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Encyclopedia > Count Zinzendorf

Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, Count of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf, (May 26, 1700 - May 9, 1760), German religious and social reformer, was born at Dresden. In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Brühls Terrace Brühlsche Terrasse and the Frauenkirche   Dresden? IPA: is the capital city of the German federal state of Saxony, is situated in a valley on the river Elbe. ...


Zinzendorf had a naturally alert and active mind, and an enthusiastic temperament that made his life one of ceaseless planning and executing. Like Luther, he was often carried away by strong and vehement feelings, and he was easily upset both by sorrow and joy. He was an eager seeker after truth, and could not understand men who at all costs kept to the opinions they had once formed; yet he had an exceptional talent for talking on religious subjects even with those who differed from him. Few men have been more solicitous for the happiness and comfort of others, even in little things. His activity and varied gifts sometimes landed him in oddities and contradictions that not infrequently looked like equivocation and dissimulation, and the courtly training of his youth made him susceptible about his authority even when no one disputed it. He was a natural orator, and though his dress was simple his personal appearance gave an impression of distinction and force. His projects were often misunderstood, and in 1736 he was even banished from Saxony, but in 1749 the government rescinded the decree and begged him to establish within its jurisdiction more settlements like that at Herrnhut. The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Lutheran, Protestant and other Christian groups (a broad movement composed of many congregations and church bodies). ... With an area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... Herrnhut (Sorbian: Ochranow) is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittal, in the state of Saxony, Germany. ...

Contents


Formative years

His ancestors belonged to Lower Austria, but had taken the Protestant side in the Reformation struggle, and settled near Nuremberg. His parents belonged to the Pietist circle and the lad had Philipp Jakob Spener for his godfather. His father died six weeks after he was born. His mother married again when he was four years old, and he was educated under the charge of his pious and gifted grandmother, Catherine von Gersdorf, who did much to shape his character. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Pietism was a movement, in the Lutheran Church, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th Century. ... Philipp Jakob Spener. ...


His school days were spent at Halle amidst Pietist surroundings, and in 1716 he went to the university of Wittenberg, to study law and fit himself for a diplomatic career. Three years later he was sent to travel in the Netherlands, in France, and in various parts of Germany, where he made the personal acquaintance of men distinguished for practical goodness and belonging to a variety of churches. On his return he visited the branches of his family settled at Oberbirg and at Castell. During a lengthened visit at Castell he fell in love with his cousin Theodora; but the widowed countess, her mother, objected to the marriage, and the lady afterwards became the wife of Count Henry of Reuss. Map of Germany showing Halle Halle (also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest town in the German Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. ... // Events Natchez, one of the oldest towns on the Mississippi, founded. ... The Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg is located in the German cities of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt and Wittenberg. ... Corruption Jurisprudence Philosophy of law Law (principle) List of legal abbreviations Legal code Intent Letter versus Spirit Natural Justice Natural law Religious law Witness intimidation Legal research Critical legal studies External links Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Law Look up law in Wiktionary, the free dictionary... Castells are human towers that are traditionally built during festivals in many places in Catalonia, Spain. ...


Call to God

Zinzendorf seems to have considered this disappointment as a call to some special work for God. He had previously, in deference to his family, who wished him to become a diplomatist, rejected the invitation of August Francke to take Baron von Canstein's place in the Halle orphanage; and he now resolved to settle down as a landowner, spending his life on behalf of his tenantry. He bought Berthelsdorf from his grandmother, and selected John Andrew Rothe for pastor and John George Heiz for factor; he married Erdmute Dorothea, sister of Count Henry of Reuss, and began living on his estate. The term God is capitalized in the English language as a proper noun when used to refer to a specific monotheistic concept of a Supreme Being. ... August Hermann Francke (March 22, 1663 _ June 8, 1727), was a German Protestant churchman. ... A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or land which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called the tenant. ... A tenant (from the Latin tenere, to hold), in legal contexts, holds real property by some form of title from a landlord. ... Berthelsdorf is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittau, in the southeastern part of Saxony, Germany. ...


