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Encyclopedia > Cotton
Cotton ready for harvest
Cotton ready for harvest

Cotton is a soft, staple fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant (Gossypium sp.), a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, India and Africa. The fiber most often is spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile, which is the most widely used natural-fiber cloth in clothing today. The English name which began to be used circa 1400, derives from the Arabic (al) qutn قُطْن, meaning cotton.[1] In the 1800s and 1900s cotton was called "King Cotton" because of the great power it had in the economy. Cotton could be Cotton Cotton plant The Cotton series of video games People Aimé Auguste Cotton (1869–1951), French scientist, discovered the Cotton (in 1895) and Cotton-Mouton effects Billy Cotton, British band leader. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1500, 116 KB) Cotton plant, Texas, 1996. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1500, 116 KB) Cotton plant, Texas, 1996. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Species See text The cotton plant is a tropical and subtropical shrub of the Genus Gossypium (Family Malvaceae). ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Cotton fiber, once it has been processed to remove seeds (ginning) and traces of honeydew (a secretion from aphids), protein, vegetable matter, and other impurities, consists of nearly pure cellulose, a natural polymer. Cotton production is very efficient, in the sense that only ten percent or less of the weight is lost in subsequent processing to convert the raw cotton bolls (seed cases) into pure fiber. The cellulose is arranged in a way that gives cotton fibers a high degree of strength, durability, and absorbency. Each fiber is made up of twenty to thirty layers of cellulose coiled in a neat series of natural springs. When the cotton boll is opened, the fibers dry into flat, twisted, ribbon-like shapes and become kinked together and interlocked. This interlocked form is ideal for spinning into a fine yarn. Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ...


Cotton has gossypol, a toxin that makes it inedible. However, scientists have silenced the gene that produces the toxin, making in a potential food crop.[2] Gossypol is a polyphenol C30H30O8 derived from the cottonseed plant (genus Gossypium, family Malvaceae) used as a male oral contraceptive in China. ...

Picking cotton in Georgia, USA, in 1943
Picking cotton in Georgia, USA, in 1943

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Leading cotton-producing countries

As of 2007, the ten largest producers of cotton in the world are (1) China, (2) India, (3) the United States, (4) Pakistan, (5) Brazil, (6) Uzbekistan, (7) Turkey, (8) Greece, (9) Turkmenistan, and (10) Syria.[3]


The five leading exporters of cotton are (1) the United States, (2) Uzbekistan, (3) India, (4) Brazil, and (5) Burkina Faso. The largest non-producing importers are Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, Russia, and Taiwan. For other uses, see Export (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Import (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km...


In India, the states of Maharashtra (26.63%), Gujarat (17.96%) and Andhra Pradesh (13.75%) are the leading cotton producing states,[4] these states have a predominantly tropical wet and dry climate. In the United States, the state of Texas leads in total production[citation needed] while the state of California has the highest yield per acre in the world[citation needed]. , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Andhra redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... In agriculture, crop yield (also known as agricultural output) is a measure of the yield per unit area of land under cultivation. ...


Cultivation

Harvested cotton in Tennessee (2006)
Cotton module, California, 2002
Cotton module, California, 2002

Successful cultivation of cotton requires a long frost-free period, plenty of sunshine, and a moderate rainfall, usually from 600 to 1200mm (24 to 48 inches). Soils usually need to be fairly heavy, although the level of nutrients does not need to be exceptional. In general, these conditions are met within the seasonally dry tropics and subtropics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, but a large proportion of the cotton grown today is cultivated in areas with less rainfall that obtain the water from irrigation. Production of the crop for a given year usually starts soon after harvesting the preceding autumn. Planting time in spring in the Northern hemisphere varies from the beginning of February to the beginning of June. The area of the United States known as the South Plains is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world. It is heavily dependent on irrigation water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 130 KB)[edit] Summary Photo of a cotton processing plant in Nutbush, TN Photo made by: Thomas R Machnitzki http://nutbush. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 130 KB)[edit] Summary Photo of a cotton processing plant in Nutbush, TN Photo made by: Thomas R Machnitzki http://nutbush. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 1500 pixel, file size: 260 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cotton module, California, 2002. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 1500 pixel, file size: 260 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cotton module, California, 2002. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... Region in West Texas comprising the area north of the Caprock Escarpment on the Llano Estacado, and extending north into the Texas Panhandle. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... The Ogallala aquifer underlies portions of eight states. ...


