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Encyclopedia > Cotton mill
Lancashire cotton mill, 1914
Lancashire cotton mill, 1914

A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. Cotton was a leading sector in the Industrial Revolution, as cotton spinning was mechanised in mills. During this time, the success of cotton mills gave birth to Mill towns, which became significant settlements, following the foundation of mills in them. First constructed in England, cotton mills facilitated huge and rapid economic expansion for many parts of Britain, particularly in Lancashire, for example Manchester, Oldham, Preston, Blackburn, Burnley, Ashton and Rochdale; and in Stockport, and other towns and cities. Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Amoskeag Canal, 1948, by Charles Sheeler A mill town is a community that grew up around one or more mills or factories, usually on a river that was used as a source of power in the days before electricity. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. ... This article is about Preston, Lancashire. ... This article is about the town in Lancashire, England. ... For other meanings see Burnley (disambiguation) , Burnley is a large town in the borough of Burnley in Lancashire, England, with a population of about 73,021. ... Ashton may refer to: // Ashton, South Australia Ashton Searle, Western Australia Ashton Creek, British Columbia Ashton, Ontario Ashton Station, Ontario Ashton, Prince Edward Island Ashton, South Africa Ashton, Florida Ashton, Idaho Ashton, Illinois Ashton, Maryland Ashton, Michigan Ashton, Nebraska Ashton, South Dakota England Ashton, Cheshire Ashton, Cornwall Ashton, Devon Ashton... For other uses, see Rochdale (disambiguation). ... Stockport is a large town in the north west of England. ...

Contents

Great Britain

Cotton manufacture (like that of other textiles) started as a domestic industry. This changed with the advent of the Industrial Revolution, when the output of cotton textile increased dramatically. There were many inventions leading up to the Industrial Revolution. The flying shuttle was invented in 1733 by John Kay which made weaving faster and left the weaver wanting more yarn than the spinners were making. The solution to this was new technology to speed up spinning. The mechanisation of cotton spinning involved two parallel threads of inventions. For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The flying shuttle was developed by John Kay in 1733, and was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution. ... The Memorial to John Kay in Bury, Lancashire, England John Kay (June 17, 1704 – 1780) was the inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


Water Frame

Main article: Water Frame

In 1738 Lewis Paul and John Wyatt, of Birmingham, patented a roller spinning machine and a flyer-and-bobbin system, for drawing cotton to a more even thickness, using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds. Mills using this patent were established at Northampton and Leominster, which spun cotton in 1742 and 1744, but were far less successful that the spinning jenny or water frame. The Northampton Mill worked until about 1764, but does not seem to have been a commercial success.[1] The Leominster mill was built by Daniel Bourne, but it burnt down in 1754. The water frame is an extension of the spinning frame; both of which are credited to Richard Arkwright. ... Lewis Paul (d. ... John Wyatt (? – 1766), an English inventor, was born near Lichfield and was related to Sarah Ford, Doctor Johnsons mother. ... This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ... , For the Leominster in the USA, see Leominster, Massachusetts. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...


Both Paul and Bourne patented machinery in 1748 for carding cotton. Carding is a premilinary process that must be undertaken before spinning. Mr Morris (probably Henry Morris) set up a carding cylinder at Brock Mill near Wigan in 1763.[2] Ralph Taylor of Royton apparently followed this with a 'cotton mill' (presumably another carding mill) at Thorpe Clough there in 1764,[3][4][5]-1... , Wigan is a town in Greater Manchester, England. ... , Royton is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham,[1] in Greater Manchester, England. ...


The roller spinning principle of Paul and Bourne was the basis of Richard Arkwright's later water frame, patented in 1769. This invention was initially put into operation at Nottingham, where hosiery was being produced from imported Indian yarn. Arkwright moved to Cromford and set up a mill there in 1771. His partner Jedediah Strutt set up mills at Belper and elsewhere in the following years. Arkwright's second patent (of 1775) combined his previously patented machine with a carding machine, but when he attempted to enforce that patent, it was found not to be a new invention and hence invalid. Richard Arkwright Sir Richard Arkwright, born (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) to Ellen and Thomas Arkwright, was an Englishman credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... The water frame is an extension of the spinning frame; both of which are credited to Richard Arkwright. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... Cromford, in Derbyshire, England, is a village that is one of the significant sites in the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Jedediah Strutt (1726 – 7 May 1797) was a hosier and cotton spinner from Belper, England. ... , Belper is a town within the local government district of Amber Valley in Derbyshire, England. ...


