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Encyclopedia > Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations


Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links Council_on_Foreign_Relations_Logo. ...

Formation 1921
Headquarters New York, NY, USA Flag of the United States
Website www.cfr.org

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been called the most powerful agent of United States foreign policy outside the State Department. It publishes the respected bi-monthly journal Foreign Affairs. It has an extensive website, featuring links to its think tank, The David Rockefeller Studies Program, other programs and projects, publications, history, biographies of notable directors and other board members, corporate members, and press releases.[1] The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Park Avenue in the Upper East Side (2004) Park Avenue runs north and south between Madison Avenue and Lexington Avenue in Manhattan in New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States For Foreign relations under George W. Bush, see Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration. ... Department of State redirects here. ... This article is about a journal. ... This article is about the institution. ... David Rockefeller, Sr. ...

Contents

Mission

The Council's mission is promoting understanding of foreign policy and America’s role in the world. Meetings are convened at which government officials, global leaders and prominent members debate major foreign-policy issues. It has a "think tank" that employs prominent scholars in international affairs and it commissions subsequent books and reports. A central aim of the Council, it states, is to "find and nurture the next generation of foreign policy leaders." It established "Independent Task Forces" in 1995, which encourage policy debate. Comprising experts with diverse backgrounds and expertise, these task forces seek consensus in making policy recommendations on critical issues; to date, the Council has convened more than fifty times.[1] This article is about the institution. ...


The internal "think tank" is the The David Rockefeller Studies Program, which grants fellowships and whose programs are described as being integral to the goal of contributing to the ongoing debate on foreign policy; fellows in this program research and write on the most important challenges facing the United States and the world.[2]


At the outset of the organization, founding member Elihu Root said the group's mission, epitomized in its journal Foreign Affairs, should be to "guide" American public opinion. In the early 1970s, the CFR changed the mission, saying that it wished instead to "inform" public opinion.[3] Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ...


Early History

The earliest origin of the Council stemmed from a working fellowship of about 150 distinguished scholars, called "The Inquiry", tasked to brief President Woodrow Wilson about options for the postwar world when Germany was defeated. Through 1917-18, this academic band, including Wilson's closest adviser and long-time friend Col. Edward M. House, as well as Walter Lippmann, gathered discreetly[citation needed] at 155th Street and Broadway in New York City, to assemble the strategy for the postwar world. The team produced more than 2,000 documents detailing and analyzing the political, economic, and social facts globally that would be helpful for Wilson in the peace talks. Their reports formed the basis for the Fourteen Points, which outlined Wilson's strategy for peace after war's end.[4] Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Edward Mandell House (July 26, 1858 – March 28, 1938) was an American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor from the time of World War I until well into the 1930s. ... Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 - December 14, 1974) was an influential American writer, journalist, and political commentator. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ...


These scholars then traveled to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 that would end the war; it was at one of the meetings of a small group of British and American diplomats and scholars, on May 30, 1919, at the Hotel Majestic, that both the Council and its British counterpart, the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA), formerly known as Chatham House in London, were born.[1] Although the original intent was for the two organizations to be affiliated, they became independent bodies, yet retained close informal ties.[5] Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Chatham House (formerly the Royal Institute of International Affairs) is an institute based in London for the analysis of current affairs around the world. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Some of the participants at that meeting were, apart from Edward House, Paul Warburg, Herbert Hoover, Harold Temperley, Lionel Curtis, Lord Eustace Percy, Christian Herter, and American academic historians James Thomson Shotwell of Columbia University, Archibald Coolidge of Harvard and Charles Seymour of Yale. Paul Moritz Warburg (August 10, 1868 - January 24, 1932) was a German-American banker and early advocate of the U.S Federal Reserve system. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Harold William Vezeille Temperley (20 April 1879-11 July 1939) was a British historian, Professor of Modern History at the University of Cambridge from 1931, and Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge. ... Lionel Curtis (1872–1955) British official and author who advocated British Empire Federalism and, late in life, a world state. ... Eustace Sutherland Campbell Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Newcastle (1887-April 3, 1958) was a British politician who briefly served as President of the Board of Education from 1924 to 1929 and as Minister without Portfolio from 1935 to 1936 whilst known as Lord Eustace Percy (he was a younger... For the American physician (1865–1910), see Christian Archibald Herter (physician). ... James Thomson Shotwell, (1874 – 1965) was a Canada-born American history professor. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Archibald Cary Coolidge (March 6, 1866–January 14, 1928) was an American educator. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Charles Seymour (January 1, 1885 - August 11, 1963) was an American historian and President of Yale University from 1937 to 1951. ... Yale redirects here. ...


About the organization

From its inception the Council was non-partisan, welcoming members of both Democratic and Republican parties. It also welcomed Jews and African-Americans, with only women initially barred from membership. Its proceedings were almost universally private and confidential.[6] It has exerted influence on US foreign policy from the beginning, due to its roster of State Department and other government officials as members; as such, it has been the focus of many conspiracy theories (Perloff 37, et passim). A study by two critics of the organization, Laurence Shoup and William Minter, found that of 502 government officials surveyed from 1945 to 1972, more than half were members of the Council.[7] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ...


It has today about 4,300 members (including five-year term members), which over its history have included senior serving politicians, more than a dozen Secretaries of State, former national security officers, bankers, lawyers, professors, former CIA members and senior media figures. As a private institution however, the CFR maintains through its official website that it is not a formal organization engaged in U.S. foreign policy-making.[citation needed] United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a senior Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


In 1962, the group began a program of bringing select Air Force officers to the Harold Pratt House to study alongside its scholars. The Army, Navy and Marine Corps requested they start similar programs for their own officers.[7]


Vietnam created a rift within the organization. When Hamilton Fish Armstrong announced in 1970 that he would be leaving the helm of Foreign Affairs after 45 years, new chairman David Rockefeller approached a family friend, William Bundy, to take over the position. Anti-war advocates within the Council rose in protest against this appointment, claiming that Bundy's hawkish record in the State and Defense Departments and the CIA precluded him from taking over an independent journal. Some even called Bundy a "war criminal" for his prior actions.[7]


Seven American presidents have addressed the Council, two while still in office-- Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.[8]


Journalist Joseph Kraft, a former member of both the CFR and the Trilateral Commission, said the Council "comes close to being an organ of what C. Wright Mills has called the Power Elite – a group of men, similar in interest and outlook, shaping events from invulnerable positions behind the scenes."[9] Joseph Kraft (4 September 1924—10 January 1986) was an American journalist. ... The Trilateral Commission is a private organization, founded in July 1973, at the initiative of David Rockefeller; who was Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations at that time and the Commission is widely seen as a counterpart to the Council on Foreign Relations. ...