His intention was to carry out into practice the Pietist ideas of Spener. He did not mean to found a new church or religious organization distinct from the Lutheranism of the land, but to create a Christian association the members of which by preaching, by tract and book distribution and by practical benevolence might awaken the somewhat torpid religion of the Lutheran Church. The "band of four brothers" (Rothe, pastor at Berthelsdorf; Melchior Schaffer, pastor at Gorlitz; Francis von Wattewille, a friend from boyhood; and himself) set themselves by sermons, books, journeys and correspondence to create a revival of religion, and by frequent meetings for prayer to preserve in their own hearts the warmth of personal trust in Christ. From the printing-house at Ebersdorf large quantities of books and tracts, catechisms, collections of hymns and cheap Bibles were issued; and a translation of Johann Arndt's True Christianity was published for circulation in France. Pietism was a movement, in the Lutheran Church, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th Century. ... The Lutheran tradition is a group of Christian denominations who accept the main theological insights of Martin Luther. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Roth is a town in Germany, in the state of Bavaria, situated about 25 km south of Nuremberg (Nürnberg in German). ... Berthelsdorf is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittau, in the southeastern part of Saxony, Germany. ... Ebersdorf is an archaic spelling of Oberstdorf, a mountain village in the Allgau region of Bavaria, Germany. ... Johann Arndt (1555-1621), German Lutheran theologian, was born at Ballenstedt, in Anhalt, and studied in several universities. ...


Protestant family order

Zinzendorf monument in Herrnhut, Germany
Zinzendorf monument in Herrnhut, Germany

A dislike of the high and dry Lutheran orthodoxy of the period gave Zinzendorf some sympathy with that side of the growing rationalism which was attacking dogma, while at the same time he felt its lack of earnestness, and of a true and deep understanding of religion and of Christianity, and endeavoured to counteract these defects by pointing men to the historical Christ, the revelation of the Father. He seems also to have doubted the wisdom of Spener's plan of not separating from the Lutheran Church, and began to think that true Christianity could be best promoted by free associations of Christians, which in course of time might grow into churches with no state connection. These thoughts took a practical turn from his connection with the Bohemian or Moravian Brethren. Zinzendorf offered an asylum to a number of persecuted wanderers from Moravia, and built for them the village of Herrnhut on a corner of his estate of Berthelsdorf. The refugees who came to this asylum (between 1722 and 1732--the first detachment under Christian David) from various regions where persecution raged, belonged to more than one Protestant organization. Persecution had made them cling pertinaciously to small peculiarities of creed, organization and worship, and they could scarcely be persuaded to live in peace with each other. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (377x657, 179 KB) Monument to Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf in Herrnhut, Germany Photographed by Andreas Praefcke, November 2003 File links The following pages link to this file: Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (377x657, 179 KB) Monument to Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf in Herrnhut, Germany Photographed by Andreas Praefcke, November 2003 File links The following pages link to this file: Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf ... Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. ... Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion or any kind of organization to be authoritative. ... For information on the last book of the New Testament see the Book of Revelation. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic. ... The Brethren are any of several Christian denominations, most of which are Anabaptist-Pietist . ... Moravia (Czech: Morava, German: Mähren, Polish: Morawy, Hungarian: Morvaország, Dutch: Moravië) is the eastern part of the Czech Republic. ... Herrnhut (Sorbian: Ochranow) is a municipality in the district of Löbau-Zittal, in the state of Saxony, Germany. ...


Zinzendorf devoted himself to them. He, with his wife and children, lived in Herrnhut and brought Rothe with him. He had hard work to bring order out of the confusion. He had to satisfy the authorities that his religious community could be brought under the conditions of the peace of Augsburg; he had to quiet the suspicions of the Lutheran clergy; and, hardest of all, he had to rule in some fashion men made fanatical by persecution, who, in spite of his unwearied labours for them, on more than one occasion, it is said, combined in his own house to denounce him as the Beast of the Apocalypse, with Rothe as the False Prophet. Patience had at last its perfect work, and gradually Zinzendorf was able to organize his refugees into something like a militia Christi, based not on monastic but on family life. He was able to establish a common order of worship in 1727, and soon afterwards a common organization. The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty signed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League on September 25, 1555 at the city of Augsburg in Germany. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Militia Christi claims to be a continuation of a centuries-old Catholic military movement founded by St. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Events June 11 - George, Prince of Wales becomes King George II of Great Britain. ...