Many other mills followed, particularly after Arkwright's original patent expired in 1783. By 1788, there were about 210 mills in Great Britain, the counties with the greatest number being Lancashire, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire. The water frame produced a strong yarn suitable for the warp.[6] Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ...


Spinning Mule

Main article: Spinning Mule

The spinning jenny was developed by James Hargreaves in c.1764, but patented only in 1770. Like Arkwright, Hargreaves moved from Lancashire to Nottingham. The jenny was a manually operated machine, which speeded up spinning, but it was not initially powered by mills.[7] This produced a softer yarn suitable for the weft, so that the two inventions were in a sense complementary. The spinning mule was created by Samuel Crompton. ... For the magazine of the same name, see Spinning Jenny (magazine). ... James Hargreaves (also known as James Hargraves [1]) (1720 – 22 April 1778) was a weaver, carpenter and an inventor in Lancashire, England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...


The principles of both were combined by Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule, but water power was not applied to the mule until David Dale did so at New Lanark Mills in about 1792.[8] liersss Samuel Crompton (December 3, 1753 – June 26, 1827), English inventor, was born at Firwood, in Bolton, Lancashire. ... The spinning mule was created by Samuel Crompton. ... Hydropower (or waterpower) harnesses the energy of moving or falling water. ... David Dale, (1739 - 1806) is a remarkable example of the fluidity of Scottish society in the 18th century. ... New Lanark is a village on the River Clyde, approximately two kilometres from the Royal Burgh of Lanark, in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. ...


Consequences

These inventions facilitated a great expansion in cotton spinning and the related production of cotton cloth. Cotton was one of the leading sectors in the Industrial Revolution, and in the rise of socio-economic prosperity in England. From the 19th century cotton manufacture was concentrated in Lancashire, whereas the West Riding of Yorkshire concentrated on wool, although there was some overlap. Initially the main source of raw cotton was India during the British Raj, but later the southern United States became the main source, the cotton being imported into England through Liverpool. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ...


United States

Print Works in c. 1906 at the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, Manchester, New Hampshire
Print Works in c. 1906 at the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, Manchester, New Hampshire

At the time of the American Revolution, 1775-1783, most cloth was still made at home.[9] An Uxbridge, Massachusetts farmer by the name of Richard Mowry successfully built and marketed the equipment needed to manufacture woolen, linen or cotton cloth. [9] John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Uxbridge is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ...


The first power looms in America were made in a machine shop in Cumberland, Rhode Island and used in mills in Uxbridge in 1820. [10] The first cotton mill in the United States was built in Beverly, Massachusetts in 1787 by entrepreneur John Cabot and brothers, after being interested in the textile industry by American investors Thomas Somers and James Leonard.[11] The mill differed from later mechanized mills in that it was horse-powered. This changed with the development of the first commercially successful cotton-spinning mill with a fully mechanized water power system in the United States in 1790 by Samuel Slater on the Blackstone River in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. In 1813, the Boston Manufacturing Company was built on the Charles River at Waltham, Massachusetts. One of its proprietors was Francis Cabot Lowell, who had traveled to Manchester, England to study the mill system and memorize its construction. The factory town of Lowell, Massachusetts on the Merrimack River would be named in his honor. Further upriver at Manchester, New Hampshire was incorporated in 1831 the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, which grew throughout the 19th century to become the largest cotton textile plant in the world, with 30 mills and up to 17,000 employees. Some of the 1200 power looms at the Plevna factory building, completed in 1877 , at the Finlayson & Co cotton mills in Tampere, Finland The power loom was designed in 1784 by Edmund Cartwright and first built in 1785 . ... Cumberland Town Hall Cumberland is a town in Providence County, Rhode Island, USA, incorporated in 1746. ... Beverly is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... The Cabot family was one of the Boston Brahmins, also called the First Families of Boston. ... Hydropower (or waterpower) harnesses the energy of moving or falling water. ... Samuel Slater (1768 – 1835) popularly called The Father of the American Industrial Revolution Samuel Slater (June 9, 1768 – April 21, 1835) was an early American industrialist popularly known as the Founder of the American Industrial Revolution. // Mr. ... The Blackstone River begins in central Massachusetts and travels through Rhode Island until emptying into Narragansett Bay which connects to the Atlantic Ocean. ... Pawtucket is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. ... Waltham, Massachusetts Boston Manufacturing Company was organized during the War of 1812 by Boston merchants previously engaged in the India trade. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... One of the early centers of the Industrial Revolution in northern America, Waltham is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... , Waltham, Massachusetts Francis Cabot Lowell (April 7, 1775 - April 10, 1817) was the American business man for whom the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, United States is named. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... A Mill town, or factory town, is typically a settlement that developed around one or more mills or factories (usually cotton mills or factories producing textiles). ... Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ... Merrimack River watershed The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an earlier spelling that is sometimes still used) is a -long river in the Northeastern United States. ... Nickname: Location in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Hillsborough County Incorporated 1751 Government  - Mayor Frank Guinta (R) Area  - City  34. ... Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, looking upriver. ...


