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Encyclopedia > Council of Basel
Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence
Date 1431-1445
Accepted by Catholicism
Previous Council Council of Constance
Next Council Fifth Council of the Lateran
Convoked by Pope Martin V
Presided by Julian Cardinal Cesarini, later Pope Eugene IV
Attendance very light in first sessions, eventually 117 Latins and 31 Greeks
Topics of discussion Hussites, East-West Schism
Documents and statements Several Papal bulls, short-lived reconciliation with Greek Orthodox, reconciliation with delegation from the Armenians
chronological list of Ecumenical councils

The Council of Basel was a council of bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church that was held at Basel, Switzerland. The location reflected a desire to meet outside the territories of the Papacy, the Holy Roman Empire, or the kings of Aragon and France, whose influences the council hoped to avoid. Ambrogio Traversari attended the Council of Basel as legate of Pope Eugenius IV. Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general council. ... Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... Eugenius IV, né Gabriel Condulmer (1383 - February 23, 1447) was pope from March 3, 1431 to his death. ... The Hussites comprised an early Protestant Christian movement, followers of Jan Hus. ... Great Schism redirects here. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... The Roman Catholic Church (commonly known as the Catholic Church) is the Christian Church which is led by the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ. ... Basel (English traditionally: Basle [ba:l], German: Basel [ba:z@l], French Bâle [ba:l], Italian Basilea [bazilE:a]) is Switzerlands third most populous city (188,000 inhabitants in the canton of Basel-City as of 2004; the 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A king may be: Brad Boeji of Kingsdale alambama was the first king of the 20 century to attack a superpower nuclear nation on horse back and win A male monarch, or head of state Germanic king for the origins of the... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... Ambrose the Camaldulian, (Ambrogio Traversari) (1386-1439), was a theologian, born near Florence at the village of Portico. ... The word legate comes from the Latin legare (to send). It has several meanings, all related to representatives: A legate is a member of a diplomatic embassy. ... Eugene IV, né Gabriele Condulmer (1383 – February 23, 1447) was Pope from March 3, 1431 to his death. ...


The council was convened at a period when the Conciliar movement was strong and the authority of the papacy weak. In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Catholic Church that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with a general church council, not with the pope. ...


In the pressure for reform within the Church, a decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V, obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. At the expiration of the first term fixed by this decree, Pope Martin V complied by calling a council at Pavia. Due to an epidemic the location transferred almost at once to Siena (see Council of Siena) and disbanded -owing to circumstances still imperfectly known- just as it had begun to discuss the subject of reform (1424). The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (283rd in Leap years). ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its... This page is about Siena, Italy. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, the Council of Siena (1423 - 1424) marked a somewhat inconclusive stage in the Conciliar movement that was attempting reforms in the church. ... Events August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stuart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ...


The next council fell due at the expiration of seven years in 1431; with his usual punctuality, Martin V duly convoked it for this date to the town of Basel, and selected to preside over it the cardinal Julian Cesarini, a well-respected prelate. Martin himself, however, died before the opening of the synod. Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ... Location within Switzerland Basel (English traditionally: Basle , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as of 2003). ... A prelate is a member of the clergy who either has ordinary jurisdiction over a group of people or ranks in precedence with ordinaries. ...

Contents


Composition of the Council

The democratic character of the assembly at Basel was a result of both its composition and its organization. Doctors of theology, masters and representatives of chapters, monks and clerks of inferior orders constantly outnumbered the prelates in it, and the influence of the superior clergy had less weight because, instead of being separated into "nations", as at Constance, the fathers divided themselves according to their tastes or aptitudes into four large committees or "deputations" (deputationes). One was concerned with questions of faith (fidei), another with negotiations for peace (pacis), the third with reform (reformatorii), and the fourth with what they called "common concerns" (pro communibus). Every decision made by three of these "deputations" — and in each of them the lower clergy formed the majority — received ratification for the sake of form in general congregation, and if necessary led to decrees promulgated in session. For this reason papal critics termed the council "an assembly of copyists" or even "a set of grooms and scullions". Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is similar to belief, trust or confidence, but unlike these terms, faith tends to imply a transpersonal rather than interpersonal relationship – with God or a higher power. ... The concept of peace ranks among the most controversial in our time. ... A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of the society rather than rapid or fundamental changes. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ...


