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Encyclopedia > Counterculture

Counterculture (also "counter-culture") is a sociological word used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day,[1] the cultural equivalent of political opposition. This was a neologism from 1968[1][2] attributed to Theodore Roszak.[3][4] However earlier references exist, since Stein Rokkan in his models in political science, used the term about the struggle of the periphery against central state- and nation-building and that kind of central cultural standardisation, as early as 1967 (JSTOR-40). During the 1960s the term underground acquired a new meaning in that it referred to members of the so-called counterculture, i. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... The meaning of opposition-Hostile attitude or action: a disapproving attitude toward something and a wish to prevent it, or action taken to show disapproval of and prevent something Public opposition to the plan was growing. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Theodore Roszak (born 1933) is an American professor, social thinker, writer, and critic. ... Stein Rokkan (1921-1979) was a Norwegian political scientist and sociologist. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Generally, a periphery is a boundary or outer part of any space or body. ... An unphonetic way to write center. ... In this book, Fukuyama advocates a liberal-democratic approach in assisting failed states to re-align themselves with the modern day global community. ... This article or section should be merged with nation-building Nation building is the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy. ... Standardisation or standardization (sometimes abbreviated s13n), in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


Although distinct countercultural undercurrents exist in many societies, here the term "counterculture" refers to a more significant, visible phenomenon that reaches critical mass and persists greatly for a period of time. A counterculture movement thus expresses the ethos, aspirations and dreams of a specific population during an era — a social manifestation of zeitgeist. The term is applied to a group, rather than opinions of a single individual, separately. This article is about the German word. ...


Countercultural milieux in 19th century Europe included the traditions of Romanticism, Bohemianism and of the Dandy. Another movement existed in a more fragmentary form in the 1950s, both in Europe and the US, in the form of the Beat generation/Beatniks,[2] followed in the 1960s by the hippies. Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the persons. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Beats redirects here. ... Beatnik can refer to two different things: A member of the Beat Generation An esoteric programming language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hippies (singular hippie or sometimes hippy) were members of the 1960s counterculture movement who adopted a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Buddhism, Hinduism, and/or Native American religious culture, and were otherwise at odds with traditional middle class Western values. ...


The term 'counterculture' came to prominence in the news media as it was used to refer to the social revolution that swept North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand during the 1960s and early 1970s.[1][2][4] North American redirects here. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...

Contents

Sixties and seventies counterculture

The counterculture of the 1960s began in the United States as a reaction against the social norms of the 1950s, segregation in the Deep South, and the Vietnam War[5][6] In the United Kingdom the counterculture was mainly a reaction against the post-war social norms of the 1940s and 1950s, although "Ban the Bomb" protests centered around opposition to nuclear weaponry. // The counterculture of the 1960s was a social revolution between the period of 1960 and 1973[1] that began in the United States as a reaction against the conservative social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US government... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Segregation means separation. ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ...


White middle class youth, for the first time since the Great Depression of the 1930s, had sufficient leisure time to raise concerns about social issues - especially civil rights, the Vietnam War and women's rights. The far-reaching changes that began during the late 1960s and early 1970s affected many aspects of society, creating a social revolution in many industrialized countries. The effects of the 1960s and 1970s counterculture also significantly affected voters and institutions, especially in the U.S. Every Western capital experienced significant protests. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...


As the 1960s progressed, widespread tensions developed in American society that tended to flow along generational lines regarding the war in Vietnam, race relations, sexual mores, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychedelic drugs and a predominantly materialist interpretation of the American Dream. Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. ... For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ...