Cotton is a thirsty crop, and as water resources get tighter around the world, economies that rely on it face difficulties and conflict, as well as potential environmental problems. For example, cotton has led to desertification in areas of Uzbekistan, where it is a major export. In the days of the Soviet Union, the Aral Sea was tapped for agricultural irrigation, largely of cotton, and now salination is widespread. // Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ... For the labor union vitiation procedure, see NLRB election procedures#Decertification elections. ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Genetically modified cotton

Genetically modified (GM) cotton was developed to reduce the heavy reliance on pesticides. Genetically modified cotton is widely used throughout the world with claims of requiring up to 80% less pesticide than ordinary cotton as typically grown commercially. However, researchers have recently published the first documented case of in-field pest resistance to GM cotton.[5] The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA) said that, worldwide, GM cotton was planted on an area of 67,000 km² in 2002. This is 20% of the worldwide total area planted in cotton. The U.S. cotton crop was 73% GM in 2003. Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ...


The initial introduction of GM cotton proved to be a commercial and ecological disaster in Australia - the yields were far lower than predicted, and the cotton plants were cross-pollinated with other varieties of cotton. However, the introduction of a second variety of GM cotton led to 15% of Australian cotton being GM in 2003. 80% of the crop was genetically modified in 2004, when the original GM variety was banned.


GM cotton acreage in India continues to grow at a rapid rate increasing from 50,000 hectares in 2002 to 3.8 million hectares in 2006. The total cotton area in India is about 9.0 million hectares (the largest in the world or, about 25% of world cotton area) so GM cotton is now grown on 42% of the cotton area. This makes India the country with the largest area of GM cotton in the world, surpassing China (3.5 million hectares in 2006). The major reasons for this increase is a combination of increased farm income ($225/ha) and a reduction in pesticide use to control the Cotton Bollworm.


History

Cotton plants as imagined and drawn by John Mandeville in the fourteenth century
Cotton plants as imagined and drawn by John Mandeville in the fourteenth century

Evidence of the use of cotton in the form of thread has been found in India, dating to about 6,000 B.P., although it is not clear whether the thread derived from cultivation or from wild cotton. Cultivation was underway by the time of the Harappan civilization, which was exporting cotton to Mesopotamia during the 3rd millennium BC.[6] Cotton was soon known to the Egyptians (although linen was their primary fiber source) as well as becoming a prized trading item from Nubia and Meroë. The famous Greek historian Herodotus also wrote about Indian cotton: "There are trees which grow wild there, the fruit of which is a wool exceeding in beauty and goodness that of sheep. The Indians make their clothes of this tree wool." (Book III. 106) Picture of cotton plant as imagined and drawn by John Mandeville in the 14th century File links The following pages link to this file: John Mandeville Categories: Public domain images ... Picture of cotton plant as imagined and drawn by John Mandeville in the 14th century File links The following pages link to this file: John Mandeville Categories: Public domain images ... Full-page portrait of Sir John Mandeville. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ...


According to The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition:[7]

"Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In the 1st cent. Arab traders brought fine muslin and calico to Italy and Spain. The Moors introduced the cultivation of cotton into Spain in the 9th cent. Fustians and dimities were woven there and in the 14th cent. in Venice and Milan, at first with a linen warp. Little cotton cloth was imported to England before the 15th cent., although small amounts were obtained chiefly for candlewicks. By the 17th cent. the East India Company was bringing rare fabrics from India. Native Americans skillfully spun and wove cotton into fine garments and dyed tapestries. Cotton fabrics found in Peruvian tombs are said to belong to a pre-Inca culture. In color and texture the ancient Peruvian and Mexican textiles resemble those found in Egyptian tombs." The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see moor. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...

The earliest cultivation of cotton discovered thus far in the Americas occurred in Mexico, some 5,000 years ago. The indigenous species was Gossypium hirsutum which is today the most widely planted species of cotton in the world, constituting about 90% of all production worldwide. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa.[8] Binomial name Gossypium hirsutum Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), also known as Long Staple Cotton and Mexican Cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States, constituting some 95% of all cotton production. ...


In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico, Moche and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico in the early 1500s found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. Binomial name Gossypium barbadense South American Cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is a tropical perennial plant that produces yellow flowers and has black seeds. ... The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex Pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... For the tectonic plate, see Nazca Plate. ...