In the years following the American Civil War, dozens of cotton mills sprang up along the Carolina Piedmont, where cheap labor and plentiful water power made operations profitable. Cotton could be processed into fabric where it grew, saving transportation costs. Indeed, New England mills found it increasingly difficult to compete with those in Southern States, and many went into gradual decline until finally bankrupted during the Great Depression. Cotton mills and their owners dominated the economy and politics of the Piedmont well into the twentieth century, when many textile operations moved overseas. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The James River winds its way among piedmont hills in central Virginia. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


Processing the cotton

Cotton mills get the cotton shipped to them in large, 500 pound bales. When the cotton comes out of a bale, it is all packed together and still contains vegetable matter. In order to fluff up the cotton and remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is sent through a picker. A picker looks similar to the carding machine and the cotton gin, but is slightly different. The cotton is fed into the machine and gets beaten with a beater bar, to loosen it up. The cotton then collects on a screen and gets fed through various rollers, which serve to remove the vegetable matter.[citation needed]-1... A cotton gin on display at the Eli Whitney Museum. ...


The cotton comes off of the picking machine in large bats, and is then taken to carding machines. The carders line up the fibres nicely to make them easier to spin. The carding machine consists mainly of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. All of the rollers are covered in small teeth, and as the cotton progresses further on the teeth get finer (i.e. closer together). The cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver; a large rope of fibres.[citation needed]


Next, several slivers are combined. Each sliver will have thin and thick spots, and by combining several slivers together a more consistent size can be reached. Since combining several slivers produces a very thick rope of cotton fibres, directly after being combined the slivers are separated into rovings. These rovings are then what are used in the spinning process. Generally speaking, for machine processing a roving is about the width of a pencil.[citation needed] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

A Spinning Jenny, spinning machine which initiated the Industrial Revolution.
A Spinning Jenny, spinning machine which initiated the Industrial Revolution.
Cotton being spun
Cotton being spun

The spinning machines take the roving, thins it and twists it, creating yarn. The roving is pulled off a bobbin and fed through some rollers, which are feeding at several different speeds.This thins the roving at a consistent rate. If the roving was not a consistent size, then this step could cause a break in the yarn, or could jam the machine. The yarn is twisted through the spinning of the bobbin it is rolled on, exactly like a spinning wheel but just in a different configuration. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1799x2700, 758 KB) Original comment: Cotton fiber spooling at the ARS Cotton Quality Research Station in Clemson, South Carolina. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1799x2700, 758 KB) Original comment: Cotton fiber spooling at the ARS Cotton Quality Research Station in Clemson, South Carolina. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... A bobbin is a spindle or cylinder, with or without flanges, on which wire, yarn, thread or film is wound. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... A spinning wheel is a device for making thread or yarn from fibrous material such as wool or cotton. ...


Plying is done by pulling yarn from two or more bobbins and twisting it together, in the opposite direction that that in which it was spun. Depending on the weight desired, the cotton may or may not be plied, and the number of strands twisted together varies. Plying, in textile manufacture, is the activity of twisting, intermingling, or otherwise intimately combining two or more fibers or yarns into a combined yarn or fiber. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... A bobbin is a spindle or cylinder, with or without flanges, on which wire, yarn, thread or film is wound. ...


After being spun and plied, the cotton thread is taken to a warping room where racks of bobbins are set up to hold the thread while it is rolled onto the warp bar of a loom. Because the thread is fine, often three of these would be combined to get the desired thread count.[citation needed] WaRp. ... For other uses, see Loom (disambiguation). ... Thread count is used as a measure of coarseness or fineness of fabric. ...