Attempted dissolution

From Italy, France and Germany the fathers came late to Basel. Cesarini devoted all his energies to the war against the Hussites, until the disaster of Taus forced him to evacuate Bohemia in haste. Pope Eugenius IV, Martin V's successor, lost hope that the Council could be useful owing to the progress of heresy, the reported troubles in Germany, the war which had lately broken out between the dukes of Austria and Burgundy, and finally, the small number of fathers who had responded to the summons of Martin V. This opinion, added to his desire to preside over the council in person, induced him to recall the fathers from Germany, as his poor health made it difficult for him to go. He commanded the council to disperse, and appointed Bologna as their meeting-place in eighteen months' time, with the intention of making the session of the council coincide with some conferences with representatives of the Greek church, scheduled to be held there with a view to ecumenical union (18 December 1431). The Hussites comprised an early Protestant Christian movement, followers of Jan Hus. ... Combatants Hussites Holy Roman Empire Commanders Prokop the Bald Strength Casualties The Battle of Domažlice was fought in 1431 between the Holy Roman Empire and the Hussites. ... Bohemia. ... Eugene IV, né Gabriele Condulmer (1383 – February 23, 1447) was Pope from March 3, 1431 to his death. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the catholic or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy... Flag of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... Bologna (pronounced , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, between the Po River and the Apennines. ... ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) (IPA: ) is derived from the Greek oikoumene, which means the inhabited world. The term is usually used with regard to movements toward religious unity. ... December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ...


This order led to an outcry among the fathers at Basel and incurred the deep disapproval of the legate Cesarini. They argued that the Hussites would think the Church afraid to face them, and that the laity would accuse the clergy of shirking reform, both with disastrous effects. The pope explained his reasons and yielded certain points, but the fathers were intransigent. Considerable powers had been decreed to Church Councils by the Council of Constance, which amid the troubles of the Western Schism had proclaimed the superiority, in certain cases, of the council over the pope, and the fathers at Basel insisted upon their right of remaining assembled. They held sessions, promulgated decrees, interfered in the government of the papal countship of Venaissin, treated with the Hussites, and, as representatives of the universal Church, presumed to impose laws upon the "sovereign pontiff" himself. In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... Historical map of the Western Schism The Western Schism or Papal Schism (Also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church in 1378. ... The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short, was the name formerly given to the region around the city of Avignon in Provence, in what is now southern France. ...


According to the official Roman Catholic view, Eugenius IV resolved to resist this supremacy, but he did not dare openly to repudiate the conciliar doctrine considered by many to be the actual foundation of the authority of the popes before the schism. He soon realized the impossibility of treating the fathers of Basel as ordinary rebels, and tried a compromise; but as time went on, the fathers became more and more intractable, and between him and them gradually arose an impassable barrier. Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... Olivia Amador ...


Abandoned by a number of his cardinals, condemned by most of the powers, deprived of his dominions by condottieri who shamelessly invoked the authority of the council, the pope made concession after concession, and ended on 15 December 1433 with a pitiable surrender of all the points at issue in a Papal bull, the terms of which were dictated by the fathers of Basel, that is, by declaring his bull of dissolution null and void, and recognising that the synod as legitimately assembled throughout. However, Eugenius IV did not ratify all the decrees coming from Basel, nor make a definite submission to the supremacy of the council. He declined to express any forced pronouncement on this subject, and his enforced silence concealed the secret design of safeguarding the principle of sovereignty. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ... A Dominion is a wholly self-governing or virtually self-governing state of the British Empire or Commonwealth of Nations, particularly one which reached that stage of constitutional development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries such as Canada, Australia and New Zealand. ... Condottieri (singular condottiere) were mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states from the late Middle Ages until the mid-sixteenth century. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... ...


The fathers, filled with suspicion, would only allow the legates of the pope to preside over them on condition of their recognizing the superiority of the council. The legates did submit to this humiliating formality, but in their own names only it was asserted after the fact, thus reserving the final judgment of the Holy See. Furthermore, the difficulties of all kinds against which Eugene had to contend, such as the insurrection at Rome, which forced him to escape by the Tiber, lying in the bottom of a boat, left him at first little chance of resisting the enterprises of the council. City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... Tiber River in Rome The River Tiber (Italian Tevere), the third-longest river in Italy (disputed — see talk page) at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that...