During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant; noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandeville, writing in 1350, stated as fact the now-preposterous belief: "There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungrie." (See Vegetable Lamb of Tartary.) This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in many European languages, such as German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool" (Baum means "tree"; Wolle means "wool"). By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions in Asia and the Americas. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Full-page portrait of Sir John Mandeville. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary The Vegetable Lamb in a 17th century illustration The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary (Latin: Agnus scythicus or Planta Tartarica Barometz) is a mythical plant of central Asia, believed to grow sheep as its fruit. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

India's cotton-processing sector gradually declined during British expansion in India and the establishment of colonial rule during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This was largely due to the East India Company's de-industrialization of India, which forced the closing of cotton processing and manufacturing workshops in India, to ensure that Indian markets supplied only raw materials and were obliged to purchase manufactured textiles from Britain. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (902x1172, 301 KB) The barometz or vegetable lamb. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (902x1172, 301 KB) The barometz or vegetable lamb. ... The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary The Vegetable Lamb in a 17th century illustration The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary (Latin: Agnus scythicus or Planta Tartarica Barometz) is a mythical plant of central Asia, believed to grow sheep as its fruit. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


The advent of the Industrial Revolution in Britain provided a great boost to cotton manufacture, as textiles emerged as Britain's leading export. In 1738 Lewis Paul and John Wyatt, of Birmingham England, patented the Roller Spinning machine, and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing cotton to a more even thickness using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds. Later, the invention of the spinning jenny in 1764 and Richard Arkwright's spinning frame (based on the Roller Spinning Machine) in 1769 enabled British weavers to produce cotton yarn and cloth at much higher rates. From the late eighteenth century onwards, the British city of Manchester acquired the nickname "cottonopolis" due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade. Production capacity was further improved by the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793. Improving technology and increasing control of world markets allowed British traders to develop a commercial chain in which raw cotton fibers were (at first) purchased from colonial plantations, processed into cotton cloth in the mills of Lancashire, and then re-exported on British ships to captive colonial markets in West Africa, India, and China (via Shanghai and Hong Kong). A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Lewis Paul (d. ... John Franklin Wyatt jr. ... This article is about the British city. ... For the magazine of the same name, see Spinning Jenny (magazine). ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Richard Arkwright (Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August 1792), was an Englishman who is credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... The spinning frame was an invention developed during the 18th century British Industrial Revolution. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... The name given to Manchester in the 19th Century inspired by its status as the centre of the cotton and textile industries. ... A cotton gin on display at the Eli Whitney Museum. ... For other uses, see Eli Whitney (disambiguation). ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Location of British West Africa. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


By the 1840s, India was no longer capable of supplying the vast quantities of cotton fibers needed by mechanised British factories, while shipping bulky, low-price cotton from India to Britain was time-consuming and expensive. This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type (due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated native American species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), encouraged British traders to purchase cotton from plantations in the United States and the Caribbean. This was also much cheaper as it was produced by unpaid slaves. By the mid 19th century, "King Cotton" had become the backbone of the southern American economy. In the United States, cultivating and harvesting cotton became the leading occupation of slaves. 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Binomial name Gossypium hirsutum Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), also known as Long Staple Cotton and Mexican Cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States, constituting some 95% of all cotton production. ... Binomial name Gossypium barbadense South American Cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is a tropical perennial plant that produces yellow flowers and has black seeds. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... King Cotton is a phrase used in the Southern United States. ... Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ...


During the American Civil War, American cotton exports slumped due to a Union blockade on Southern ports, also because of a strategic decision by the Confederate Government to cut exports, hoping to force Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war, prompting the main purchasers of cotton, Britain and France, to turn to Egyptian cotton. British and French traders invested heavily in cotton plantations and the Egyptian government of Viceroy Isma'il took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges. After the American Civil War ended in 1865, British and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports, sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy in 1876, a key factor behind Egypt's annexation by the British Empire in 1882. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Ismail Pasha Ismail Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (December 31, 1830–March 2, 1895) (Arabic: إسماعيل باشا), was khedive of Egypt from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879. ... This article is about budget deficits. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Picking cotton in Oklahoma, USA, in the 1890s
Picking cotton in Oklahoma, USA, in the 1890s

During this time cotton cultivation in the British Empire, especially India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South. Through tariffs and other restrictions the British government discouraged the production of cotton cloth in India; rather the raw fiber was sent to England for processing. The Indian patriot Gandhi described the process: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x960, 367 KB)Oklahoma Cotton Field. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x960, 367 KB)Oklahoma Cotton Field. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...

