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Encyclopedia > Council of Europe
Council of Europe
Flag of the Council of Europe
Flag Logo
Anthem
Ode to Joy (orchestral)
     ten founding members     joined subsequently     observer at the Parliamentary Assembly     observer at the Committee of Ministers      official candidate
Seat Strasbourg, France
Membership 47 European states
5 observers (Council)
3 observers (Assembly)
Leaders
 -  Secretary General Terry Davis
 -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden
 -  President of the Committee of Ministers The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the state chairing the Committee of Ministers
Establishment
 -  Treaty of London 1949-05-05 
Website
http://www.coe.int/
Assembly building (right) and secretariat building (left) of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg
Assembly building (right) and secretariat building (left) of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg

Founded in 1949, the Council of Europe is the oldest organisation working for European integration. It is an international organisation with legal personality recognised under public international law and has observer status with the United Nations. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The European flag consists of a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 27 KB) Summary Council of Europe membership Key Dark green: ten original members Light green: joined subsequently Yellow: observer at the Parliamentary Assembly Orange: observer at the Committee of Ministers Red: official candidate Licensing I, the creator of this work... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Secretaries General of the Council of Europe: Terry Davis of the United Kingdom, in office since 1 September 2004 Walter Schwimmer of Austria, 1 September 1999 to 31 August 2004 Daniel Tarschys of Sweden, 1 June 1994 to 1 September 1999 Catherine Lalumière of France, 1 June 1989 to... For other persons named Terry Davis, see Terry Davis (disambiguation). ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... Pierre René Hubert Marie (René) van der Linden (born Dec 14, 1943, Eys) has been elected President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in autumn 2005. ... This may also refer to Russian Council of Ministers. ... This may also refer to Russian Council of Ministers. ... The Treaty of London was signed on May 5, 1949, which created the Council of Europe. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Palace of Europe (German: , French: , Spanish: ) is the seat of the Council of Europe, located in Strasbourg, Alsace, France. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


The seat of the Council of Europe is in Strasbourg in France. Having held its first meeting in Strasbourg's University Palace in 1949, its headquarters are in the Palace of Europe, the Human Rights Palace and adjacent buildings about two kilometres from the city centre. The Council of Europe Development Bank has its seat in Paris, the North-South Centre of the Council of Europe is established in Lisbon (Portugal), the Centre for Modern Languages is in Graz (Austria), and Budapest (Hungary) is the seat of the Youth Centre besides Strasbourg. The Council of Europe maintains offices in Paris and Brussels as well as in the capitals of several other member states. For other uses, see Strasburg. ... The University Palace in Strasbourg, and a monument to one of the universitys students, Johann Wolfgang Goethe The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is divided into three separate institutions. ... The Palace of Europe (German: , French: , Spanish: ) is the seat of the Council of Europe, located in Strasbourg, Alsace, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...


English and French are its two official languages (in French, it is known as Conseil de l'Europe). Its two statutory bodies, the Committee of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly, also work in German, Italian and Russian. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...

Contents

History

In 1945, at the end of the second World War, Europe was marked by unprecedented devastation and human suffering. It faced new political challenges, in particular reconciliation among the peoples of Europe. This situation favoured the long held idea of European integration through the creation of common institutions. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ...


In his famous speech at the University of Zurich in 1946, Sir Winston Churchill called for a United States of Europe and the creation of a Council of Europe. Churchill redirects here. ... The United States of Europe is a name given to one version of the hypothetical unification scenarios of Europe, as a sovereign federation of states, similar to the United States of America, both as projected by writers of speculative fiction and by political scientists and politicians. ...


At a specific congress of more than a thousand government representatives, politicians and civil society in The Hague in 1948, the future structure of the Council of Europe was discussed. There were two schools of thought competing: some favoured a classical international organisation with representatives of governments, while others preferred a political forum with parliamentarians. Both approaches were finally combined through the creation of the Committee of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly under the Statute of the Council of Europe of 1949. Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ...


This dual governmental/parliamentary approach was also kept for the European Communities later, which were organisations separate from the Council of Europe, but whose Assemblies met in Strasbourg in the Palace of Europe of the Council of Europe until they were transformed into the directly elected European Parliament of the European Union and a separate building was built in Strasbourg. The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


The Council of Europe was founded on 1949-05-05 by the Treaty of London. The Statute of the Council of Europe was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Many states followed, especially after the democratic transitions in central and eastern Europe during the early 1990s, and the Council of Europe now integrates nearly all states of Europe. Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of London was signed on May 5, 1949, which created the Council of Europe. ...