Economist John Kenneth Galbraith resigned in 1970, objecting to the Council's policy of allowing government officials to conduct twice-a-year off-the-record briefings with business officials in its Corporation Service.[10] The Council says that it has never sought to serve as a receptacle for government policy papers that cannot be shared with the public, and they do not encourage government officials who are members to do so. The Council says that discussions at its headquarters remain confidential, not because they are secret, but because the system allows members to test new ideas with other members.[11] John Kenneth Galbraith John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908–April 29, 2006) was an influential Canadian-American economist. ...


Arthur Schlesinger, in his book on the Kennedy presidency, A Thousand Days, wrote that Kennedy was not part of what he called the "New York establishment": Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Sr. ...

"In particular, he was little acquainted with the New York financial and legal community-- that arsenal of talent which had so long furnished a steady supply of always orthodox and often able people to Democratic as well as Republican administrations. This community was the heart of the American Establishment. Its household deities were Henry J. Stimson and Elihu Root; its present leaders, Robert Lovett and John J. McCloy; its front organizatons, the Rockefeller, Ford and Carnegie foundations and the Council on Foreign Relations; its organs, the New York Times and Foreign Affairs."[12]

Morgan and Rockefeller involvement

The Americans who subsequently returned from the conference became drawn to a discreet club of New York financiers and international lawyers who had organized previously in June 1918 and was headed by Elihu Root, JP Morgan's lawyer;[13] this select group called itself the Council on Foreign Relations.[14] They joined this group and the Council was formally established in New York on July 29, 1921, with 108 founding members, including Elihu Root as a leading member and John W. Davis, the chief counsel for J. P. Morgan & Co. and former Solicitor General for President Wilson,[15] as its founding president. Davis was to become Democratic presidential candidate in 1924 . Elihu Root (February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... John W. Davis John William Davis (April 13, 1873 — March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. ... This article is about the financier. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...


Other members included John Foster Dulles, Herbert Lehman, Henry Stimson, Averell Harriman, the Rockefeller family's public relations expert, Ivy Lee,[16] and Paul M. Warburg and Otto H. Kahn of the law firm Kuhn, Loeb.[17] John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ... Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 - December 5, 1963) was a Governor and Senator from New York. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... William Averell Harriman William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was a Governor of New York. ... The Rockefeller family, the family of John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) (Senior) and his brother William Rockefeller (1841-1922), is an American industrial, banking, philanthropic, and political family of German American origin that made the worlds largest private fortune in the oil business during the late 19th and early... Ivy Ledbetter Lee (July 16, 1877 – November 9, 1934) is considered by some to be the founder of modern public relations, although the title could also be held by Edward Bernays. ...


The Council initially had strong connections to the Morgan interests, such as the lawyer, Paul Cravath, whose pre-eminent New York law firm (later named Cravath, Swaine & Moore) represented Morgan businesses; a Morgan partner, Russell Leffingwell, later became its first chairman. The head of the group's finance committee was Alexander Hemphill, chairman of Morgan's Guaranty Trust Company. Economist Edwin F. Gay, editor of the New York Evening Post, owned by Morgan partner Thomas W. Lamont, served as Secretary-Treasurer of the organization. Other members related to Morgan included Frank L. Polk, former Under-Secretary of State and attorney for J.P. Morgan & Co. Former Wilson Under-Secretary of State Norman H. Davis was a banking associate of the Morgans.[18] Over time, however, the locus of power shifted inexorably to the Rockefeller family. Paul Cravath's law firm also represented the Rockefeller family.[19] Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP (Cravath) is one of the most renowned and prestigious law firms in the United States. ... Russell Cornell Leffingwell (1878 - 1960) was a U.S. banker who led the Council on Foreign Relations from 1944 until 1953. ... Thomas William Lamont (1870-1948) was a American banker. ...


Edwin Gay suggested the creation of a quarterly journal, Foreign Affairs. He recommended Archibald Coolidge be installed as the first editor, along with his New York Evening Post reporter, Hamilton Fish Armstrong, as assistant editor and executive director of the Council.[20] This article is about a journal. ... Archibald Cary Coolidge (March 6, 1866–January 14, 1928) was an American educator. ...


Even from its inception, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. was a regular benefactor, making annual contributions, as well as a large gift of money towards its first headquarters on East 65th Street, along with corporate donors (Perloff 156). In 1944, the widow of the Standard Oil executive Harold I. Pratt donated the family's four-story mansion on the corner of 68th Street and Park Avenue for council use and this became the CFR's new headquarters, known as The Harold Pratt House, where it remains today. John D. Rockefeller Jr. ... Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... Harold Irving Pratt (1877 - 29 May 1939) was an American oil industrialist and philanthropist. ...


Several of Rockefeller's sons joined the council when they came of age; David Rockefeller joined the council as its youngest-ever director in 1949 and subsequently became chairman of the board from 1970 to 1985; today he serves as honorary chairman.[21] The major philanthropic organization he founded with his brothers in 1940, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, has also provided funding to the Council, from 1953 to at least 1980.[22] David Rockefeller, Sr. ... The Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF), (Philanthropy for an Interdependent World), is the principal philanthropic organisation created and run by members of the Rockefeller family. ...


Another major support base from the outset was the corporate sector; around 26 corporations provided financial assistance in the 1920s, seizing the opportunity to inject their business concerns into the weighty deliberations of the academics and scholars in the Council's ruling elite. In addition, the Carnegie Corporation contributed funds in 1937 to expand the Council's reach by replicating its structure in a diminished form in eight American cities.[23] The Carnegie Corporation was founded by the will of Andrew Carnegie in 1911 to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding. ...


