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Encyclopedia > Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
Date 431
Accepted by Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Lutheranism
Previous council First Council of Constantinople
Next council (Oriental Orthodox) Second Council of Ephesus
(Roman Catholic, Orthodox, etc.) Council of Chalcedon
Convoked by Emperor Theodosius II
Presided by Cyril of Alexandria
Pope Celestine (through papal legates)
Attendance 200-250 (papal representatives arrived late)
Topics of discussion Nestorianism, Theotokos, Pelagianism
Documents and statements Nicene Creed confirmed, condemnations of heresies, declaration of "Theotokos"
Chronological list of Ecumenical councils
Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Alexandria

The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). Approximately 200 bishops were present. The proceedings were conducted in a heated atmosphere of confrontation and recriminations. It is counted as the Third Ecumenical Council, and was chiefly concerned with Nestorianism. Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... The Second Council of Ephesus (called the Robber Council of Ephesus, Robber Synod or Latrocinium by its opponents) was a church council at Ephesus. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... St. ... There have been five Popes Celestine of the Roman Catholic Church: Pope Celestine I (422–432) Pope Celestine II (1143–1144) Pope Celestine III (1191–1198) Pope Celestine IV (1241) Pope Celestine V (1294) Category: ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (696x1008, 126 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (696x1008, 126 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Church of Mary The Church of Mary (Turkish: Meryem Kilisesi) is an ancient Christian cathedral dedicated to the Theotokos (the Virgin Mary), located in Ephesus, Turkey. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ...


Nestorianism emphasized the dual natures of Christ. Patriarch Nestorius tried to answer a question considered unsolved: "How can Jesus Christ, beign part man, not be partialy a sinner as well, since man is by definition a sinner since the Fall". To solve that he taught that Mary, the mother of Jesus gave birth to the incarnate Christ, not the divine Logos who existed before Mary and indeed before time itself. The Logos occupied the part of the human soul (the part of man that was stained by the Fall). But wouldn't the absence of a human soul make Jesus less human? No, Nestorius answered because the human soul was based on the archetype of the Logos only to become poluted by the Fall, therefore Jesus was "more" human for having the Logos and not "less". Consequently, Mary should be called Christotokos, Greek for the "Christ-Bearer" and not Theotokos, Greek for the "God-Bearer." This was essentially a Christological controversy. Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... In Christology, the conception that Jesus Christ is the Logos (a Greek word meaning word, wisdom, or reason) has been important in establishing the doctrine of Jesus divinity, as well as that of the Trinity, as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who Jesus Christ is. ...


At the urging of its president, Cyril of Alexandria, the Council denounced Nestorius' teaching as erroneous and decreed that Jesus was one person, not two separate people: complete God and complete man, with a rational soul and body. The Virgin Mary was to be called Theotokos because she bore and gave birth to God as a man. This did not resolve the debate over the union of the two natures of Christ, and related issues were debated at the Council of Chalcedon. St. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... The hypostatic union (also known as the mystical union), in Christian theology, refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ as being simultaneously God and Man. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ...


The Council of Ephesus also declared the text of the Nicene Creed of 381 to be complete and forbade any additional change (addition or deletion) to it. In addition, it condemned Pelagianism. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ...


Eight canons[1] were passed:


Canon 1 decreed a heretic named Celestius (so Scholion), anathema. Anathema (in Greek Ανάθεμα) meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods; later, with evolving meanings, it came to mean: to be formally set apart, banished, exiled, excommunicated or denounced, sometimes accursed. ...


Canon 2-5 decreed Nestorianism anathema. Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ...


Canon 6 decreed those who do not abide by the canons of Ephesus are excommunicated. Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


Canon 7 decreed those who do not abide by Nicaea are anathema. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ...


Canon 8: "Let the rights of each province be preserved pure and inviolate. No attempt to introduce any form contrary to these shall be of any avail." Mention is made of the Canons of the Apostles. This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles[1] is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees (eighty-five in the Eastern, fifty in the Western Church) concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Council of Ephesus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (418 words)
The Council of Ephesus, 449 is called by the Roman Catholic Church the "Robber Council of Ephesus".
The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great.
The Council also declared the text of the Nicene Creed of 381 to be complete and forbade any additional change (addition or deletion) to it.
Robber Council of Ephesus (2264 words)
The question before the council by order of the emperor was whether St. Flavian, in a synod held by him at Constantinople in November, 448, had justly deposed and excommunicated the Archimandrite Eutyches for refusing to admit two natures in Christ.
The council had sent him an account of their actions, and he replied (if we may believe the Acts) that he agreed to all the sentences that had been given and regretted that his health made his attendance impossible.
He was deposed by a vote of the council, and with this final act of injustice the Acts come to an end.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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