  1. English people buy Indian cotton in the field, picked by Indian labor at seven cents a day, through an optional monopoly.
  2. These cotton are shipped on British bottoms, a three weeks journey across the Indian Ocean, down the Red Sea, across the Mediterranean, through Gibraltar, across the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic Ocean to London. One hundred per cent profit on this freight is regarded as small.
  3. The cotton are turned into cloth in Lancashire. You pay shilling wages instead of Indian pennies to your workers. The English worker not only has the advantage of better wages, but the steel companies of England get the profit of building the factories and machines. Wages; profits; all these are spent in England.
  4. The finished product is sent back to India at European shipping rates, once again on British ships. The captains, officers, sailors of these ships, whose wages must be paid, are English. The only Indians who profit are a few lascars who do the dirty work on the boats for a few cents a day.
  5. The cloth is finally sold back to the kings and landlords of India who got the money to buy this expensive cloth out of the poor peasants of India who worked at seven cents a day. (Fisher 1932 pp 154-156)
Prisoners farming cotton under trusty system - 1911
Prisoners farming cotton under trusty system - 1911

In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The cotton produced by enslaved African Americans, not only helped the South, but also enriched northern merchants. Much of the southern cotton were transhipped through the northern ports. Profits from the cotton shipping provided some of the funds for the Francis Cabot Lowell's Lowell Mills. In another example, a merchant named Anson Phelps invested his profits from cotton shipping into iron mines in Pennsylvania and metalworks in Connecticut. Much of the development of northern industry was made possible by the cotton provided by the enslaved African Americans of the South. It also fostered the market revolution. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The trusty system was a strict system of discipline and security made compulsory under Mississippi state law as the method of controling and working inmates at Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, Mississippis only prison. ...


Cotton remained a key crop in the southern economy after emancipation and the end of the civil war in 1865. Across the South, sharecropping evolved, in which free black farmers worked on white-owned cotton plantations in return for a share of the profits. Cotton plantations required vast labor forces to hand-pick cotton fibers, and it was not until the 1950s that reliable harvesting machinery was introduced into the South (prior to this, cotton-harvesting machinery had been too clumsy to pick cotton without shredding the fibers). During the early twentieth century, employment in the cotton industry fell as machines began to replace laborers, and as the South's rural labor force dwindled during the First and Second World Wars. Today, cotton remains a major export of the southern United States, and a majority of the world's annual cotton crop is of the long-staple American variety.[9] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chopping cotton on rented land near White Plains, Greene County, Ga. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Pests and weeds

The cotton industry relies heavily on chemicals such as fertilizers and insecticides, although a very small number of farmers are moving toward an organic model of production and organic cotton products are now available for purchase at limited locations. These are popular for baby clothes and diapers. Under most definitions, organic products do not use genetic engineering. This article is a list of diseases of cotton (Gossypium spp. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Insecticide application by crop spraying An insecticide is a pesticide whose purpose is to kill or to prevent the multiplication of insects. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... This article is about the garment. ... Elements of genetic engineering For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ...

Hoeing a cotton field to remove weeds, Greene County, Georgia, USA, 1941
Hoeing a cotton field to remove weeds, Greene County, Georgia, USA, 1941

Historically, in North America, one of the most economically destructive pests in cotton production has been the boll weevil. Due to the US Department of Agriculture's highly successful Boll Weevil Eradication Program (BWEP), this pest has been eliminated from cotton in most of the United States. This program, along with the introduction of genetically engineered "Bt cotton" (which contains a bacteria gene that codes for a plant-produced protein that is toxic to a number of pests such as tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, and pink bollworm), has allowed a reduction in the use of synthetic insecticides. Image File history File links Greene_Co_Ga1941_Delano. ... Image File history File links Greene_Co_Ga1941_Delano. ... Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The Boll Weevil Eradication Program in the cotton-growing areas of the United States is one of the worlds most successful implementations of integrated pest management. ... Binomial name Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ...


Mechanized harvesting

Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas; previously built modules can be seen in the background
Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas; previously built modules can be seen in the background

Most cotton in the United States, Europe, and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a cotton picker, a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a cotton stripper, which strips the entire boll off the plant. Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze. Cotton is a perennial crop in the tropics and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow. Image Number K5925-12 Cotton harvesting in Texas. ... Image Number K5925-12 Cotton harvesting in Texas. ... Cotton picker at work The mechanical cotton picker is a machine that automates cotton harvesting. ... A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause its leaves to fall off. ...