John J. McCloy became an influential figure in the organization after the Second World War, and he held connections to both the Morgans and Rockefellers. As assistant to Secretary of War (and JP Morgan attorney) Henry Stimson during World War II, he had presided over important American war policies; his brother-in-law John Zinsser was on the board of directors of JP Morgan & Co. during that time, and after the war McCloy joined New York law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hope, Hadley & McCloy as a partner. The company had long served as legal counsel to the Rockefeller family and the Chase Manhattan bank. McCloy became Chairman of the Board of Chase Manhattan, a director of the Rockefeller Foundation and Chairman of the Board of the CFR from 1953 to 1970. President Harry Truman appointed him President of the World Bank and U.S. High Commissioner to Germany. He served as a special adviser on disarmament to President John F. Kennedy and chaired a special committee on the Cuban crisis. He was said to have had the largest influence on American foreign policy of anyone after World War II. McCloy's brother-in-law, Lewis W. Douglas, also served on the board of the CFR and as a trustee for the Rockefeller Foundation; Truman appointed him as American ambassador to Great Britain.[24] Who is John McCloy? John C. McCloy is a character played by Brendan Gleeson in Mission Impossible 2. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... For the victim of Mt. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ...


Influence on Foreign Policy

Beginning in 1939 and lasting for five years, the Council achieved much greater prominence with government and the State Department when it established the strictly confidential War and Peace, funded entirely by the Rockefeller Foundation.[25] The secrecy surrounding this group was such that the Council members (total at the time: 663) who were not involved in its deliberations were completely unaware of the study group's existence.[25] The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ...


It was divided into four functional topic groups: economic and financial, security and armaments, territorial, and political. The security and armaments group was headed by Allen Dulles who later became a pivotal figure in the CIA's predecessor, the OSS. It ultimately produced 682 memoranda for the State Department, marked classified and circulated among the appropriate government departments. As a historical judgment, its overall influence on actual government planning at the time is still said to remain unclear.[25] Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ...


In an anonymous piece called "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" that appeared in Foreign Affairs in 1947, CFR study group member George Kennan coined the term "containment." The essay would prove to be highly influential in US foreign policy for seven upcoming presidential administrations. 40 years later, Kennan explained that he had never meant to contain the Soviet Union because it might be able to physically attack the United States; he thought that was obvious enough that he didn't need to explain it in his essay. William Bundy credited the CFR's study groups with helping to lay the framework of thinking that led to the Marshall Plan and NATO. Due to new interest in the group, membership grew towards 1,000.[26] Several notable people have been named George Kennan: George Kennan (explorer) (1845-1924) George F. Kennan (born 1904), diplomat and historian; the explorers great-nephew This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Dwight D. Eisenhower chaired a CFR study group while he served as President of Columbia University in New York City. One member later said, "Whatever General Eisenhower knows about economics, he has learned at the study group meetings."[26] The CFR study group devised an expanded study group called "Americans for Eisenhower" to increase his chances for the presidency. Eisenhower would later draw many Cabinet members from CFR ranks and become a CFR member himself. His primary CFR appointment was Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. As an attorney for Standard Oil and a longtime board member of the Rockefeller Foundation, Dulles maintained strong ties to the Council and to the Rockefellers.[9] Dulles gave a public address at the Harold Pratt House in which he announced a new direction for Eisenhower's foreign policy: "There is no local defense which alone will contain the mighty land power of the communist world. Local defenses must be reinforced by the further deterrent of massive retaliatory power." After this speech, the council convened a session on "Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy" and chose Henry Kissinger to head it. Kissinger spent the following academic year working on the project at Council headquarters. The book of the same name that he published from his research in 1957 gave him national recognition, topping the national bestseller lists.[26] Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


On 24 November 1953, a study group heard a report from political scientist William Henderson regarding the ongoing conflict between France and Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh's Viet Minh forces, a struggle that would later become known as the First Indochina War. Henderson argued that Ho's cause was primarily nationalist in nature and that Marxism had "little to do with the current revolution." Further, the report said, the United States could work with Ho to guide his movement away from Communism. State Department officials, however, expressed skepticism about direct American intervention in Vietnam and the idea was tabled. Over the next twenty years, the United States would find itself allied with anti-Communist South Vietnam and against Ho and his supporters in Vietnam War.[26] is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... William Terrelle Henderson (born February 19, 1971 in Richmond, Virginia) is an American Football fullback who currently plays for the Green Bay Packers of the NFL. He has been with the Packers for his entire professional career, since the organization selected him out of the University of North Carolina at... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The Council served as a "breeding ground" for important American policies such as mutual deterrence, arms control, and nuclear non-proliferation.[26]


A four-year long study of relations between America and China was conducted by the Council between 1964 and 1968. One study published in 1966 concluded that American citizens were more open to talks with China than their elected leaders. Kissinger had continued to publish in Foreign Affairs and was appointed by President Nixon to serve as National Security Adviser in 1969. In 1971, he embarked on a secret trip to Beijing to broach talks with Chinese leaders. Nixon went to China in 1972, and diplomatic relations were completely normalized by President Carter's Secretary of State, another Council member, Cyrus Vance.[26] Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In November 1979, while chairman of the CFR, David Rockefeller became embroiled in an international incident when he and Henry Kissinger, along with John J. McCloy and Rockefeller aides, persuaded President Jimmy Carter through the State Department to admit the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, into the US for hospital treatment for lymphoma. This action directly precipitated what is known as the Iran hostage crisis and placed Rockefeller under intense media scrutiny (particularly from The New York Times) for the first time in his public life.[27] Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Membership

There are two types of membership: life, and term membership, which lasts for 5 years and is available to those between 30 and 36. Only U.S. citizens (native born or naturalised) and permanent residents who have applied for U.S. citizenship are eligible. A candidate for life membership must be nominated in writing by one Council member and seconded by a minimum of three others (strongly encouraged to be other CFR members).[28]


Corporate membership (250 in total) is divided into "Basic", "Premium" ($25,000+) and "President's Circle" ($50,000+). All corporate executive members have opportunities to hear distinguished speakers, such as overseas presidents and prime ministers, chairmen and CEOs of multinational corporations, and US officials and Congressmen. President and premium members are also entitled to other benefits, including attendance at small, private dinners or receptions with senior American officials and world leaders.[29]