The Hippies became the largest countercultural group in the United States, fighting for racial equality, women's rights, sexual liberation (including gay rights), relaxation of prohibitions against recreational drugs, and an end to the Vietnam War. Hippie culture was best embodied by the new genre of psychedelic rock music and the artists who exemplified this era, such as Jefferson Airplane, The Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix, The Doors, The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, Bob Dylan, and Janis Joplin. The pop-art culture led by Andy Warhol and Edie Sedgwick also played a prominent part in the social change in the United States by redefining what "art" was and what made it valuable. His mass-produced monographs and silk-screens, such as the iconic Campbell's Soup Cans challenged the notion that art is only about certain subjects -ie. wealthy patrons or pretty landscapes, or that art is a singular creation. Warhol's expressed views of glamour, art, and drugs very prominently through Warhol's paintings, films, and music (through his sponsored bands The Velvet Underground and Nico and his Factory). Hippies (singular hippie or sometimes hippy) were members of the 1960s counterculture movement who adopted a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Buddhism, Hinduism, and/or Native American religious culture, and were otherwise at odds with traditional middle class Western values. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... For psychedelics, see psychedelic drug. ... This article is about the genre. ... Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the psychedelic rock movement. ... Jerry Garcia later in life The Grateful Dead was an American rock band, which was formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, Mother McCrees Uptown Jug Champions. ... Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American guitar virtuoso, singer and songwriter. ... The Doors were an influential American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles by vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, drummer John Densmore, and guitarist Robby Krieger. ... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Janis Lyn Joplin (19 January 1943 – 4 October 1970) was an American singer, songwriter, and music arranger, from Port Arthur, Texas. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Edith Minturn Edie Sedgwick (April 20, 1943 – November 16, 1971)[1] was an American actress, socialite, and heiress who starred in several of Andy Warhols short films in the 1960s. ... Screen-printing, also known as silkscreening or serigraphy, is a printmaking technique that creates a sharp-edged single-color image using a stencil and a porous fabric. ... For other uses, see Campbells Soup Cans (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glamour (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about the rock band. ... For other uses, see Nico (disambiguation). ...


Theodore Roszak stated,[4] "A eclectic taste for mystic, occult, and magical phenomena has been a marked characteristic of our postwar [WWII] youth culture since the days of the beatniks" (1968).[4] The spiritualism included major interest in astrology, such as the term "Age of Aquarius" and knowing people's signs (Sun Signs). Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... The Age of Aquarius (starting around the 27th century) is one of the twelve astrological ages. ... For other uses, see Zodiac (disambiguation). ...


The counterculture in the United States reached its peak between 1965 and the mid-1970s. It eventually waned for several reasons-- mainstream America's backlash against its excesses, many notable countercultural figures died, the Civil Rights movement achieved its main goals, and the Vietnam War ended. Though most of the 1960s countercultural groups have died out, they have left a lasting mark on society that continues to inspire modern day movements.


Lesbian, gay, bisexual & transgender counterculture

The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender community (commonly abbreviated as the “LGBT” community), mostly evident in North America, Western Europe, Australasia and South Africa, fits the definition of a countercultural movement as "a cultural group whose values and norms of behavior run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day". The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ...


At the outset of the 20th century, homosexual acts were punishable offenses in these countries. The prevailing public attitude was that homosexuality was a moral failing that should be punished, as exemplified by Oscar Wilde’s 1895 trial and imprisonment for "gross indecency." But even then, there were dissenting views. Sigmund Freud publicly expressed his opinion that homosexuality was a perfectly normal condition for some people.[citation needed] Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


According to Charles Kaiser’s The Gay Metropolis, there were already semi-public gay-themed gatherings by the mid-1930s in the United States (such as the annual drag balls held during the Harlem Renaissance). There were also bars & bathhouses that catered to gay clientele and adopted warning procedures (similar to those used by Prohibition-era speakeasies and 21st century smokeasies) to warn customers of police raids. But homosexuality was typically subsumed into bohemian culture, and was not a significant movement in itself.[7] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... For the song Gay Bar by Electric Six, see Electric Six. ... Gay bathhouses, also known as (gay) saunas or steam baths (and sometimes called, in gay slang in some regions, the baths or the tubs), are places where men can go to have sex with other men. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A smokeasy (also spelled smoke-easy or smokeeasy) is a business, especially a barroom, that allows smoking despite a legal prohibition. ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ...


During World War II, millions of American men and women were uprooted from their homes, and relocated to large port cities, such as New York City and San Francisco, either en route to tours of duty abroad or to serve in the home-front war effort. Being "anonymous" in the large urban landscape and separated from 'shaming' societal figures, many who otherwise would have spent their lives closeted were exposed to nascent gay culture. When the war ended, many of these people chose to permanently settle in New York and San Francisco and live more openly gay lives[citation needed]. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


At this time, a genuine gay culture began to take root, albeit very discreetly, with its own styles, attitudes and behaviors and industries began catering to this growing demographic group. For example, publishing houses cranked out pulp novels like The Well of Loneliness or The Velvet Underground that were targeted directly at gay people. By the early 1960s, openly gay political organizations such as the Mattachine Society were formally protesting abusive treatment toward gay people, challenging the entrenched idea that homosexuality was an aberrant condition, and calling for the decriminalization of homosexuality. Despite very limited sympathy, American society began at least to acknowledge the existence of a sizable population of gays. The film The Boys in the Band, for example, featured negative portrayals of gay men, but at least recognized that they did in fact fraternize with each other (as opposed to being isolated, solitary predators who ‘victimized’ straight men). The Well of Loneliness is a 1928 lesbian novel by the English author Radclyffe Hall. ... The Velvet Underground is a pocket book by journalist Michael Leigh that reports on sexual paraphilia in the USA, published in September, 1963. ... The Mattachine Society was the earliest homophile organization in the United States. ... Leonard Frey as Harold The Boys in the Band is a 1970 film directed by William Friedkin. ...


