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Encyclopedia > Cotinine
Cotinine
Systematic name (S)-1-Methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone
Other names 1-Methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone
S-(-)-Cotinine
Chemical formula C10H12N2O
Molecular mass 176.22 g/mol
Density  ? g/cm³
Melting point 41 °C
Boiling point 250 °C
CAS number [486-56-6]
SMILES O=C1CC[[email protected]@H]([[email protected]]2=CN=CC=C2)N1C
Disclaimer and references

Cotinine is a metabolite of nicotine. Cotinine typically remains in the blood between 48 and 96 hours. The level of cotinine in the blood is proportionate to the amount of exposure to tobacco smoke, so it is a valuable indicator of tobacco smoke exposure, including secondary smoke. Women who smoke menthol cigarettes retain cotinine in the blood for a longer period.[1] Race may also play a role, as blacks routinely register higher blood cotinine levels than whites.[2] Several variable factors, such as menthol cigarette preference and puff size, suggest that the explanation for this difference may be more complex than gender or race. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Articles with similar titles include Niacin, which is the nicotinic acid, and has a very different biological effect. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Menthol is a covalent organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. ...


Drug tests can detect cotinine in the blood, urine, or saliva. Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Saliva is the watery and usually somewhat frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and some animals. ...


The word 'cotinine' is an anagram of 'nicotine'. An anagram (Greek ana- = back or again, and graphein = to write) is a type of word play, the result of rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to produce other words, using all the original letters exactly once; e. ...


There is some research being done on the effects of cotinine on memory and cognition. Some studies have suggested that cotinine (as well as nicotine) improves memory and prevents neuron death. For this reason it has been studied for effectiveness in treating schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases [3]. There is research, however, which also suggests that nicotine and cotinine contribute to Alzheimer's disease in other ways which counter and maybe even negate the possible positive effects they might have [4] Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... Alzheimers disease (AD) or senile dementia of Alzheimers type is a neurodegenerative disease which results in a loss of mental functions due to the deterioration of brain tissue. ... Parkinsons disease (PD; paralysis agitans) is a neurodegenerative disease of the substantia nigra (an area in the basal ganglia of the brain). ...


References

  1. ^ Ham, Becky. "Signs of Smoking Linger Longer in Menthol Smokers", Health Behavior News Service, 2002-12-16. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
  2. ^ News, BBC. "'Race role' in tobacco smoke risk", BBC NEWS, 2007-03-17. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. 
  3. ^ McKie, Robin. "Warning: nicotine seriously improves health", The Observer, 2004-07-18. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
  4. ^ Reinberg, Steven. "Nicotine Won't Slow Alzheimer's", HealthDay News, 2005-02-08. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
FBR Cotinine FAQ (1079 words)
Once a sample is collected, metabolism ceases and cotinine levels should not change; however, saliva or urine left at room temperature for extended periods may experience degradation of cotinine due to bacterial contamination.
Cotinine can also be measured in saliva in concentrations similar to those in serum; however sample collection is cumbersome as is sample extraction.
Since cotinine levels in urine are approximately 10 times higher than those is serum, both types of specimens can be used interchangeably as long as the practitioner remembers to account for the concentration in urine.
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (3058 words)
Cotinine was chosen for detection of smoking as it is the main metabolite of nicotine (70%) [15,16].
The present study showed that cotinine was detected in the urine and saliva of active, passive and non-smoking groups, ranging from a mean of 16 110 ng/mL in active smoking mothers to 3096 ng/mL and 75.1 ng/mL in passive and non-smoking mothers respectively.
The presence of cotinine in meconium was used as a direct indicator of fetal exposure to tobacco smoking in the neonatal period as cotinine is mainly deposited in meconium through bile secretion and to a lesser extent by fetal swallowing of amniotic fluid containing fetal urine [15,16].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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