Members

Board of Directors

OFFICE NAME
Co-Chairman of the Board Carla A. Hills
Co-Chairman of the Board Robert E. Rubin
Vice Chairman Richard E. Salomon
President Richard N. Haass
Board of Directors
Director Peter Ackerman
Director Fouad Ajami
Director Madeleine K. Albright
Director Charlene Barshefsky
Director Henry S. Bienen
Director Stephen W. Bosworth
Director Tom Brokaw
Director Sylvia Mathews Burwell
Director Frank J. Caufield
Director Kenneth M. Duberstein
Director Martin S. Feldstein
Director Richard N. Foster
Director Stephen Friedman
Director Ann M. Fudge
Director Helene D. Gayle
Director Maurice R. Greenberg
Director Richard C. Holbrooke
Director Karen Elliott House
Director Alberto Ibargüen
Director Henry R. Kravis
Director Jami Miscik
Director Michael H. Moskow
Director Joseph S. Nye, Jr.
Director Ronald L. Olson
Director James W. Owen
Director Colin L. Powell
Director David M. Rubenstein
Director Anne-Marie Slaughter
Director Joan E. Spero
Director Vin Weber
Director Christine Todd Whitman
Director Fareed Zakaria

The Board of Directors of the Council on Foreign Relations is composed in total of thirty-six officers. Peter G. Peterson and David Rockefeller are Directors Emeriti (Chairman Emeritus and Honorary Chairman, respectively). It also has an International Advisory Board consisting of thirty-five distinguished individuals from across the world.[1][30] Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and public figure. ... Robert Edward Rubin (born August 29, 1938) is an American financier and businessman who served as the 70th United States Secretary of the Treasury during President Clintons administration. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Born in Brooklyn in 1951, Richard N. Haass has been president of the Council on Foreign Relations since July of 2003, prior to which he was Director of Policy Planning for the Department of State and a close advisor to Secretary of State Colin Powell. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Peter Ackerman was born November 6, 1946 in New York City, New York. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Fouad A. Ajami (Arabic:فؤاد عجمی; b. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937 in Prague, Czechoslovakia), American diplomat, served as the 64th United States Secretary of State. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Charlene Barshefsky (Chinese name: 白茜芙) served as United States Trade Representative, the countrys top trade negotiator, from 1997 to 2001. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Henry Bienen is the current president of Northwestern University. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... // Biography Dean Stephen W. Bosworth of The Fletcher School at Tufts University Stephen W. Bosworth was installed as Dean at The Fletcher School in 2001 after serving at the State Department as U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Korea from 1997-2000, as well as serving as U.S... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940 in Webster, South Dakota) is a popular American television journalist, Previously working on regularly scheduled news documentaries for the NBC television network, and is the former NBC News anchorman and managing editor of the program NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Image:Sylvia Mathews. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Co-Founder of the Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Kenneth M. Duberstein (born April 21, 1944) served as U.S. President Ronald Reagans White House Chief of Staff from 1988 to 1989. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Martin Stuart Feldstein (born 1939) is a U.S. economist. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Stephen Friedman was from 2002 to 2005 United States Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and director of the National Economic Council. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Maurice R. Hank Greenberg (born May 4, 1925 in New York City) is an American businessman and former chairman and CEO of American International Group (AIG), the worlds largest insurance and financial services corporation. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Richard Charles Albert Holbrooke (born April 24, 1941) is a New Yorker who has had a varied career as a professional American diplomat, magazine editor, author, Peace Corps director, and investment banker. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Karen Elliott House is the publisher of the Wall Street Journal, and a senior vice president of Dow Jones. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Alberto Ibargüen is President and CEO of the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation in Miami, Florida. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Henry R. Kravis, born January 6, 1944 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States, is a business financier and investor. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Michael H. Moskow took office on September 1, 1994, as the eighth president and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Joseph Nye (born 1937) is the founder, along with Robert Keohane, of the international relations theory neoliberalism (international relations) developed in their 1977 book Power and Interdependence. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Colin Luther Powell (pronounced Coe-lin, born April 5, 1937) was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving from January 20, 2001 to January 26, 2005 under President George W. Bush. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... david m rubenstein ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Anne-Marie Slaughter (born September 27, 1958) is the Bert G. Kerstetter 66 University Professor of Politics and International Affairs and current Dean of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... John Vincent Weber, a Congressman from Minnesota; born in Slayton, Murray County, Minnesota, July 24, 1952; attended the public schools; attended the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, 1970-1974; copublisher, Murray County newspaper; president, Weber Publishing Co. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Christine Todd Christie Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican politician and author, who served as the 50th Governor of New Jersey and was the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Fareed Zakaria (born January 20, 1964, Mumbai, India) is a journalist, columnist, author, editor, commentator, and television host specializing in international relations and foreign affairs. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ...


Some corporate members

Some of the corporate members follow, most whom are Fortune 500. The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 United States corporations as measured by gross revenue. ...

ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... This article is about the company. ... American Express (NYSE: AXP), sometimes known as AmEx or Amex, is a diversified global financial services company, headquartered in New York City. ... American International Group, Inc. ... Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world. ... Bloomberg L.P. is a Financial Media Company founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1982. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... This article is about the energy corporation. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Citigroup Inc. ... This article is about the beverage. ... De Beers, founded in South Africa by Cecil Rhodes, comprises companies involved in rough diamond exploration, diamond mining and diamond trading. ... Deutsche Bank AG (IPA: [1]) (ISIN: DE0005140008, NYSE: DB) (English: ) is a bank operating worldwide and employing more than 75,000 people (June, 2007). ... For other uses, see Exon (disambiguation). ... Federal Express redirects here. ... 2002 Ford Fiesta in the UK. The Ford Motor Company (sometimes nicknamed Fords or FoMoCo, (NYSE: F) is an automobile maker founded by Henry Ford in Detroit, Michigan, and incorporated on June 16, 1903. ... “GE” redirects here. ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. ... This article is about the corporation. ... The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. ... For other uses, see Haliburton. ... H. J. Heinz Company (NYSE: HNZ), commonly known as Heinz, famous for its 57 Varieties slogan, is a processed food product company with its headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States of America. ... The Hess Corporation (NYSE: HES) is an integrated oil company based in New York City. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. ... Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co (commonly referred to as KKR) is a New York City-based private equity firm that focuses primarily on late stage leveraged buyouts. ... Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. ... Lockheed/BAE/Northrop F-35 Lockheed Trident missile C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an aerospace manufacturer formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ... MasterCard Worldwide (NYSE: MA) is a multinational corporation based in Purchase, NY in the United States. ... The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ... McKinsey & Company is a privately owned management consulting firm. ... Merck & Co. ... Merrill Lynch & Co. ... Motorola Inc. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ... 1211 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue), where News Corporation is based News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS, NYSE: NWSa, ASX: , LSE: NCRA) is an American media conglomerate company and one of the worlds largest. ... Nike, Inc. ... PepsiCo, Incorporated (NYSE: PEP) is a global American beverage and snack company. ... Pfizer Incorporated (NYSE: PFE) is the worlds largest research-based pharmaceutical company[1].[1] The company is based in New York City. ... A Shell petrol station sign in the UK The Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies (called Shell Oil in North America), has its headquarters split between the Shell Centre in London, United Kingdom and The Hague, Netherlands. ... Sony Corporation of America is a subsidiary of Japans Sony Corporation. ... The Tata Group is Indias largest conglomerate company, with revenues in 2005-06 of Rs. ... Time Warner Inc. ... Total S.A. (Euronext: FP, NYSE: TOT) is a French oil company headquartered in Paris, France. ... Toyota Motor North America, Inc. ... UBS AG (NYSE: UBS; SWX: UBSN; TYO: 8657) is a diversified global financial services company, with its main headquarters in Basel & Zürich, Switzerland. ... United Technologies Corporation (UTC) (NYSE: UTX) is a multinational corporation based in Hartford, Connecticut, USA, and is the 20th largest U.S. manufacturer. ... The United States Chamber of Commerce is the worlds largest not-for-profit business federation, representing 3,000,000 businesses (via its Federation of local chambers and association members. ... Verizon Communications, Inc. ... VISA is a brand of credit card operated by the VISA International Service Association of San Francisco, California, USA owned by 21,000 financial institutions that issues and markets its own Visa products. ...

Notable current Council members

Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... This article is about the American national security advisor. ... Michael Bloomberg Michael Bloomberg Michael Rubens Mike Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is a businessman and mayor of New York City. ... Peters Grandpa III (born November 23, 1930) was a Republican United States U.S. senator from Tennessee from 1971 to 1977. ... Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940 in Webster, South Dakota) is a popular American television journalist, Previously working on regularly scheduled news documentaries for the NBC television network, and is the former NBC News anchorman and managing editor of the program NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Two persons are named Edgar Bronfman (father and son). ... The World Jewish Congress (WJC) is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. ... Ethan Bronner (born 1954) is deputy foreign editor of the New York Times, and a frequent essayist on foreign affairs. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... Jonathan James Bush (born May 6, 1931), an American banker, a brother of President George H. W. Bush, and an uncle of President George W. Bush. ... William Hall Billy Bush (born October 13, 1971), co-host of the syndicated NBC Universal TV show Access Hollywood. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Warren Minor Christopher (born October 27, 1925) is an American diplomat and lawyer. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... This article is about ASU president Michael Crow. ... Arizona State University (ASU) is a public research institution of higher education and research with campuses located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. ... Peggy Dulany Rockefeller (born 1947) (known as Peggy Dulany) is a philanthropist and the fourth child of David Rockefeller. ... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served as The United States Secretary of State under President George H. W. Bush. ... Dr. Roger W. Ferguson, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mikhail Fridman (born 26 June 1963) is a Russian businessman. ... Thomas Lauren Friedman, OBE (born July 20, 1953), is an American journalist. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Dr. Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) served as Director of Central Intelligence from November 6, 1991 until January 20, 1993 and was Deputy National Security Adviser under Brent Scowcroft during the first Gulf War. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... Leslie Howard Gelb (born March 4, 1937) is a former correspondent for The New York Times and is currently President Emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations. ... Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... The Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve is the head of the central bank of the United States and one of the more important decision-makers in American economic policies. ... Gary Warren Hart (born Gary Warren Hartpence, November 28, 1936) is a politician and lawyer from the state of Colorado. ... The Partnership for a Secure America (PSA) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to recreating the bipartisan center in American national security and foreign policy. ... Categories: Stub | 1973 births ... H. J. Heinz Company (NYSE: HNZ), commonly known as Heinz, famous for its 57 Varieties slogan, is a processed food product company with its headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States of America. ... Warren McClamroch Hoge (born 1941[1]) is an American journalist, much of whose long career has been at The New York Times. ... Angelina Jolie (born Angelina Jolie Voight on June 4, 1975) is an American film actor, a former fashion model, and a Goodwill Ambassador for the UN Refugee Agency. ... ... Robert Kagan (born September 26, 1958) is an American neoconservative scholar and political commentator. ... Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Irving Kristol (born January 22, 1920, New York City) is considered the founder of American neoconservatism. ... The American Enterprise Institutes Logo The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a neoconservative think tank, founded in 1943. ... Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist, who has written several books and who currently (as of 2005) is a columnist for The New York Times. ... Paula Zahn (born February 24, 1956 in Omaha, Nebraska) is an American newscaster, most recently the host of Paula Zahn NOW on CNN. On 24 July 2007, she resigned from CNN. The last broadcast of Paula Zahn Now on CNN aired August 2, 2007. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... John D. Negroponte John Dimitri Negroponte (born July 21, 1939) (pronounced neg-row-pontee) is the current United States ambassador to Iraq. ... As of Ocober 29, 2007 E. Stanley Stan ONeals resignation as the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Merrill Lynch & Co. ... Merrill Lynch & Co. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ... Henry Merritt Hank Paulson, Jr. ... Kitty Pilgrim is a New York-based anchor and correspondent for CNN. Pilgrim serves mainly as the secondary anchor, on nights in which Lou Dobbs is not anchoring the program, as well as a regular correspondent for the CNN program Lou Dobbs Tonight. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... The Middle East Forum (MEF) is an American pro-Israel neoconservative think tank founded in 1990 by historian and columnist Daniel Pipes, who also serves as its director. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... Norman Podhoretz (b. ... There are several senses for Commentary: Informed criticism. ... The Hudson Institute is a right-leaning U.S. think tank, founded in 1961 in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, by the futurist Herman Kahn and other colleagues from the RAND Corporation. ... Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... Stephen L. Steve Poizner (born January 4, 1957) is a California businessman and Republican politician, who has been the elected State Insurance Commissioner of California since January 8, 2007. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... For other persons named Charles Prince, see Charles Prince (disambiguation). ... Citigroup Inc. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Alice Rivlin Alice Mitchell Rivlin (born March 4, 1931 in Philadelphia) is an economist and expert on the American budget. ... David Rockefeller Jr. ... John Davison Rockefeller IV (born June 18, 1937) is a member of the prominent United States Rockefeller family who has served as a Democratic U.S. Senator from West Virginia since 1985. ... Charlie Rose Charles Peete Rose Jr. ... Al Gore with wife, Tipper, along with their children and son-in-law, Dr. Andrew Schiff (sitting next to Karenna). ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... Ron Silver (born July 2, 1946 in New York City) is an American movie and television actor, director, and producer. ... One Jerusalem is an organisation that fights to keep Jerusalem undivided in Israeli possesion. ... Walter B Slocombe (born September 23, 1941) is a senior advisor for the Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad (2003) and a former Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (1994-2001)[1]. A lawyer and career federal official, Slocombe joined the staff of the National Security Council in 1969. ... This is a position for policy in the defense department. ... Soros redirects here. ... Lesley R. Stahl (born December 16, 1941, in Lynn, Massachusetts) is an American television journalist. ... This article is about the actor/politician. ... Paul Adolph Volcker (born September 5, 1927 in Cape May, New Jersey), is best-known as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve (The Fed) under United States Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan (from August 1979 to August 1987). ... The Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve is the head of the central bank of the United States and one of the more important decision-makers in American economic policies. ... Barbara Jill Walters[1] (born September 25, 1929[2]) is an American journalist, writer and media personality who has been a regular fixture on morning television shows (Today and The View), an evening news magazine (20/20), and on The ABC Evening News as the first female evening news anchor. ... Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American physicist. ... John Cunningham Whitehead (b. ... A World Trade Center Memorial was planned in the immediate aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks and destruction of the World Trade Center to mourn the victims and honor the heros of that day. ... The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. ... Shirley Williams, The Baroness Williams of Crosby, PC (born 27 July 1930), is a British politician and academic. ... James Wolfensohn (b. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Robert James Woolsey, Jr. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... Robert B. Zoellick Robert Bruce Zoellick (IPA: ) (born July 25, 1953) is an American politician and (effective July 1, 2007) the eleventh president of the World Bank. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...