The watershed event in the American gay rights movement was the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City. Following this event, gays and lesbians began adopting the militant protest tactics used by anti-war and black power radicals to confront anti-gay ideology. Another major turning point was the 1973 decision by the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the official list of mental disorders.[8] Although gay radicals used pressure to force the decision, Kaiser notes that this had been an issue of some debate for many years in the psychiatric community, and that one of the chief obstacles to normalizing homosexuality was that therapists were profiting from offering dubious, unproven "cures".[9] LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The Stonewall riots were a series of violent conflicts between New York City police officers and groups of gay and transgender people that began during the early... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States and had spread to the United Kingdom by May of 1965 [1]. By the end of 1968, as U.S. troop casualties mounted and the... Black Power is a movement among Black people throughout the world, especially those in the United States. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ...


The AIDS epidemic was a massive, unexpected blow to the movement, especially in North America. There was speculation that the disease would permanently drive gay life underground. Ironically, the tables were turned. Many of the early victims of the disease had been openly gay only within the confines of insular gay ghettos such as New York City’s Greenwich Village and San Francisco’s Castro); they remained closeted in their professional lives and to their families. Many heterosexuals who thought they didn't know any gay people were confronted by friends and loved ones dying of ‘the gay plague.’ The LGBT community were increasingly seen not only as victims of a disease, but as victims of ostracism and hatred. Most importantly, the disease became a rallying point for a previously complacent gay community. AIDS invigorated the community politically to fight not only for a medical response to the disease, but also for wider acceptance of homosexuality in mainstream America. Ultimately, coming out became an important step for many LGBT people. // History In the early 1980s, doctors in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco began seeing young men with Kaposis Sarcoma, a cancer usually associated with elderly men of Mediterranean ethnicity. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... The sidewalk on Castro Street looking north from 18th toward Market displays some of the color of the neighborhood. ... For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ...


Among the steps to greater acceptance was the reclaiming of language, such as the word "queer", once been used as a derogatory term. During the 1980s gay people embraced the word as a defiant, pro-gay term. Its use became a broad declaration that gay men, lesbians, bisexuals and transgendered people would no longer 'apologize' for themselves, or try to placate homophobic elements. For other uses, see Queer (disambiguation). ...


In 2003, the United States Supreme Court officially declared all sodomy laws unconstitutional.[10] Virtually every large city and community in America has its own network of bars, gay-friendly businesses and community centers[citation needed]. Annual gay pride events take place throughout the US and the world. Many of the current debates at the forefront of the LGBT community, such as same-sex marriage and parenting) would have been unthinkable even 20 years ago[citation needed]. As of 2007, the gay community is focusing on marital rights, although sufficient numbers of Americans oppose gay marriage to the point that 27 state constitutional amendments banning gay marriage have been passed by comfortable popular margins of 60-80%. This indicates that despite the wider acceptance and tolerance of homosexual life, it is still viewed by mainstream American society as an aberration, making it in every sense one of several contemporary 'countercultures'. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Front line of Gay Pride parade in Paris, France; June 2005 Gay pride or LGBT pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA, CA eff. ... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ...


Russian/Soviet counterculture

Although not exactly equivalent to the English definition, the term "Контркультура" (Kontrkul'tura, "Counterculture") found a constant use in Russian to define a cultural movement that promotes acting outside usual conventions of Russian culture - use of explicit language, graphical description of sex, violence and illicit activities and uncopyrighted use of "safe" characters involved in everything mentioned.


During the early 70's, Russian culture was forced into quite a rigid framework of constant optimistic approach to everything. Even mild topics, such as breaking marriage and alcohol abuse, tended to be viewed as taboo by the media. In response, Russian society grew weary of the gap between real life and the creative world. Thus, the folklore and underground culture tended to be considered forbidden fruit. On the other hand, the general satisfaction with the quality of the existing works promoted parody, often within existing settings. For example, the Russian anecdotal joke tradition turned the settings of War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy into a grotesque world of sexual excess. Another well-known example is black humor (mostly in the form of short poems) that dealt exclusively with funny deaths and/or other mishaps of small innocent children. Russian jokes or anekdoty (Russian: анекдо́ты), the most popular form of Russian humour, are short fictional stories or dialogues with a punch line. ... For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , Russian pronunciation:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo (Lyof, Lyoff) Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Russian humour gains much of its wit from the great flexibility and richness of the Russian language, allowing for plays on words and unexpected associations. ...