Aims and achievements

European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg

Article 1(a) of the Statute states that "The aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and facilitating their economic and social progress." Therefore, membership is open to all European states which seek European integration, accept the principle of the rule of law and are able and willing to guarantee democracy, fundamental human rights and freedoms. European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg, France. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg, France. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Council of Europe's most important achievement is the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, which created the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The Court supervises compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights and thus functions as the highest European court for human rights and fundamental freedoms. “ECHR” redirects here. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...


The wide activities and achievements of the Council of Europe can be found in detail on its official website. In a nutshell, the Council of Europe works in the following areas:

  • Protection of democracy through parliamentary scrutiny and election monitoring by its Parliamentary Assembly as well as assistance in democratic reforms, in particular by the Venice Commission.
  • Protection of the rule of law and fostering legal co-operation through some 200 conventions and other treaties, including such leading instruments as the Convention on Cybercrime, the conventions on the suppression and prevention of terrorism, the conventions against corruption and organised crime, and the convention on bioethics.
  • Promotion of cultural co-operation and diversity under the Council of Europe's Cultural Convention of 1954 and several conventions on the protection of cultural heritage as well as through its Centre for Modern Languages in Graz, Austria and its North-South Centre in Lisbon, Portugal.
  • Promotion of fair sport through the Anti-doping Convention and the convention against spectator violence.

The Venice Commission is an advisory body of the Council of Europe, composed of independent members in the field of constitutional law. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... The Convention on Cybercrime is the first international treaty seeking to address Internet crimes by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative techniques and increasing cooperation among nations. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... The Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT) is the anti-torture committee of the Council of Europe. ... The European Social Charter is a document signed by the members of the Council of Europe in Turin, 18 October 1961 in which they agreed to secure to their populations the social rights specified therein in order to improve their standard of living and their social well-being. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. ... The Lisbon Recognition Convention is an international convention for the Europe area of UNESCO. It stipulates that degrees and periods of study must be recognised unless substantial differences can be proven by the institution that is charged with recognition. ... Doping is generally the practice of adding impurities to something. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...

Institutions

The institutions of the Council of Europe are:

  • The Secretary General, who is elected for a term of five years by the Parliamentary Assembly and heads the Secretariat of the Council of Europe. Since 2004, Terry Davis from the United Kingdom is Secretary General.
  • The Committee of Ministers, comprising the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of all 47 member states who are represented by their Permanent Representatives and Ambassadors accredited to the Council of Europe. Committee of Ministers' presidencies are held in alphabetical order for six months following the English alphabet: Serbia 05/2007-11/2007, Slovakia 11/2007-05/2008, Sweden 05/2008-11/2008, Spain 11/2008-05/2009, Slovenia 05/2009-11/2009, Switzerland 11/2009-05/2010, etc.
  • The Parliamentary Assembly (PACE), which comprises national parliamentarians from all member states and elects its President for two years. Until January 2008, Rene van der Linden from the Netherlands is President of the Parliamentary Assembly.
  • The Congress of the Council of Europe (Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe), which was created in 1994 and comprises political representatives from local and regional authorities in all member states. The most influential instruments of the Council of Europe in this field are the European Charter of Local Self-Government of 1985 and the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation between Territorial Communities or Authorities of 1980.
  • The European Court of Human Rights, created under the European Convention on Human Rights of 1950, is composed of a judge from each member state elected for a renewable term of six years by the Parliamentary Assembly and is headed by the elected President of the Court. Since 2007, Jean-Paul Costa from France is the President of the Court. Under the new Protocol No. 14 to the European Convention on Human Rights, the terms of office of judges shall be nine years but non-renewable. All member states except Russia have signed and ratified Protocol No. 14.
  • The Commissioner for Human Rights, who is elected by the Parliamentary Assembly for a non-renewable term of six years since the creation of this position in 1999. This position is held since 2006 by Thomas Hammarberg from Sweden.
  • Information Offices of the Council of Europe in many member states.
  • The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ)

