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Encyclopedia > County Police Act 1839

The County Police Act 1839 (2&3 Vict., c. 93) (also known as The Rural Police Act) was an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The act enabled Justices of the Peace in England and Wales to establish police forces in their counties. The Act was not compulsory, and constabularies were only established in 25 out of 55 counties by 1856, when the County and Borough Police Act 1856 made their provision mandatory. In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... A Justice of the Peace (JP) is someone appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

The Act allowed Justices of the Peace of any county, in general or quarter sessions, to appoint constables "for the preservation of the peace and protection of the inhabitants" where they felt the existing system of parish constables was insufficient. Originally, in continental Europe, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count. ... The Courts of Quarter Sessions or Quarter Sessions were periodic courts held in each county and county borough in England and Wales until 1972, when together with the Assize courts they were abolished by the Courts Act 1971 and replaced by a single permanent Crown Court of England and Wales. ... A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. ...

The constables were to be appointed on a ratio of not more than one officer per one thousand of population. Boroughs operating under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 had the power to form their own police force and were to be excluded from the jurisdiction of the county police. A borough is a local government administrative subdivision used in the Canadian province of Quebec, in some states of the United States, and formerly in New Zealand. ... The Municipal Reform Act 1835 required members of town councils (municipal corporations) to be elected by ratepayers and councils to publish their financial accounts. ...

In each county where the Act was adopted a Chief Constable was to be appointed. Where a county was divided into two parliamentary divisions by the Reform Act 1832, a chief constable could be appointed to each division. It was also permitted for one chief constable to be appointed to two or more neighbouring counties. Chief Constable is the title given to the commanding officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom except the two responsible for Greater London. ... The Reform Act of 1832 (known also as the Great Reform Act and The Parliamentary Reform Act 1832) introduced wide-ranging changes to electoral franchise legislation in the United Kingdom. ...

For the purposes of the Act all county exclaves were to be part of the county by which they were surrounded, or with which they had the longest common boundary. All franchises or liberties, other than reformed boroughs were also to come under the county police. D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... A Liberty was a local government unit in England. ...

A "county" for the purposes of the Act was defined as being "any County, Riding or Division having a separate Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace or in which separate County Rates are made". The Act was not to extend to the Metropolitan Police District. The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the area policed by Londons Metropolitan Police Service. ...

The Act was amended by the County Police Act 1840.



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