Missionaries, and declining years

Zinzendorf took the deepest interest in mission, sending out missionaries among slaves in the Danish-governed West Indies and the Inuit of Greenland. His personal relations to the court of Denmark and to King Christian VI facilitated such endeavours. He saw with delight the spread of this Protestant family order in Germany, Denmark, Russia and England. He travelled widely in its interests, visiting America in 1741-42 and spending a long time in London in 1750. Missionary colonies had by this time been settled in the West Indies (1732), in Greenland (1733), amongst the North American Indians (1735); and before Zinzendorf's death the Brethren had sent from Herrnhut missionary colonies to Livonia and the northern shores of the Baltic, to the slaves of North Carolina, to Suriname, to the Negro slaves in several parts of South America, to Travancore in the East Indies, to the Copts in Egypt, to the Inuit of Labrador, and to the west coast of South Africa. A monument celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London Wiktionary has a definition of: Slavery Slavery can mean one or more related conditions which involve control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... England is a made up country where psychologists convince schitzofrenic people they are currently living while they are in fact in a mental asylum. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex to... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Liflandiya) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day Latvia and... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainlands of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ... State nickname: Tar Heel State Other U.S. States Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Governor Michael Easley (D) Official languages English Area 139,509 km² (28th)  - Land 126,256 km²  - Water 13,227 km² (9. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Travancore (originally called Thiruvithaamcoore or Thiruvitankur in Malayalam) was a princely state in India. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... The word Copt signifies the natives of Egypt as a nationality, and in popular common culture in Egypt it is used to specifically signify Christian Egyptians, although its use to mean Egyptian is not unwitnessed. ... Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... This article is about the region in Canada. ...


The community in Herrnhut, from which almost all these colonies had been sent out, had no money of its own, and Zinzendorf had almost exclusively furnished its expenses. His frequent journeys from home made it almost impossible for him to look after his private affairs; he was compelled from time to time to raise money by loans, and about 1750 was almost reduced to bankruptcy. This led to the establishment of a financial board among the Brethren, on a plan furnished by a lawyer, John Frederick Köber, which worked well. In 1752 Zinzendorf lost his only son, Christian Renatus, whom he had hoped to make his successor; and four years later he lost his wife Erdmute, who had been his counsellor and confidante in all his work. Zinzendorf remained a widower for one year, and then (June 1757) contracted a second marriage with Anna Nitschmann, on the ground that a man in his official position ought to be married. Three years later, overcome with his labours, he fell ill and died (on the 9th of May 1760), leaving John de Wattewille, who had married his eldest daughter Benigna, to take his place at the head of the community. A loan is a type of debt. ... Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Overview, and writings

He wrote a large number of hymns, of which the best, known are "Jesus, Thy blood and righteousness," and "Jesus, still lead on." A selection of his Sermons was published by G Clemens in 10 vols., his Diary (1716-1719) by G Reichel and J Tb. Muller (Herrnhut, 1907), and his Hymns, etc., by H Bauer and G Burkhardt (Leipzig, 1900).


See AG Spangenberg, Leben des Grafen von Zinzendorf (Barby, 1772-1775); L von Schrautenbach, Der Graf v. Zinfendorf (Gnadau, 1871; written in 1782, and interesting because it gives Zinzendorf's relations to such Pietist rationalists as JK Dippel); F Bovet, Le Comte de Zinzendorf (Paris, 1860; Eng. tr. A Pioneer of Social Christianity, by TA Seed, London, 1896); B Becker, Zinzendorf im TTerhältniss z. Philosophie u. Kirchenthum seiner Zeit (Leipzig, 1886); H Romer, Zinzendorf's Leben und Werken (Gnaudau, 1900), and the article "Zinzendorf" by J Tb. Muller in Hauck-Herzog's Realencyk. für prot. Theologie u. Kirche.


Reference


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1328 words)
Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, Imperial Count of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf, (May 26, 1700 – May 9, 1760), German religious and social reformer and bishop of the Moravian Church, was born at Dresden.
Zinzendorf offered an asylum to a number of persecuted wanderers from Moravia, and permitted them to build the village of Herrnhut on a corner of his estate of Berthelsdorf.
Zinzendorf remained a widower for one year, and then (27 June 1757) contracted a second marriage with Anna Caritas Nitschmann (24 November 1715 – 21 May 1760), on the ground that a man in his official position ought to be married.
Zinzendorf, Count Nicholas Ludwig von (1700-1760) (691 words)
Count Nicholas Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-1760), a Silesian Pietist nobleman, renewer of the Moravian brotherhood, b.
Zinzendorf was ordained bishop of the Renewed Brotherhood in 1737 and served until 1741, when he resigned.
Zinzendorf spent much of his life from 1737 on in traveling on two continents in the promotion of his missionary and ecumenical vision.
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