The CoE system also includes a number of semi-autonomous structures known as "partial agreements", some of which are also open to non-member states: Secretaries General of the Council of Europe: Terry Davis of the United Kingdom, in office since 1 September 2004 Walter Schwimmer of Austria, 1 September 1999 to 31 August 2004 Daniel Tarschys of Sweden, 1 June 1994 to 1 September 1999 Catherine Lalumière of France, 1 June 1989 to... A parliamentary assembly is part of many international organizations. ... The Right Honourable Terry Davis (born January 5, 1938) is a British politician, and former Member of Parliament for the Labour Party for the Birmingham, Hodge Hill constituency. ... http://www. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... Pierre René Hubert Marie (René) van der Linden (born Dec 14, 1943, Eys) has been elected President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in autumn 2005. ... Palace of Europe The Congress of the Council of Europe (Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe) is one of the institutions of the Council of Europe. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... “ECHR” redirects here. ... A parliamentary assembly is part of many international organizations. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... The Commissioner for Human Rights is an independent institution within the Strasbourg-based Council of Europe, mandated to promote the awareness of and respect for human rights in member states. ... A parliamentary assembly is part of many international organizations. ... Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Thomas Hammarberg, Copyright © Council of Europe Thomas Hammarberg (born 1942 in Örnsköldsvik) is a Swedish diplomat and human rights activist. ... The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ) is composed of experts from all the 47 member States of the Council of Europe and prepares tools to improve the efficiency and functioning of justice in Europe. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) came into being in its current form in1996. ...

  • The Council of Europe Development Bank in Paris
  • The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines
  • The European Audiovisual Observatory
  • The European Support Fund Eurimages for the co-production and distribution of films
  • The Pompidou Group - Cooperation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs
  • The European Commission for Democracy through Law, better known as the Venice Commission
  • The Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO)
  • The European and Mediterranean Major Hazards Agreement (EUR-OPA) is a platform for co-operation between European and Southern Mediterranean countries in the field of major natural and technological disasters.
  • In 2007, a new partial agreement on sport was established, which is open to accession by states and sport associations.

This article is about the capital of France. ... The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) came into being in its current form in1996. ... Set up in December 1992, the European Audiovisual Observatory is the only centre of its kind to gather and circulate information on the audiovisual industry in Europe. ... Eurimages is the Council of Europe fund for the co-production, distribution and exhibition of European cinematographic works. ... Logo of the Pompidou Group Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs (Pompidou Group) is an inter-governmental body formed in 1971 at the suggestion of the late French President Georges Pompidou. ... The Venice Commission is an advisory body of the Council of Europe, composed of independent members in the field of constitutional law. ... Council of Europe Flag: used by the Council of Europe The Council of Europe () is an international organization of 46 member states in the European region (with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Georgia and Cyprus also extending into Southwest Asia and Russia into North Asia). ...

Symbols

Main articles: European symbols and Flag of Europe

The Council of Europe created and uses as its official symbols the famous European Flag with 12 golden stars arranged in a circle on a blue background since 1955, and the European anthem based on the Ode to Joy in the final movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's Ninth symphony since 1972. The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... Image File history File linksMetadata European_flag_in_the_wind. ... Image File history File linksMetadata European_flag_in_the_wind. ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The European flag consists of a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background. ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ...


On 1964-05-05 - the 25th anniversary of its founding, the Council of Europe established 5 May as Europe Day.[1] Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ...


Although protected by copyright, the wide private and public use of the European Flag is encouraged to symbolise a European dimension. To avoid confusion with the European Union which subsequently adopted the same flag in the 1980s, as well as other European institutions, the Council of Europe often uses a modified version with a lower-case 'e' in the centre of the stars which is referred to as the "Council of Europe Logo".[2][1]


Membership

The Council of Europe has 47 member states in the European region (with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Georgia and Cyprus also extending into Western Asia and Russia into North Asia). With the exception of Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Vatican City all European states have acceded to the Council of Europe. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Regions of Asia:  Northern Asia  Central Asia  Western Asia  Southern Asia  Eastern Asia  Southeastern Asia North Asia or Northern Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Upon foundation on 1949-05-05 there were ten members: Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of Ireland Ireland
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Norway Norway Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ...

Flag of France France
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg
Flag of Sweden Sweden Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ...

Subsequent members by date of admission:

Flag of Greece Greece 1949-08-09
Flag of Turkey Turkey 1949-08-09
Flag of Iceland Iceland 1950-03-09
Flag of Germany Germanya 1950-06-13
Flag of Austria Austria 1956-04-16
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 1961-05-24
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 1963-05-06
Flag of Malta Malta 1965-04-29
Flag of Portugal Portugal 1976-09-22
Flag of Spain Spain 1977-11-24
Flag of Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 1978-11-23
Flag of San Marino San Marino 1988-11-16
Flag of Finland Finland 1989-05-05
Flag of Hungary Hungary 1990-11-06
Flag of Poland Poland 1991-11-26
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 1992-05-07
Flag of Estonia Estonia 1993-05-14
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania 1993-05-14
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 1993-05-14
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic 1993-06-30
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia 1993-06-30
Flag of Romania Romania 1993-10-07
Flag of Andorra Andorra 1994-10-10
Flag of Latvia Latvia 1994-10-10
Flag of Albania Albania 1995-06-13
Flag of Moldova Moldova 1995-06-13
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia FYR Macedoniab 1995-11-09
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 1995-11-09
Flag of Russia Russia 1996-02-28
Flag of Croatia Croatia 1996-11-06
Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia 1999-04-27
Flag of Armenia Armenia 2001-01-25
Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 2001-01-25
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 2002-04-24
Flag of Serbia Serbiac 2003-04-03
Flag of Monaco Monaco 2004-10-05
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro 2007-05-11