Cotton continues to be picked by hand in developing countries such as Uzbekistan.[10]  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita...


Competition from synthetic fibers

The era of manufactured fibers began with the development of rayon in France in the 1890s. Rayon is derived from a natural cellulose and can not be considered synthetic, but is requires extensive processing in a manufacturing process and led the less expensive replacement of more naturally derived materials. A succession of new synthetic fibers were introduced by the chemicals industry in the following decades. Acetate in fiber form was developed in 1924. Nylon the first fiber synthesized entirely from petrochemicals, was introduced as a sewing thread by DuPont in 1936, followed by Dupont's acrylic in 1944. Some garments were created from fabrics based on these fibers, such as women's hosiery from nylon, but it was not until the introduction of polyester into the fiber marketplace in the early 1950s that the market for cotton came under threat.[11] The rapid uptake of polyester garments in the 1960s caused economic hardship in cotton exporting economies, especially in Central American countries such as Nicaragua where cotton production had boomed tenfold between 1950 and 1965 with the advent of cheap chemical pesticides. Cotton production recovered in the 1970s, but crashed to pre-1960 levels in the early 1990s.[12] Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... For other uses, see Acetate (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000. ... Hosiery describes undergarments worn directly on the feet and legs. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ...


Beginning as a self-help program in the mid-1960s, the Cotton Research & Promotion Program was organized by U.S. cotton producers in response to cotton's steady decline in market share. At that time, producers voted to set up a per-bale assessment system to fund the program, with built-in safeguards to protect their investments. With the passage of the Cotton Research & Promotion Act of 1966, the program joined forces and began battling synthetic competitors and re-establishing markets for cotton. Today, the success of this program has made cotton the best-selling fiber in the U.S. and one of the best-selling fibers in the world.


Administered by the Cotton Board and conducted by Cotton Incorporated, the Cotton Research & Promotion Program works to greatly increase the demand for and profitability of cotton through various research and promotion activities. It is funded by U.S. cotton producers and importers.


Uses

Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth, used to make highly absorbent bath towels and robes; denim, used to make blue jeans; chambray, popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts (from which we get the term "blue-collar"); and corduroy, seersucker, and cotton twill. Socks, underwear, and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered cotton that otherwise would be thrown away during the spinning, weaving, or cutting process. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester. Terry cloth. ... A beach towel in use A towel is a piece of absorbent fabric whose chief use is for drying objects, by drawing moisture (usually water) from the object, into the fabric, through direct contact, with either a blotting or rubbing motion. ... A dragon robe from Qing Dynasty of China A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. ... This article is about the material denim. ... Blue Jeans Jeans are trousers traditionally made from denim, but may also be made from a variety of fabrics including cotton and corduroy. ... Cambric is a lightweight cotton cloth used as fabric for lace and needlework. ... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ... Corduroy is a fabric composed of twisted fibers that when woven lie parallel (similar to twill) to one another to form the cloths distinct pattern, a cord. ... Grey and white seersucker material. ... A twill weave can easily be identified by its diagonal lines. ... Look up Socks in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pair of mens briefs Undergarments, also called underwear or sometimes intimate clothing, are clothes worn next to the skin, usually under other clothes. ... T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ... Detail of a crocheted doily, Sweden Crochet (IPA: krəʊʃeɪ) is a process of creating fabric from yarn or thread using a crochet hook. ... For the record label, see Knitting Factory. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ...


In addition to the textile industry, cotton is used in fishnets, coffee filters, tents, gunpowder (see Nitrocellulose), cotton paper, and in bookbinding. The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. Fire hoses were once made of cotton. The Textile industry (also known in the United Kingdom and Australia as the Rag Trade) is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design or manufacture of clothing as well as the distribution and use of textiles . ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fishnet (material). ... Used coffee filter A coffee filter is a coffee-brewing utensil, usually made of disposable paper, but recently stainless steel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... Cotton paper is made from 100% cotton fibers. ... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ... Categories: Stub | Firefighting ...


The cottonseed which remains after the cotton is ginned is used to produce cottonseed oil, which, after refining, can be consumed by humans like any other vegetable oil. The cottonseed meal that is left generally is fed to livestock. During slavery, cotton root bark was used as an abortifacient, that is, a folk remedy to provoke abortion. Cottonseed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the cotton plant after the cotton lint has been removed. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Cottonseed meal is the byproduct remaining after cotton is ginned and the seeds crushed and the oil extracted. ... An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion. ... A home remedy is a treatment or cure for a disease or other ailment that employs certain foods or other common household items. ...