In the mid-80s, the Glasnost policy allowed the production of not-so-optimistic creative works. As a consequence, Russian cinema during the late 80s to the early 90s was dominated by crime-packed action movies with explicit (but not necessarily graphic) scenes of ruthless violence and social dramas on drug abuse, prostitution and failing relations. Although Russian movies of the time would be rated R in the USA due to violence, the use of explicit language was much milder than in American cinema. //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ...


Russian counterculture as we know it emerged in the late 90s with the increased popularity of the internet. Several web sites appeared that posted user-written short stories that dealt with sex, drugs and violence. The following features are considered most popular topics for the works:

  • Wide use of explicit language
  • Deliberate bad spelling
  • Drug theme - descriptions of drug use and consequences of substance abuse
  • Alcohol use - negative
  • Sex and violence - nothing is a taboo. In general, violence is rarely advocated, while all types of sex is considered to be a good thing.
  • Parody - media advertising, classic movies, pop culture and children's books are considered to be fair game.
  • Non conform to daily routine and set nature of things
  • Politically incorrect topics - mostly racism, xenophobia and homophobia

As with pornography, Russian counterculture has blurred borders and is hard to define. Generally, any content posted on a number of counterculture sites, like Udaff, Litprom or Fuck.ru (No longer available) is considered counterculture, although some of the stories there have nothing to do with all of the above apart from being counterculture-inspired. Although seen as outcasts by conventional media, some of the countercultural authors have become extremely popular in modern Russia. People like Sergei Minayev (aka Amiga), Andrei Orlov (aka orlusha), Rustem Samigullin (aka Shchikotillo) and Yekaterina Temirgaliyeva (aka Кошки 2 шт.) are widely considered as icons of popular culture, art and literature, are frequently interviewed by press, radio and television, being recognised on the street and asked for autographs like movie or rock stars. The impact of Litprom on off-line Russian media has become a real shock for the closed and snobbish official Russian ;culture'. Having hit the shelves midsummer of 2006, Minayev's premiere book Духless has become the national mega-bestseller with the current print run of over 500 000 copies, while a sharp pooooooooop and ironic obscene poem ЗА-Е-БА-ЛО! by orlusha has topped the list of downloaded ring-tones, leaving the most popular pop- and rock tunes far behind. Much to a surprise of the Moscow authorities, graffiti like ЛИТПРОМ ФОРЕВА (Litprom forever) and УДАВ СОСЁТ (udaff sucks) have outnumbered such previous hits like ЦОЙ ЖИВ (Tsoi is alive) and ОТСОСИ У КРАСНО-СИНИХ (suck the red-blue army dick) in the Moscow public toilets and elevators. It is also really hard to overestimate the influence of Dr. Samigullin's (Щикатиллло) extreme promiscuity and outrageous sexual practices on everyday life of both married and single house-wives over 42 y.o. The ROFL-esque works of Renson (preved renad) & Raider (voffka the crazy drummer), the core and hard-standing members of the Russian countercultural movement, have also become quite some benchmarks for many a reader of aforementioned counterculture sites. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Porn redirects here. ... Udaff. ...


The interesting aspect is the influence of the contra-cultural developments on the Russian pop culture. In addition to traditional Russian styles of music like songs with jail-related lyrics, new music styles with explicit language were developed.


Asian counterculture

In the recent past Dr. Sebastian Kappen, an Indian theologian, has tried to redefine counterculture in the Asian context. In March 1990, at a seminar in Bangalore, he presented his countercultural perspectives (Chapter 4 in S. Kappen, Tradition Modernity Counterculture, Visthar, Bangalore, 1994). Dr. Kappen envisages counterculture as a new culture that has to negate the two opposing cultural phenomena in Asian Countries: (1) invasion by Western capitalist culture, and (2) the emergence of revivalist movements. Kappen writes, “Were we to succumb to the first, we should be losing our identity; if to the second, ours would be a false, obsolete identity in a mental universe of dead symbols and delayed myths". Father Sebastian Kappen (January 4, 1924 - November 30, 1993) was a renowned theologian from India. ...