a In 1950, then West Germany and French-occupied Saarland became associate members. (West) Germany became a full member in 1951, while the Saarland withdrew from its associate membership in 1956. Saarland was later reintegrated with (West) Germany through a referendum in 1957. The Soviet-occupied eastern part of Germany and later East Germany never became a member of the Council of Europe like other East Bloc countries. Following German reunification in 1990, the eastern German Länder (i.e. regions) became part of Germany and thus gained representation in the Council of Europe.
b Joined under the provisional reference "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (including quotation marks).[3] Turkey recognises the country with its constitutional name.
c Originally joined as Serbia and Montenegro. Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... This article is about the year. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... For an in depth analysis of the often confusing terms regarding Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

Following its declaration of independence on 3 June 2006, Montenegro submitted a request to accede to the Council of Europe. The Committee of Ministers transmitted the request to the Parliamentary Assembly for opinion, in accordance with the usual procedure.[4]Eleven days later, on 14 June 2006, the Committee of Ministers declared that the Republic of Serbia would continue the membership of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.[5] On 11 May 2007, Montenegro joined the Council of Europe as 47th member state. is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... A parliamentary assembly is part of many international organizations. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Serbia and Montenegro  -Serbia    -Kosovo and Metohia    -Vojvodina  -Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  - Total  - % water 88,361 km² n/a Population  - Total (1998)  - Density 11,206,847 126. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian language written in Cyrillic alphabet Capital Belgrade President Svetozar Marović Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 105th  102,350 km²  0. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006...

This coin was issued in Armenia to commemorate Armenia's accession to the Council in 2001

Image File history File links Hyesseurope. ... Image File history File links Hyesseurope. ...

Applicants

The Parliament of Belarus held special guest status with the Parliamentary Assembly from September 1992 to January 1997, but this has been suspended as a consequence of the November 1996 constitutional referendum and parliament by-elections which the CoE found to be undemocratic, as well as limits on democratic freedoms such as freedom of expression (cf. Belarusian media) under the authoritarian regime of President Alexander Lukashenko. The constitution changed by the referendum "does not respect minimum democratic standards and violates the principles of separation of powers and the rule of law.[6]. Belarus applied for full membership on 1993-03-12 (still open). Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Belarusian media, since the days when Belarus gained its independence, comprise state-owned and private newspapers and magazines, and state-owned radio and television. ... Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko or Alyaksandar Ryhoravich Lukashenka (Belarusian: , Russian: ) (born August 30, 1954 at Kopys, Vitebsk voblast) has been the President of Belarus since 1994. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kazakhstan applied for observer status at the Parliamentary Assembly in 1999. The official response of PACE was that Kazakhstan could apply for full membership, because it is partially located in Europe, but that it would not be granted any status whatsoever at CoE until its democracy and human rights records improved. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is one of the institutions of the Council of Europe. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Observers

Canada, Japan, Mexico, the U.S. and the Holy See have observer status with the Council of Europe and the parliaments of Canada, Israel and Mexico have observer status with its Parliamentary Assembly. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


Co-operation

Non-Member States

The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg
The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg

The Council of Europe works mainly through conventions. By drafting conventions or international treaties, common legal standards are set for its member states. However, several conventions have also been opened for signature to non-member states. Important examples are the Convention on Cybercrime (signed e.g. by Canada, Japan, the Republic of South Africa and the USA), the Lisbon Recognition Convention on the recognition of study periods and degrees (signed e.g. by Australia, Belarus, Canada, the Holy See, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan and the USA), the Anti-doping Convention (signed e.g. by Australia, Belarus, Canada and Tunisia) and the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (signed e.g. by Burkina Faso, Morocco, Tunisia and Senegal as well as the European Community). Non-member states also participate in several partial agreements, such as the Venice Commission, the Group of States Against Corruption GRECO and the European Pharmacopoeia. Download high resolution version (1039x597, 161 KB)Palace of Europe in Strasbourg, France. ... Download high resolution version (1039x597, 161 KB)Palace of Europe in Strasbourg, France. ... The Palace of Europe (German: , French: , Spanish: ) is the seat of the Council of Europe, located in Strasbourg, Alsace, France. ... The Convention on Cybercrime is the first international treaty seeking to address Internet crimes by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative techniques and increasing cooperation among nations. ... The Lisbon Recognition Convention is an international convention for the Europe area of UNESCO. It stipulates that degrees and periods of study must be recognised unless substantial differences can be proven by the institution that is charged with recognition. ... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ... Doping is generally the practice of adding impurities to something. ... The Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats 1979, also known as the Bern Convention (or Berne Convention), came into force on June 1, 1982. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Venice Commission is an advisory body of the Council of Europe, composed of independent members in the field of constitutional law. ... Council of Europe Flag: used by the Council of Europe The Council of Europe () is an international organization of 46 member states in the European region (with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Georgia and Cyprus also extending into Southwest Asia and Russia into North Asia). ... The European Pharmacopoeia is a listing of a wide range of active substances and excipients used to prepare pharmaceutical products in Europe. ...