Cotton linters are fine, silky fibers which adhere to the seeds of the cotton plant after ginning. These curly fibers typically are less than 1/8 in (3 mm) long. The term also may apply to the longer textile fiber staple lint as well as the shorter fuzzy fibers from some upland species. Linters are traditionally used in the manufacture of paper and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose. Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ...


Shiny cotton is a processed version of the fiber that can be made into cloth resembling satin for shirts and suits. However, its hydrophobic property of not easily taking up water makes it unfit for the purpose of bath and dish towels (although examples of these made from shiny cotton are seen). Satin used in bedding Structure of silk satin Look up Satin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The term Egyptian cotton refers to the extra long staple cotton grown in Egypt and favored for the luxury and upmarket brands worldwide. During the U.S. Civil War, with heavy European investments, Egyptian-grown cotton became a major alternate source for British textile mills. Egyptian cotton is more durable and softer than American Pima cotton, which is why it is more expensive. Pima cotton is American cotton that is grown in the south western states of the U.S.


In South Asia, cotton is widely used in mattresses, which are the most common type of mattress used in that region.


The international cotton trade

Cottonseed output in 2005
Cottonseed output in 2005

The United States, with sales of $4.9 billion, and Africa, with sales of $2.1 billion, are the largest exporters of raw cotton. Total international trade is $12 billion. Africa's share of the cotton trade has doubled since 1980. Neither area has a significant domestic textile industry, textile manufacturing having moved to developing nations in Eastern and South Asia such as India and China. In Africa cotton is grown by numerous small holders. Dunavant Enterprises, based in Memphis, Tennessee, is the leading cotton broker in Africa with hundreds of purchasing agents. It operates cotton gins in Uganda, Mozambique, and Zambia. In Zambia it often offers loans for seed and expenses to the 180,000 small farmers who grow cotton for it, as well as advice on farming methods. Cargill also purchases cotton in Africa for export. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of cottonseed output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 11,400,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of cottonseed output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 11,400,000 tonnes). ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... A cotton gin on display at the Eli Whitney Museum. ... For other uses, see Cargill (disambiguation). ...


The 25,000 cotton growers in the United States are heavily subsidized at the rate of $2 billion per year. The future of these subsidies is uncertain and has led to anticipatory expansion of cotton brokers' operations in Africa. Dunavant expanded in Africa by buying out local operations. This is only possible in former British colonies and Mozambique; former French colonies continue to maintain tight monopolies, inherited from their former colonialist masters, on cotton purchases at low fixed prices.[13] In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ...


Fair trade

Cotton is an enormously important commodity throughout the world. However, many farmers in developing countries receive a low price for their produce, or find it difficult to compete with developed countries. For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ...


This has led to an international dispute:

On 27 September 2002 Brazil requested consultations with the US regarding prohibited and actionable subsidies provided to US producers, users and/or exporters of upland cotton, as well as legislation, regulations, statutory instruments and amendments thereto providing such subsidies (including export credits), grants, and any other assistance to the US producers, users and exporters of upland cotton.[14] is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Binomial name Gossypium hirsutum Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), also known as Long Staple Cotton and Mexican Cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States, constituting some 95% of all cotton production. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ...

On 8 September 2004, the Panel Report recommended that the United States "withdraw" export credit guarantees and payments to domestic user and exporters, and "take appropriate steps to remove the adverse effects or withdraw" the mandatory price-contingent subsidy measures.[15] is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition to concerns over subsidies, the cotton industries of some countries are criticized for employing child labor and damaging workers' health by exposure to pesticides used in production. For example, cotton production in Uzbekistan has been described as one of the most exploitative industries in the world.[16] The international production and trade situation has led to 'fair trade' cotton clothing and footwear, joining a rapidly growing market for organic clothing, fair fashion or so-called 'ethical fashion'. The fair trade system was initiated in 2005 with producers from Cameroon, Mali and Senegal.[17] For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ...


