentheim to other locales throughout present-day Germany and the Netherlands. A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Bentheim (in full Grafschaft Bentheim (County of Bentheim)) is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... A fen is a sere, a phase in the natural ecological succession from the open water of a lake to (for example) woodland. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ...

Contents

History

The county of Bentheim had existed by c. 1050 AD, although little is known of the county until 1115.


In 1115, the county was passed to Count Otto, of the House of Salm. His heir and daughter, Countess Sophia, married Dirk VI, Count of Holland, and they co-ruled the county until Dirk's death in 1157. Sophia died in 1176, and the countship passed to her son Otto I. In 1263, Bentheim annexed the County of Tecklenburg, and over time various branches of the counts of Bentheim would annex and purchase various territories in Rheda, Steinfurt, and the Netherlands. In 1277, the County of Bentheim was partitioned into Bentheim-Bentheim (containing the County of Bentheim) and Bentheim-Tecklenburg (containing the County of Tecklenburg). Salm is the name of several historic principalities in present Germany, Belgium and France. ... Dirk VI, Count of Holland between 1121 and 1157. ... Tecklenburg Tecklenburg is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Steinfurt is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Bentheim-Bentheim was a County of southeastern Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Bentheim-Tecklenburg was a German district based in the region around Tecklenburg in northern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


The first County of Bentheim-Bentheim endured until 1530, when its line of counts had become extinct and Bentheim was granted to Arnold II of Bentheim-Steinfurt. In 1544, Arnold officially converted to Lutheranism, beginning a slow process of introducing the Reformation in Bentheim and other territories he ruled. Protestant preachers were introduced into Bentheim during the autumn of 1587. The following year Bentheim officially gained a new Church constitution, which was later introduced in Tecklenburg (1589) and Steinfurt (1591). In 1613, Count Arnold Jobst of Bentheim-Steinfurt created the Higher Church Council to help administer the spiritual matters of Bentheim, as well as establishing the Reformed Church of Bentheim in all three of the counties. Bentheim-Steinfurt was a County of Germany, located in northwestern North Rhine-Westphalia in the region surrounding Steinfurt. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


When Arnold Jobst died in 1643, the County of Bentheim-Steinfurt was partitioned into Bentheim-Steinfurt and Bentheim-Bentheim, the latter comprising of the County of Bentheim. In 1753, the County of Bentheim was seized by the elector of Hanover. "In 1753, trouble within made them (the Counts of Bentheim) take out a mortgage to the King of Hanover and England."[1]-1...


For almost 700 years prior to this, Grafshaft Bentheim was independently ruled by the Counts of Bentheim and that they might have continued thus had it not been for the circumstances of 1753.[2]


In 1803, Bentheim was again united with Bentheim-Steinfurt. Bentheim-Steinfurt was mediatised to Berg and Prussia in 1806, with the former gaining Bentheim and the latter Steinfurt. Bentheim was annexed by France in 1810 with the Kingdom of Holland and many northwest German regions. The Congress of Vienna later granted Bentheim to Hanover. // Background The German Mediatisation is a name applied to the series of mediatisations and secularisations which occurred in Germany during the Napoleonic Era (occurring 1795 - 1814AD). ... Berg was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ...


The people

"In spirit," writes Harger, "the people of Bentheim have never lost their independence. They became Hanoverians; they were invaded by Napoleon. Prussia took them over in 1866. They lived under the Kaiser and under Hitler. Through all this they came with good courage. If you ask them today about their identity, they just might tell you, 'Wy bin't Groofshappers' (We are Grafschappers)."[3] For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


Arranged marriages have been a longstanding tradition in Grafschaft (county) Bentheim. In former times, the parents arranged for their children to marry a distant relative. Weddings lasted three days with each invited guest giving about 100 DM ($50 in 1988) to the newly married couple. The couple signs the marriage contract before the ceremony (as opposed to after, as in the United States). The presentation of the dowry and hope chest was part of the ceremony. A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to the grooms at the time of their marriage. ... Hope Chest: The Fredonia Recordings 1982-1983 is a 1990 album by 10,000 Maniacs. ...


Until the 1950s, most gave birth, with aid of a midwife, in their own home. After birth, the baby would have its lower body tightly wrapped to prevent bowleggedness and a tight fitting cap would be placed on its head, covering the ears, "so the ears would grow nice and close to the face."[4] Children born during the week would be baptized in the Reformed tradition that coming Sunday, attended by the neighbors and midwife to stand as witnesses. In former times, the new mother would not leave the house during the first six weeks after giving birth. Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ...