European Union

The Council of Europe is not to be confused with the Council of the European Union or the European Council. These belong to the European Union, which is separate from the Council of Europe, although they share the same European flag and anthem since the 1980s because they also work for European integration. Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ...


Cooperation between the European Union and the Council of Europe has recently been reinforced, notably on culture and education as well as on the international enforcement of justice and Human Rights[7]. The European Union is expected to accede to the European Convention on Human Rights (the Convention). At their Warsaw Summit in 2005, the Heads of State and Government of all Council of Europe member states reiterated their desire for the EU to accede without delay to ensure consistent human rights protection across Europe. There are also concerns about consistency in case law - the European Court of Justice (the EU's court in Luxembourg) is treating the Convention as part of the legal system of all EU member states in order to prevent conflict between its judgements and those of the European Court of Human Rights (the court in Strasbourg interpreting the Convention). Protocol No.14 of the Convention is designed to allow the EU to accede to the it and the EU Reform Treaty contains a protocol binding the EU to joining. The EU would thus be subject to its human rights law and external monitoring as its member states are currently. It is further proposed that the EU join as a member of the Council of Europe once it has attained its legal personality in the Reform Treaty, possibly in 2010.[8][9] “ECHR” redirects here. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... The Reform Treaty is a European Union treaty designed to reform the European Union following the failed European Constitution. ...


United Nations

The Council of Europe holds observer status with the United Nations and is regularly represented in the UN General Assembly. It has organised the regional UN conferences against racism and on women and co-operates with the United Nations at many levels. UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs)

NGOs can participate in the INGO Conference of the Council of Europe and become observers to inter-governmental committees of experts. The Council of Europe drafted the European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organisations in 1986, which sets the legal basis for the existence and work of NGOs in Europe. Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects the right to freedom of association, which is also a fundamental norm for NGOs. NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Flag, anthem and logo: the Council of Europe's symbols. Council of Europe. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  2. ^ Logo of the Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  3. ^ Statute of the Council of Europe. Council of Europe (1949-05-05). Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  4. ^ Request by the Republic of Montenegro for accession to the Council of Europe. Council of Europe (1949-06-14). Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  5. ^ Continuation by the Republic of Serbia of membership of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in the Council of Europe. Council of Europe (2006-06-14). Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  6. ^ Belarus : a referendum under a 'hardening dictatorial regime'. Council of Europe (2004). Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  7. ^ The Council of Europe and the European Union sign an agreement to foster mutual cooperation. Council of Europe (2007-05-23). Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  8. ^ Juncker, Jean-Claude (2006). Council of Europe - European Union: "A sole ambition for the European continent" (PDF). Council of Europe. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  9. ^ Draft treaty modifying the treaty on the European Union and the treaty establishing the European community (PDF). Open Europe (2007-07-24). Retrieved on 2007-07-28.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean-Claude Juncker Jean-Claude Juncker (born December 9, 1954) is the Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg, and until July 1, 2005, was president of the European Council, a position he also previously held in 1997. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The following table lists the independent European states, and their memberships in selected organizations and treaties, and their use of the euro (€). 1 The United Nations is a world-wide organization with members from all continents, not only from Europe. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, or CEFR, is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...

External links

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Council of Europe
Council of Europe
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Council of Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (779 words)
The seat of the Council of Europe is in Strasbourg on the Franco-German border.
The Council of Europe is not to be confused with the Council of the European Union or the European Council, as it is a separate organisation and not part of the European Union.
The Council of Europe is responsible for the notable European flag with 12 golden stars (upward pointing) arranged in a circle on a blue background since 1955, and the anthem based on the Ode to Joy in the final movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's Ninth symphony since 1972.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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