Organic cotton

Organic cotton is cotton that is grown without insecticide or pesticide. Worldwide, cotton is a pesticide-intensive crop, using approximately 25% of the world's insecticides and 10% of the world's pesticides.[18] According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 20,000 deaths occur each year from pesticide poisoning in developing countries, many of these from cotton farming. Organic agriculture uses methods that are ecological, economical, and socially sustainable and denies the use of agrochemicals and artificial fertilizers. Instead, organic agriculture uses crop rotation, the growing of different crops than cotton in alternative years. The use of insecticides is prohibited; organic agriculture uses natural enemies to suppress harmful insects. The production of organic cotton is more expensive than the production of conventional cotton. Although toxic pollution from synthetic chemicals is eliminated, other pollution-like problems may remain, particularly run-off. Organic cotton is produced in organic agricultural systems that produce food and fiber according to clearly established standards. Organic agriculture prohibits the use of toxic and persistent chemical pesticides and fertilizers, as well as genetically modified organisms. It seeks to build biologically diverse agricultural systems, replenish and maintain soil fertility, and promote a healthy environment. Organic cotton is cotton that is grown without insecticide or pesticide from plants which are not genetically modified. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ...


Critical temperatures

Cotton dries out, becomes hard and brittle and loses all elasticity at temperatures above 25°C (77°F). Extended exposure to light causes similar problems. The fire point of a fuel is the temperature at which it will continue to burn after ignition for at least 5 seconds. ... The autoignition temperature, or the ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which a chemical will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere, without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. ... The autoignition temperature, or the ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which a chemical will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere, without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. ...


A temperature range of 25 °C (77 °F) to 35 °C (95°F) is the optimal range for mold development. At temperatures below 0°C (32 °F), rotting of wet cotton stops. Damaged cotton is sometimes stored at these temperatures to prevent further deterioration.[19]


British standard cotton yarn measures

  • 1 thread = 54 inches (about 137 cm)
  • 1 skein or rap = 80 threads (120 yards or about 109 m)
  • 1 hank = 7 skeins (840 yards or about 768 m)
  • 1 spindle = 18 hanks (15,120 yards or about 13.826 km)

Properties of cotton fibers

Property Evaluation
Shape Fairly uniform in width, 12-20 micrometers; length varies from 1 cm to 6 cm (½ to 2½ inches); typical length is 2.2 cm to 3.2 cm (⅞ to 1¼ inches).
Luster low
Tenacity (strength)
Dry
Wet

3.0-5.0 g/d
3.3-6.0 g/d
Resiliency low
Density 1.54-1.56 g/cm³
Moisture absorption
raw: conditioned
saturation
mercerized: conditioned
saturation

8.5%
15-25%
8.5-10.3%
15-27%+
Dimensional stability good
Resistance to
acids
alkali
organic solvents
sunlight
microorganisms
insects

damage, weaken fibers
resistant; no harmful effects
high resistance to most
Prolonged exposure weakens fibers.
Mildew and rot-producing bacteria damage fibers.
Silverfish damage fibers.
Thermal reactions
to heat
to flame
Decomposes after prolonged exposure to temperatures of 150˚C or over.
Burns readily.

For the file system called Lustre, see Lustre (file system) Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Organic cotton is cotton that is grown without insecticide or pesticide from plants which are not genetically modified. ... Sea Island Cotton or long-staple cotton commanded high prices from makers of fine fabrics in the 1700s. ... The Memphis Cotton Exchange is located in Downtown Memphis Tennessee on the corner of Front and Union Streets. ... A cotton gin on display at the Eli Whitney Museum. ... The New Orleans Cotton Exchange by Edgar Degas, 1873 The Cotton Exchange was established in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1871 on the corner of Carondelet and Gravier Streets. ... The New York Cotton Exchange (NYCE) was founded in 1870 by a group of one hundred cotton brokers and merchants at One Hanover Square in New York City, New York. ... The Cotton Museum, located in Memphis, Tennessee, USA, is a museum that opened in March 2006 on the old trading floor of the Memphis Cotton Exchange at 65 Union Avenue in downtown Memphis. ... Lancashire cotton mill, 1914 A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. ... Mercerization is a treatment for cotton fabric and thread mostly employed to give cotton a lustrous appearance. ... The BBCH-scale (cotton) identifies the phenological development stages of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). ... Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ...