Issues of reform

Emboldened by their success, the fathers approached the subject of reform, their principal object being to further curtail the power and resources of the papacy. They took decisions on the disciplinary measures which regulated the elections, on the celebration of divine service, on the periodical holding of diocesan synods and provincial councils, which were usual topics in Catholic councils. They also made decrees aimed at some of the assumed rights by which the popes had extended their power and improved their finances at the expense of the local churches. Thus the Council abolished annates, greatly limited the abuse of "reservation" of the patronage of benefices by the pope, and completely abolished the right claimed by the pope of "next presentation" to benefices not yet vacant (known as gratiae expectativae). Other conciliar decrees severely limited the jurisdiction of the court of Rome, and even made rules for the election of popes and the constitution of the Sacred College. The fathers continued to devote themselves to the subjugation of the Hussites, and they also intervened, in rivalry with the pope, in the negotiations between France and England which led to the treaty of Arras, concluded by Charles VII of France with the duke of Burgundy. Finally, they investigated and judged numbers of private cases — lawsuits between prelates, members of religious orders and holders of benefices — thus themselves committing one of the serious abuses for which they had criticised the court of Rome. An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... The concept of the divine or of The Divine, meaning matters relating to a god, forms an important ingredient in many religious faiths (but compare Buddhism, for example, or Scientology). ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... The first fruits, or first years revenue of an ecclesiastical benefice paid to the Papal Curia ,a certain papal tax derived from ones income. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... There have been several treaties of Arras: the Treaty of Arras (1435) between Charles VII of France and Philip the Good of Burgundy. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Flag of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ...


Eugenius IV

Main article: Pope Eugenius IV.

Eugenius IV, however much he may have wished to keep on good terms with the fathers of Basel, found himself neither able nor willing to accept or observe all their decrees. The question of the union with the Greek church, especially, gave rise to a misunderstanding between them which soon led to a rupture. The Byzantine emperor John VIII Palaeologus, pressed hard by the Ottoman Turks, was keen to ally himself with the Catholics. He consented to come with the principal representatives of the Greek church to some place in the West where the union could be concluded in the presence of the pope and of the Latin council. There arose a double negotiation between him and Eugenius IV on the one hand and the fathers of Basel on the other. The Council wished to fix the meeting-place at a place remote from the influence of the pope, and they persisted in suggesting Basel, Avignon or Savoy, venues which neither Eugenius nor the Greeks would accept. Eugene IV, né Gabriele Condulmer (1383 – February 23, 1447) was Pope from March 3, 1431 to his death. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... John VIII (1390 - Constantinople October 31, 1448), surnamed Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor, the oldest son of Manuel II, became sole emperor in 1425. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... View over the Rhône River to North-East with Mt Ventoux at the rear Palais des papes Square below the Palace of the Popes Paul Vs coat-of-arms on the Palais des papes The Notre Dame des Doms cathedral is located in the heart of Avignon, near... This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ...

Main article: Council of Ferrara.

The result was that Palaeologus accepted the offers of the pope, who, by a bull dated 18 September 1437, again pronounced the dissolution of the council of Basel, and summoned the fathers to Ferrara, where on the 8 January 1438 he opened a new synod which he later transferred to Florence. Bishop Luigi Pirano of Forlì (1437) took an active part in the ensuing Council of Ferrara. A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... The Palaeologus (Gr. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... Ferrara is a town, an archiepiscopal see and a province in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Germany Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway loses direct control of Sweden. ... Founded 59 BC as Florentia Region Tuscany Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  102 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 356,000 almost 500,000 3,453/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 43°47 N 11°15 E www. ... Forlì, 44°13′N 12°02′E, is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini (at Predappio). ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ...


Union with the Eastern Orthodox Church

In Ferrara took place the momentary union, more apparent than real, between the Latin Church and the Greek Church on (6 July 1439). The only Eastern bishop to refuse to sign onto the union was Mark of Ephesus, who held that Rome was in both heresy and schism for its acceptance of the Filioque clause in the Nicene Creed and for the papal claims to universal jurisdiction over the Church. Attempts at a wider union were also made by Eugenius IV, such as the Bull of Union with the Copts. The Latin Church is that part of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin rites are or were used in the liturgy. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... Mark of Ephesus (Evgenikos), a 15th century bishop of Ephesus, is famous for his defense of Orthodoxy at the Council of Florence (1438-1445 A.D.) in spite of the emperor and the pope of Rome. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the catholic or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the Son) is a disputed part of the Nicene Creed and is most often referred to as simply filioque or the filioque. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The Bull of Union with the Copts was promulgated by Pope Eugene IV at the Ecumenical Council of Florence on 4 February 1442. ...


Deposition of Eugenius IV

During this time the council of Basel, though abandoned by Cesarini and most of its members, persisted none the less, under the presidency of Cardinal Aleman, in affirming its ecumenical character. On 24 January 1438 it suspended Eugene IV, and went on (in spite of the intervention of most of the powers) to pronounce his deposition (25 June 1439), finally giving rise to a new schism by electing (4 November 1439) duke Amadeus VIII of Savoy, as (anti)pope, who took the name of Felix V. Louis Aleman (c. ... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Germany Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway loses direct control of Sweden. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... Antipope Felix V, the last historical Antipope. ...