When a family member dies, the next-door neighbor is the first to be contacted. He is in charge for the next four days, and instructs the other neighbors as to their duties. He is responsible for contacting the pastor (officiant), the bellringer, and the gravedigger and making the burial arrangements. The town bell would be sounded one toll for each year the deceased had lived. If the death occurred after 9:00 p.m., this would wait until 9:00 the following morning. The casketbuilder would then begin his work, and the "death messengers" would be dispatched to inform the citizenry of the death with a message akin to "You are asked to attend the funeral of the departed ____________ at (time and date)." All in attendance at the funeral would wear unadorned black clothing. From 850 CE to about 1850 CE, burial was done in the churchyard, the idea being that the "church on earth" was the closest place to the "Church Triumphant." A grave was family-owned, and could be reused for another family member after 30 years. Napoleon decreed the estaablishment of cemetery yards outside of the city or village (for sanitary reasons) in 1808, an edict which was resisted in Bentheim, but finally adopted in 1850.


The funeral was followed by a church service featuring songs about resurrection. The length of the mourning period varied by relationship to the deceased: three years for the spouse, two years for the children, one year for the siblings, and 6 weeks for the next-door neighbor. During this period, unadorned black was to be worn, and this was strictly enforced.


States of Bentheim

  • County of Bentheim (c.1050 - 1277)
  • County of Bentheim-Alpen (1606 - 1629)
  • County of Bentheim-Bentheim (1277 - 1530, 1643 - 1753, 1753 - 1803)
  • County of Bentheim-Bentheim and Bentheim-Steinfurt (1803 - 1806)
  • County of Bentheim-Limburg (1606 - 1632)
  • County of Bentheim-Lingen (1450 - 1555)
  • County of Bentheim-Steinfurt (1454 - 1803)
  • County of Bentheim-Tecklenburg (1277 - 1557)
  • County of Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda (1606 - 1806)

Bentheim-Alpen was a short-lived County of the Holy Roman Empire, created as a partition of Bentheim-Steinfurt in 1606. ... Bentheim-Bentheim was a County of southeastern Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Bentheim-Bentheim was a County of southeastern Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Bentheim-Steinfurt was a County of Germany, located in northwestern North Rhine-Westphalia in the region surrounding Steinfurt. ... Bentheim-Limburg was a short-lived County of the Holy Roman Empire, created as a partition of Bentheim-Steinfurt in 1606. ... Bentheim-Lingen was a County based around Lingen in Germany. ... Bentheim-Steinfurt was a County of Germany, located in northwestern North Rhine-Westphalia in the region surrounding Steinfurt. ... Bentheim-Tecklenburg was a German district based in the region around Tecklenburg in northern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda was a County of northwestern North Rhine-Westphalia and southwestern Lower Saxony, Germany. ...

Counts of Bentheim (c. 1050 - 1277)

???

  • Otto of Salm (1115 - 1149)
  • Sophia (1149 - 1176) with...
  • Dirk (VI of Holland) (1149 - 1157)
  • Otto I (1176 - 1207)
  • Baldwin (1207 - 1247)
  • Otto II (1247 - 1277)

Salm is the name of several historic principalities in present Germany, Belgium and France. ... Dirk VI, Count of Holland between 1121 and 1157. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ...

Pre-history[5]

  • 500-600 CE: Germanic tribes settle the area
  • 804 CE: Saxon tribes loose their independence
  • 800-850 CE: Charlemagne introduces "Christianity with the sword." Founding of the scholten system. Emlichheim, Uelsen, Veldhausen, and Nordhorn become church and court districts.

External links

  • Map of Lower Saxony in 1789

References

  1. ^ Swenna Harger & Loren Lemmen, The County of Bentheim and Her Emigrants to North America (Holland, MI: Swenna Harger, 1994), p. 3.
  2. ^ The Yearbook of History Society of Bentheim (1984), p. 135.
  3. ^ Swenna Harger & Loren Lemmen, The County of Bentheim and Her Emigrants to North America (Holland, MI: Swenna Harger, 1994), p. 4.
  4. ^ Swenna Harger & Loren Lemmen, The County of Bentheim and Her Emigrants to North America (Holland, MI: Swenna Harger, 1994), p. 5.
  5. ^ Swenna Harger & Loren Lemmen, The County of Bentheim and Her Emigrants to North America (Holland, MI: Swenna Harger, 1994), p. 149.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bentheim - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (216 words)
Bentheim (German: Grafschaft Bentheim; English: County of Bentheim) is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Bentheim was a small medieval state, for that see: Bentheim (county).
Bentheim became an earldom as early as 1050.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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