Notable historical members

Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour, PC, OC, KCSG (born 25 August 1944, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is a former financier, newspaper magnate, and biographer. ... McGeorge Bundy (1967) McGeorge Mac Bundy (March 30, 1919–September 16, 1996) was United States National Security Advisor to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961–1966, and was president of the Ford Foundation from 1966–1979. ... This article or section should be merged with William P. Bundy William Putnam Bundy (September 24, 1917-October 6, 2000) was a member of the CIA and advisor to President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Dillons signature, as used on American currency Clarence Douglas Dillon (August 21, 1909 – January 10, 2003) son of Clarence and Ann (Douglass) Dillon, was U.S. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France (1953-1957) and 57th secretary of the United States Department of the Treasury (1961-1965). ... Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ... John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Sergei Alexandrovich Karaganov (Russian: , born September 12, 1952) is a Russian political scientist who heads the Council for Foreign and Defense Policy, an independent and influential analytical institution whose members include a number of Russias political, academic and economic elite. ... Several notable people have been named George Kennan: George Kennan (explorer) (1845-1924) George F. Kennan (born 1904), diplomat and historian; the explorers great-nephew This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... There were several people named Robert Lovett: Robert A. Lovett (1895–1986), United States Secretary of Defense Robert Lovett, Chairman of the Southern Pacific Company Executive Committee (1909–1913) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... C. Peter McColough Charles Peter McColough McColough was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada on August 1, 1922, to Reginald Walker and Barbara Theresa Martin McColough. ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... Paul Nitze Paul Henry Nitze (January 16, 1907 – October 19, 2004) was a high-ranking United States government official who helped shape Cold War defense policy over the course of numerous presidential administrations. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... John Davison Rockefeller 3rd (March 21, 1906 – July 10, 1978) was a major philanthropist and third-generation member of the prominent Rockefeller family. ... Felix G. Rohatyn (born May 29, 1928 in Vienna, Austria) is a Jewish-American businessman and investment banker and has also served in public service. ... Eugene Victor Debs Rostow (1913-2002) was an American lawyer and politician who served from 1966-1969 as undersecretary of state for political affairs under President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or W.W. Rostow) (October 7, 1916 - February 13, 2003) was an American economist and political thinker prominent for his staunch opposition to Communism and belief in the efficacy of capitalism and free enterprise. ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Sr. ... Nelson Strobridge Strobe Talbott III (born April 25, 1946 in Dayton, Ohio) is a U.S. diplomat and political scientist. ... Albert Wohlstetter (born 1913, died January 10, 1997) was a major intellectual force behind efforts to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons and the need to develop nonnuclear alternatives. ... Roberta Morgan, better known by her married name of Roberta Wohlstetter, (August 22, 1912 - January 6, 2007), was one of Americas most important historians of military intelligence. ... Paul Moritz Warburg (August 10, 1868 - January 24, 1932) was a German-American banker and early advocate of the U.S Federal Reserve system. ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ...

List of Chairmen

Russell Cornell Leffingwell (1878 - 1960) was a U.S. banker who led the Council on Foreign Relations from 1944 until 1953. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... David Rockefeller, Sr. ... This article is about the Pete Peterson who was a U.S. government official during the Nixon administration; there is also a Pete Peterson who was a former Florida Congressman and ambassador to Vietnam. ... Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and public figure. ... Robert Edward Rubin (born August 29, 1938) is an American financier and businessman who served as the 70th United States Secretary of the Treasury during President Clintons administration. ...