This schism lasted fully ten years, although the antipope found few adherents outside of his own hereditary states, those of Alfonso V of Aragon, of the Swiss confederation and of certain universities. Germany remained neutral; Charles VII of France confined himself to securing to his kingdom (by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, which became law on 13 July 1438) the benefit of a great number of the reforms decreed at Basel; England and Italy remained faithful to Eugene IV. Finally, in 1447, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, after negotiations with Eugene, commanded the burgomaster of Basel not to allow the presence of the council any longer in the imperial city. Alfonso V of Aragon (also Alfonso I of Naples) (1396 – June 27, 1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, was the King of Aragon and Naples and count of Barcelona from 1416 to 1458. ... The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, issued by King Charles VII of France, on July 7, 1438, required a General Church Council, with authority superior to that of the pope, to be held every ten years, required election rather than appointment to ecclesiastical offices, prohibited the pope from bestowing, and profiting... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...


Council at Lausanne

In June 1448 the rump of the council migrated to Lausanne. The antipope, at the instance of France, ended by abdicating (7 April 1449). Eugene IV died on 23 February 1447, and the fathers of Lausanne, to save appearances, gave their support to his successor, Pope Nicholas V, who had already been governing the Church for two years. Trustworthy evidence, they said, proved to them that this pontiff accepted the dogma of the superiority of the council as defined at Constance and at Basel. Lausanne (, ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397 – March 24, 1455) was Pope from March 6, 1447, to his death. ...


Aftermath

In reality, the seventeen-year struggle which the fathers had carried on to defend conciliarism, ended in a defeat. The papacy, so fundamentally shaken by the great schism of the West, came through this trial with a pyrrhic victory. The era of the great councils of the 15th century closed and the constitution of the Roman Church remained monarchical, but this left unresolved many of the issues which provoked the Reformation in the next century. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


References

  • Mansi, vol. xxix.-xxxi.
  • Aeneas Sylvius, De rebus Basileae gestis (Fetmo, 1803)
  • Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol. vii. (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1874)
  • O. Richter, Die Organisation and Geschäftsordnung des Basler Konziis (Leipzig, 1877)
  • Monumenta Conciliorum generalium seculi xv., Scriptorum, vol. i., ii. and iii. (Vienna, 1857-1895)
  • J. Haller, Concilium Basiliense, vol. i.-v. (Basel,1896-1904)
  • G. Perouse, Le Cardinal Louis Aleman, président du concile de Bâle (Paris, 1904).
  • J. C. L. Gieseler, Ecclesiastical History, vol. iv. p. 312ff (Eng. trans., Edinburgh, 1853).
  • Johannes Helmrath, Das Basler Konzil; 1431 - 1449; Forschungsstand und Probleme, Köln 1978.
  • Stefan Sudmann, Das Basler Konzil: Synodale Praxis zwischen Routine und Revolution (= Tradition - Reform - Innovation, Studien zur Modernität des Mittelalters, Bd. 8), Peter-Lang-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005 (Diss. Münster/Westf. 2004), ISBN 3-631-54266-6 [1]

Gian (Giovanni) Domenico Mansi (16 February 1692–27 September 1769) was an Italian theologian, scholar and historian, known for his massive works on the Church councils. ... Pope Pius II. Pius II, né Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Latin Aeneas Sylvius (October 18, 1405 _ August 14, 1464) was pope from 1458 to 1464. ... Karl Josef von Hefele (March 15, 1809 - June 6, 1893), German theologian, was born at Unterkochen in Württemberg, and was educated at Tübingen, where in 1839 he became professor-ordinary of Church history and patristics in the [Roman Catholic] faculty of theology. ... Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler (March 3, 1792-July 8, 1854), was a German church historian. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Council of Basel - LoveToKnow 1911 (1422 words)
BASEL A decree of the council of Constance (9th of October 1417) sanctioned by Martin V.
The result was that Palaeologus accepted the offers of the pope, who, by a bull dated the 18th of September 1437, again pronounced the dissolution of the council of Basel, and summoned the fathers to Ferrara, where on the 8th of January 1438 he opened a new synod which he later transferred to Florence.
In June 1448 the rump of the council migrated to Lausanne.
Council of Basel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1803 words)
The Council of Basel was a council of bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church that was held at Basel, Switzerland, away from territories of the Papacy, the Holy Roman Emperor or the kings of Aragon or France, whose influences the council hoped to avoid.
He commanded the council to disperse, and appointed Bologna as their meeting-place in eighteen months' time, with the intention of making the session of the council coincide with some conferences with representatives of the Greek church, scheduled to be held there with a view to union (18 December 1431).
In June 1448 the rump of the council migrated to Lausanne.
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