Notable countercultures

Beatnik can refer to two different things: A member of the Beat Generation An esoteric programming language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hippies (singular hippie or sometimes hippy) were members of the 1960s counterculture movement who adopted a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Buddhism, Hinduism, and/or Native American religious culture, and were otherwise at odds with traditional middle class Western values. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Gangsters are members of a professional crime organization, i. ...

Bibliography

  • Theodore Roszak (1968) The Making of a Counter Culture.
  • Elizabeth Nelson (1989) The British Counterculture 1966-73: A Study of the Underground Press. London: Macmillan.
  • George McKay (1996) Senseless Acts of Beauty: Cultures of Resistance since the Sixties. London Verso. ISBN 1-85984-028-0.

Theodore Roszak (born 1933) is an American professor, social thinker, writer, and critic. ...

Further reading

  • Ken Goffman (2004) Counterculture through the ages Villard Books ISBN 0-375-50758-2
  • Joseph Heath and Andrew Potter (2004) Nation of Rebels: Why Counterculture Became Consumer Culture Collins Books ISBN 0-060-74586-X

one of several front covers The Rebel Sell: Why the culture cant be jammed is the name of a popular non-fiction book written by Canadian authors Joseph Heath and Andrew Potter in 2004. ... one of several front covers The Rebel Sell: Why the culture cant be jammed is the name of a popular non-fiction book written by Canadian authors Joseph Heath and Andrew Potter in 2004. ...

See also

Dialectic of Enlightenment, written by Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno made its first appearance in 1944 under the title Dialektik der Aufklärung by Social Studies Association, Inc. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... // The counterculture of the 1960s was a social revolution between the period of 1960 and 1973[1] that began in the United States as a reaction against the conservative social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US government...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "counterculture" (definition of word), Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, 2008, webpage: MWCCul.
  2. ^ a b c "Reason and the Religion of the Counter-Culture", Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 66/1 (1973), pp. 95-111, F.X. Shea, S.J., College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, MN, JSTOR webpage: JSTOR-3B2-X.
  3. ^ PAW April 23, 2003: Books
  4. ^ a b c d The Making of a Counter Culture, (subtitle: "Reflections on the Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition"), Theodore Roszak (scholar), 1968/1969, Double-day, New York, ISBN-10: 0385073291; ISBN-13: 978-0385073295.
  5. ^ Eric Donald Hirsch.The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-65597-8. (1993) p 419. Members of a cultural protest that began in the U.S. in the 1960s and Europe before fading in the 1970s...fundamentally a cultural rather than a political protest."
  6. ^ "Rockin' At the Red Dog: The Dawn of Psychedelic Rock," Mary Works Covington, 2005.
  7. ^ Kaiser, C. (1997). The Gay Metropolis, New York: Harcourt Brace. ISBN-10: 0156006170
  8. ^ Conger, J.J. (1975) Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the Annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.
  9. ^ Kaiser, C. (1997). The Gay Metropolis, New York: Harcourt Brace.
  10. ^ LAWRENCE ET AL. v. TEXAS, June 26, 2003 http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/02pdf/02-102.pdf

Harvard Theological Review is the theological journal published by Harvard Divinity School. ... College of Saint Scholastica, is a private college in Duluth, Minnesota. ... Theodore Roszak (born 1933) is an American professor, social thinker, writer, and critic. ...

External links

  • John Hoyland, Power to the People, The Guardian, 15 March 2008 [1]

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Conquest of Cool by Thomas Frank, excerpt (4367 words)
It suggests instead that the counterculture may be more accurately understood as a stage in the development of the values of the American middle class, a colorful installment in the twentieth century drama of consumer subjectivity.
The enthusiastic discovery of the counterculture by the branches of American business studied here marked the consolidation of a new species of hip consumerism, a cultural perpetual motion machine in which disgust with the falseness, shoddiness, and everyday oppressions of consumer society could be enlisted to drive the ever-accelerating wheels of consumption.
This study is not concerned with the counterculture as a historical phenomenon as much as it is concerned with the genesis of counterculture as an enduring commercial myth, the titanic symbolic clash of hip and square that recurs throughout post-sixties culture.
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Counterculture (0 words)
Tacoma, Wash. He was a counterculture hero of the 1960s and 70s and his work is an indictment of America's cultural environment.
Counterculture: alternative information from the underground press to the internet: Exit Art, New York City, February 24 - May 29; Cultural economies: histories the the alternative arts movement, NYC...
From Hippies to Hackers, How the Counterculture Became the Inspirational Force of a Generation, at National Press Club, Dec. 15.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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