List of Presidents

Source:The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996: Historical Roster of Directors and Officers[33] John W. Davis John William Davis (April 13, 1873 — March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. ... George Woodward Wickersham (September 19, 1858–January 26, 1936) was an American lawyer and Presidential Cabinet Secretary. ... Russell Cornell Leffingwell (1878 - 1960) was a U.S. banker who led the Council on Foreign Relations from 1944 until 1953. ... Allen W. Dulles Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was the first civilian and the longest serving (1953-1961) Director of Central Intelligence (de-facto head of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency) and a member of the Warren Commission. ... Henry Merritt Wriston (1889 - 1978) was a U.S. educator and served as president at both Brown University and Lawrence University. ... Grayson Louis Kirk (October 12, 1903 - November 21, 1997) was president of Columbia University during the campus unrest that culminated in the student occupation of several buildings. ... Winston Lord (born 1937) is a U.S. administrator. ... Pro tempore or pro tem is a latin phrase which best translates to for the time being in English. ... Peter Tarnoff (born April 19, 1937) served as the Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs during the first Clinton term. ... Leslie Howard Gelb (born March 4, 1937) is a former correspondent for The New York Times and is currently President Emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations. ... Born in Brooklyn in 1951, Richard N. Haass has been president of the Council on Foreign Relations since July of 2003, prior to which he was Director of Policy Planning for the Department of State and a close advisor to Secretary of State Colin Powell. ...

Conspiracy Theories

The Council has been the subject of many conspiracy theories, partly due to the number of high-ranking government officials in its membership, its secrecy clauses, and the large number of aspects of American foreign policy that its members have been involved with, beginning with Wilson's Fourteen Points. Many organizations, such as the John Birch Society, believe that the CFR plans a one-world government. Wilson's Fourteen Points speech was the first in which he suggested a worldwide security organization to prevent future world wars.[34] United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... The John Birch Society is a conservative American exceptionalist organization founded in 1958 to fight what it saw as growing threats to the Constitution of the United States, especially a suspected communist infiltration of the United States government, and to support free enterprise. ...

"For more than a century ideological extremists at either end of the political spectrum have seized upon well-publicized incidents ... to attack the Rockefeller family for the inordinate influence they claim we wield over American political and economic institutions. Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as 'internationalists' and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure - one world, if you will. If that's the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it."
- David Rockefeller, "Memoirs" autobiography (2002, Random House publishers), page 405

Some believe that the CFR is working towards a North American Union, a joining of the three governments of Canada, Mexico and the USA. They point to a CFR task force which was headed by professor Robert Pastor, head of North American Studies at American University, which produced a report called "Building a North American Community" on cooperation within North America. Pastor authored a 2001 book, Towards a North American Community: Lessons from the Old World for the New. Plans allegedly center on a 10-lane superhighway which would run from Mexico to Canada.[35] Robert Alan Pastor was born on April 10, 1947 in Newark, New Jersey, United States. ... For other universities known as American University, see American University (disambiguation). ...


Assistant Secretary of Commerce David Bohigian says that there is no truth to the rumors.[citation needed] Senator Kit Bond, who is a member of committees that would have to authorize funding for a NAFTA superhighway, has said that there are no plans for a North American Union and the theories are not valid.[36] However, Rep. Ron Paul has said that Congress has provided "small amounts" of money to study the feasibility of such a highway. Paul also suggested that because the funding constituted "just one item in an enormous transportation appropriations bill... most members of Congress were not aware of it."[2] Rep. Virgil Goode introduced a resolution, with 21 co-sponsors, to prohibit the building of a NAFTA superhighway and an eventual North American Union with Canada and Mexico. The resolution was sent to committee.[3] Christopher Samuel Kit Bond (born March 6, 1939 in St. ... Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is a 10th-term United States congressman from Lake Jackson, Texas, a member of the Republican Party, a pro-life physician, and a candidate for the Republican nomination in the 2008 presidential election. ... Virgil Hamlin Goode, Jr. ...


In 2005, CFR task force co-chairman Pastor testified in Congress in front of the Foreign Relations Committee: "The best way to secure the United States today is not at our two borders with Mexico and Canada, but at the borders of North America as a whole."[37] The CFR task force he headed called for one border around North America, freer travel within it, and cooperation among Canadian, Mexican and American military forces and law enforcement for greater security. It called for full mobility of labor among the three countries within five years, similar to the European Union.[4] He also appeared at a CFR forum called "The Future of North American Integration in the Wake of the Terrorist Attacks" on October 17, 2001, discussing the prospect of North American integration in the wake of the September 11 attacks.[38] Conservative commentator Phyllis Schlafly wrote of the 2005 report, "This CFR document, called 'Building a North American Community,' asserts that George W. Bush, Mexican President Vicente Fox, and Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin 'committed their governments' to this goal when they met at Bush's ranch and at Waco, Texas on March 23, 2005. The three adopted the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America and assigned 'working groups' to fill in the details."[39] The document advocated allowing companies to recruit workers from anywhere within North America and called for large loans and aid to Mexico from the US. It called for a court system for North American dispute resolution and said that illegal aliens should be allowed into the United States Social Security system through the Social Security Totalization Agreement. The report called for a fund to be created by the US to allow 60,000 Mexican students to attend US colleges. The report says the plan can be carried out within five years. Other members of the task force included former Massachusetts governor William Weld and immigration chief for President Clinton, Doris Meissner. U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Phyllis Schlafly (born on August 15, 1924, in St. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... For the Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas, see Waco Siege. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America is a continent-level agreement, founded on March 23, 2005 by the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Pastor wrote in Foreign Affairs: This article is about a journal. ...

"The U.S., Mexican, and Canadian governments remain zealous defenders of an outdated conception of sovereignty even though their citizens are ready for a new approach. Each nation's leadership has stressed differences rather than common interests. North America needs leaders who can articulate and pursue a broader vision... Countries are benefited when they changed these [national sovereignty] policies, and evidence suggests that North Americans are ready for a new relationship that renders this old definition of sovereignty obsolete."[40]

Pastor appeared at a CFR-sponsored symposium at Arizona State University on issues that would face the next president.[41] “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Arizona State University (ASU) is a public research institution of higher education and research with campuses located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. ...