When cotton mills first came into being, the next step would be to manually thread the warp through the heddles. Later on, a machine was invented for tying the new warp onto the old warp. This saves time, but means that the cloth will have the same pattern as the previous warp. If a new pattern is wanted, the warp still has to be threaded through the heddles.[citation needed] WaRp. ...


At this point, the thread is woven. Depending on the era, one person could manage anywhere from 3 to 100 machines. As time progressed new mechanisms were added that stopped the loom any time something went wrong. The mechanisms checked for such things as a broken warp thread, broken weft thread, the shuttle going straight across, and if the shuttle was empty.[citation needed]


See also

Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... Amoskeag Canal, 1948, by Charles Sheeler A mill town is a community that grew up around one or more mills or factories, usually on a river that was used as a source of power in the days before electricity. ... The name given to Manchester in the 19th Century inspired by its status as the centre of the cotton and textile industries. ... The cotton famine (1861 – 1865) was a depression in the textile industry in northwest England, brought about by the American Civil War. ...

References

  1. ^ D. L. Bates, 'Cotton Spinning in Northampton: Edward Cave's Mill 1742-61' Northamptonshire Past & Present IX(3) (1996), 237-51.
  2. ^ E. Butterworth, Historical Sketches of Oldham (2nd edn, Oldham 1856), 112-3
  3. ^ E. Butterworth, Oldham (1856), 119; whence [1] 'The parish of Prestwich with Oldham: Royton', Victoria County History, Lancs. V (1911), 112-15, note 32. URL accessed May 2, 2007).
  4. ^ NW Cotton Towns Learning Journey www.spinningtheweb.org.uk. URL accessed October 27, 2006;
  5. ^ Oldham's Economic Profile - Innovation and Technology, www.oldham.gov.uk. URL accessed October 27, 2006.
  6. ^ S. D. Chapman, 'The Arkwright Mills - Colquhouns's Census of 1788 and Archaeological Evidence' Industrial Archaeology Review VI(1) (1981-2), 5-27.
  7. ^ Wadsworth & Mann; Hills, Power in the Industrial Revolution.
  8. ^ W. English, Textile Industry (1969), 45-55 71-77.
  9. ^ a b "Blackstone River Valley, New England’s Historic National Park area; Naviagator/Uxbridge". Blackstonevalley.com.
  10. ^ [http://www.sec.state.ma.us/mhc/mhcpdf/Town%20reports/Cent-Mass/uxb.pdf ”MHC Reconnaissance Survey Town Report: Uxbridge; Report Date: 1984 Associated Regional Report: Central Massachusetts;”]. Massachusetts Historical Commission; (1984). Retrieved on 2007-11-20.
  11. ^ Beverly Community History Cotton Mill, www.globalindex.com. URL accessed January 14, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • A. P. Wadsworth and J. de L. Mann, The Cotton Trade and Industrial Lancashire 1600-1780 (1931)
  • R. S. Fitton and A. P. Wadsworth, The Strutts and the Arkwrights 1758-1830: a study of the early factory system (1958).
  • S. D. Chapman, The Early Factory Masters: the transition to the factory system in the Midlands Textile Industry (Newton Abbot 1967).

External links

  • A complete spinning website - Learn about Blow room,carding,spinning, Fiber testing, Textile calculations etc
  • Textile Mills in Coimbatore - Manchester of South India

  Results from FactBites:
 
cotton mill: Information from Answers.com (929 words)
Cottons mills were an important part of the Industrial Revolution and the rise of socio-economic prosperity in England.
The first cotton mill in the United States was built in Beverly, Massachusetts in 1787.
After being spun and plied, the cotton thread is taken to a warping room where racks of bobbins are set up to hold the thread while it is rolled onto the warp bar of a loom.
Cotton's Journey - The Story of Cotton - HISTORY (431 words)
Cotton is a plant, it grows wild in many places on the earth, but it has been known about, cultivated and put to use by people of many lands for centuries.
cotton was referred to in a Hindu Rig-Veda hymn mentioning "threads in the loom."  It is generally believed that the first cultivation of cotton was in India, though it grew wild in several locations around the world.  People living in Egypt's Nile Valley and across the world in Peru were also familiar with cotton.
Cotton was grown by American Indians in the early 1500's, documented from sightings by the Coronado expedition 1540-42.  The Spaniards raised a cotton crop in Florida in 1556.
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