References

  1. ^ Metcalf, 1999, p. 123.
  2. ^ Technology Review
  3. ^ Rankings
  4. ^ Three largest producing states of important crops. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
  5. ^ First documented case of pest resistance to biotech cotton
  6. ^ Srinivasan Kalyanaraman (2006). Bronze Age Trade and Writing System of Meluhha (p. 8).
  7. ^ "cotton". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07.
  8. ^ The Biology of Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L. (cotton)
  9. ^ Stephen Yafa (2004). Cotton: The Biography of a Revolutionary Fiber. Penguin (Non-Classics), 16. ISBN 0-14-303722-6. 
  10. ^ Craig Murray. Murder in Samarkand - A British Ambassador's Controversial Defiance of Tyranny in the War on Terror. ISBN 978-1845961947. 2006.
  11. ^ Fiber History
  12. ^ Land, Power, and Poverty: Agrarian Transformation and Political Conflict, Charles D. Brockett, ISBN 0813386950, http://books.google.com/books?id=Dk1i0vnOYwQC, p. 46
  13. ^ "Out of Africa: Cotton and Cash", article by G. Pascal Zachary in the New York Times, January 14, 2007
  14. ^ United States — Subsidies on Upland Cotton, http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds267_e.htm, World Trade Organization, accessed October 2, 2006
  15. ^ United States - Subsidies on Upland Cotton, http://docsonline.wto.org/DDFDocuments/t/WT/DS/267R.doc, World Trade Organization, accessed October 2, 2006
  16. ^ White Gold - the true cost of cotton, http://www.ejfoundation.org/pdf/white_gold_the_true_cost_of_cotton.pdf, Environmental Justice Foundation, accessed August 24, 2007
  17. ^ Market: Cotton, http://r0.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/cotton/market.htm#fair, UNCTAD, accessed October 2, 2006
  18. ^ Allen Woodburn Associates Ltd./Managing Resources Ltd., "Cotton: The Crop and its Agrochemicals Market," 1995.
  19. ^ Transportation Information Service of Germany, Gesamtverband der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. (GDV), Berlin, http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_e/ware/fasern/baumwoll/baumwoll.htm, 2002-2006
  • Fisher, F.B., 1932 That Strange Little Brown Man Gandhi, New York: Ray Long & Richard Smith, Inc.,
  • USDA - Cotton Trade
  • Faragher, J.M., 2006 Out Of Many, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.,

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Craig Murray (born October, 1958)[1] is a British political activist, university rector and former ambassador to Uzbekistan. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Metcalf, Allan A. (1999), The World in So Many Words, Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0395959209 
  • Moseley, W.G. and L.C. Gray (eds). (2008). Hanging by a Thread: Cotton, Globalization and Poverty in Africa. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press and Nordic Africa Press. ISBN 978-0-89680-260-5.

External links

History and uses

Markets and trade associations

Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fiber. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Angora wool or Angora fiber refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. ... Camel hair is, variously, the hair of a camel; a type of cloth made from camel hair; or a substitute for authentic camel hair. ... Kashmere redirects here. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... Chiengora is a yarn or wool spun from dog hair. ... For other uses, see Llama (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Mohair (band). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue, attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone. ... Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper, cloth, or rope. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... This article is about vegetable fibre. ... Binomial name L. Kenaf [Etymology: Persian [1] ]. (Hibiscus cannabinus) is a species of Hibiscus, probably native to southern Asia, though its exact natural origin is unknown. ... Manila hemp, also known as manilla, is a type of fiber obtained from the leaves of the abaca (Musa textilis), a relative of the banana. ... Piña is a fiber derived from the leaves of a pineapple. ... Species About 25-30 species, including: Raphia australis Raphia farinifera Raphia hookeri Raphia regalis Raphia taedigera Raphia vinifera The Raffia palm (Raphia) is a genus of tropical palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Madagascar, Central America and South America. ... Binomial name Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. ... Binomial name Agave sisalana Perrine Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff fiber used in making rope. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Technora is the brandname of Teijin Twaron for a aromatic copolyamid. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... Tenax is the brandname of Toho Tenax owned by Teijin for a carbon fiber. ... Microfiber (British spelling: Microfibre) is fiber with strands less than one denier. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... This article needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), also known as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) or high performance polyethylene (HPPE), is a thermoplastic. ... Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), also known as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) or high performance polyethylene (HPPE), is a thermoplastic. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. ... poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) Zylon is a trademarked name for a range of thermoset polyurethane materials manufactured by the Toyobo Corporation. ...


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Cotton is an arable crop used both for its seeds, from which oil and oilseed cakes are made, and for its fibre.
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MollyRASMUSSEN
1st July 2010
I opine that to receive the loan from banks you must have a firm motivation. However, one time I have received a consolidation loan, because I wanted to buy a house.
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