See also

The Trilateral Commission is a private organization, founded in July 1973, at the initiative of David Rockefeller; who was Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations at that time and the Commission is widely seen as a counterpart to the Council on Foreign Relations. ... The front cover of the privately circulated report of the 1980 Bilderberg conference in Bad Aachen, Germany. ... The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly... David Rockefeller, Sr. ... David Rockefeller Jr. ... The Rockefeller family, the family of John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) (Senior) and his brother William Rockefeller (1841-1922), is an American industrial, banking, philanthropic, and political family of German American origin that made the worlds largest private fortune in the oil business during the late 19th and early... Alternate meanings: See RAND (disambiguation) The RAND Corporation is an American think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the U.S. military. ... The Project for the New American Century, or PNAC, is a Washington, DC, USA based think tank. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "President's Welcome ("About CFR"), with a hyperlink to "History", both accessed February 24, 2007. (Date accessed applies to other citations to the CFR website.)
  2. ^ Council on Foreign Affairs "Research Projects".
  3. ^ Council on Foreign Affairs "The Second Transformation".
  4. ^ "President Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points (1918)"
  5. ^ James Perloff, The Shadows of Power: The Council on Foreign Relations and the American Decline (Appleton, WI: Western Islands Publishers, 1988) 36.
  6. ^ "Continuing the Inquiry: Basic Assumptions".
  7. ^ a b c "Continuing the Inquiry: Consensus Endangered".
  8. ^ "American Presidents at the Council on Foreign Relations".
  9. ^ a b Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy
  10. ^ Marrs, Jim. "Rule By Secrecy." 36.
  11. ^ "The Second Transformation".
  12. ^ "A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House"
  13. ^ Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy
  14. ^ "Continuing the Inquiry: Inquiry".
  15. ^ Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy
  16. ^ John Ensor Harr and Peter J. Johnson, The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988) 156.
  17. ^ Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy
  18. ^ Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy
  19. ^ For discussion of this shift in influence from Morgan to Rockefeller, see Perloff 38.
  20. ^ Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy
  21. ^ "David Rockefeller: Honorary Chairman, Council on Foreign Relations".
  22. ^ Rockefeller Archive Center (RAC) List of RBF Grantees
  23. ^ "Continuing the Inquiry: Dissension".
  24. ^ Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy
  25. ^ a b c "Continuing the Inquiry: War and Peace"
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Continuing the Inquiry: “X” Leads the Way"
  27. ^ Scrutiny by NYT over the Shah of Iran - David Rockefeller, Memoirs (pp.356-75)
  28. ^ "Membership".
  29. ^ "Corporate Program"PDF (330 KiB).
  30. ^ "Leadership and Staff". Accessed February 24, 2007.
  31. ^ Corporate Membership.
  32. ^ Washington Post, Columnists, "Talk About Your Serious Roles", By Amy Argetsinger and Roxanne Roberts, Wednesday, February 28, 2007; Page C03. Nominated by council member Trevor Neilson. If she's voted in at the June board meeting, the 31-year-old Jolie will receive a five-year "term" membership.
  33. ^ Continuing the Inquiry: Historical Roster of Directors and Officers.
  34. ^ President Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points (1918).
  35. ^ North American Union? Rumor sweeps the right.
  36. ^ Urban legend of "North American Union" feeds on fears.
  37. ^ A North American Community Approach to Security.
  38. ^ The Future of North American Integration in the Wake of the Terrorist Attacks.
  39. ^ CFR's Plan to Integrate the U.S., Mexico and Canada.
  40. ^ North America's Second Decade.
  41. ^ ASU and the Council on Foreign Relations Present Symposium on Foreign Policy Issues That Face Next President.

is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

Publications by the Council on Foreign Relations

  • Council on Foreign Relations in association with the Canadian Council of Chief Executives and the Consejo Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales. Building a North American Community: Report of an Independent Task Force. Washington, DC: Council on Foreign Relations, 2005. (Task Force Observers: Sam Boutziouvis, Canadian Council of Chief Executives; Daniel Gerstein, Council on Foreign Relations; Lawrence Spinetta, Council on Foreign Relations; David Stewart-Patterson, Canadian Council of Chief Executives; multiple authors.)

Books

  • De Villemarest, Pierre, Danièle De Villemarest, and William Wolf. Facts and Chronicles Denied to the Public. Vol. 1. Slough, Berkshire, UK: Aquilion, 2004. ISBN 1-904-99700-7.
  • Grose, Peter. Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996. New York: Council on Foreign Relations: 1996. ISBN 0-876-09192-3.
  • Perloff, James. The Shadows of Power: The Council on Foreign Relations and the American Decline. Appleton, WI: Western Islands, 1988. ISBN 0-882-79134-6.
  • Schulzinger, Robert D. The Wise Men of Foreign Affairs. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-231-05528-5.
  • Shoup, Laurence H., and William Minter. Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and United States Foreign Policy. 1977; New York: Authors Choice Press, 2004. ISBN 0-595-32426-6 (10). ISBN 978-05953-2426-2 (13).
  • Wala, Michael. The Council on Foreign Relations and American Foreign Policy in the Early Cold War. Providence, RI: Berghann Books, 1994. ISBN 1-571-81003-X

Miscellaneous articles

  • Kassenaar, Lisa. "Wall Street's New Prize: Park Avenue Club House With World View". Bloomberg December 15, 2005. [Profile of the Council and its new members.]
  • Mandel, Daniel, and Asaf Romirowsky. "The Council on Foreign Relations Does the Middle East". Middle East Quarterly 12.4 (Fall 2005). Accessed February 23, 2007.
  • Sanger, David E. "Iran's Leader Relishes 2nd Chance to Make Waves". The New York Times September 21, 2006, Foreign Desk: A1, col. 2 (Late ed.-Final). Accessed February 23, 2007. (TimesSelect subscription access). ("Over the objections of the administration and Jewish groups that boycotted the event, Mr. Ahmadinejad, the man who has become the defiant face of Iran, squared off with the nation’s foreign policy establishment, parrying questions for an hour and three-quarters with two dozen members of the Council on Foreign Relations, then ending the evening by asking whether they were simply shills for the Bush administration.")

Bloomberg L.P. is a Financial Media Company founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1982. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Middle East Quarterly (MEQ) is a quarterly journal devoted to subjects relating to the Middle East. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...

External links

  • Council on Foreign Relations – Organization website
    • "For Educators" – "Academic Outreach Initiative": Resources for educators and students; links to selected CFR publications
    • "For the Media" – Resources for the media, concerning requests for press materials, transcripts of meetings, and annual reports; contact information

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