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Encyclopedia > Cossack
Part of a series of articles on
Cossacks
Cossack hosts
Don · Ural · Terek · Kuban · Orenburg ·Astrakhan · Siberian · Baikal · Amur · Semirechye · Ussuri
Other groups
Azov · Black Sea · Bug · Caucasus Line · China · Danube· Hetmanate · Nekrasov · Persia · Turkey · Zaporozhia
History of the Cossacks
Colonisation of Siberia · Khmelnytsky Uprising · Treaty of Hadiach · Bulavin Rebellion · Pugachev's Rebellion · 1st Cavalry Army · Decossackization · Betrayal of the Cossacks · XVth SS Cossack Cavalry Corps · 1st Cossack Division
Famous Cossacks
Andrei Shkuro · Bohdan Khmelnytsky · Ivan Mazepa · Ivan Sirko · Pyotr Krasnov . Semyon Budyonny · Stenka Razin · Yemelyan Pugachev
Cossack terms
Ataman · Hetman · Papakha · Plastun · Shashka · Stanitsa
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The Cossacks (Russian: Каза́ки, Kazaki; Ukrainian: Коза́ки, Kozaky, Polish: Kozacy) are a traditional community of people living in the southern steppe regions of Eastern Europe (primarily Ukraine and southern Russia) and Asian Russia. They are famous for their self-reliance and military skills, particularly horsemanship. "Cossack" may also refer to a member of a Cossack military unit. Originally Cossacks were runaway Ruthenian peasants who escaped Polish and Russian feudal pressure and settled in the southern steppes.[citation needed] Cossack may refer to: The Cossacks, a traditional community of people living in the southern steppe regions of Eastern Europe Cossack, Western Australia, a ghost town in the north-west of Western Australia HMS Cossack (F03), a Royal Navy destroyer Cossack motorcycle, a generic descriptor and a brand name for... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Cossack host or Cossack voisko (Казачье войско, kazachye voysko, sometimes incorrectly translated as Cossack Army) was an administrative subdivision of Cossacks in Imperial Russia. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... The Ural Cossack Host was a cossack host formed from the Ural Cossacks -- those cossacks settled by the Ural River. ... Terek Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks resettled from Volga to Terek River. ... Russian Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские козаки, Kubanskie Kozaki) were cossacks that settled in the region around the Kuban River protected the southern borders of the Russian Empire. ... The Orenburg Cossack Host (Оренбургское казачье войско in Russian), a part of the Cossack population in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in the Orenburg province (todays Orenburg Oblast, part... Astrakhan Cossack Host (Астраханское казачье войско in Russian) was a Cossack host of Imperial Russia drawn from the Cossacks of the Lower Volga region, who had been patrolling... Siberian Cossacks were Cossacks who settled in the Siberian region of Russia. ... Baikal Cossacks were cossacks of the Transbaikal Cossack Host (Russian: Забайкальское казачье войско), a Cossack host formed in 1851 in the areas beyond Lake Baikal (hence, Transbaikal). ... The Amur Cossack Host (Амурское казачье войско in Russian), a Cossack host created in the Amur region and Primorye in the 1850s on the basis of the Cossacks relocated from the Transbaikal region and freed miners of Nerchinsk region. ... Semirechye Cossask Host (Russian: ) was a Cossack host in Imperial Russia, located in Semirechye Oblast (today comprising most of Kyrgyzstan as well as Almaty oblysy, Taldy-Korgan (Taldyqorghan) oblysy, and parts of the Taraz oblysy and Semey oblysy in Kazakhstan) with the center in Verny. ... Ussuri Cossack Host (Russian: Уссури́йское каза́чье во́йско) was a Cossack Host in Imperial Russia, located in Primorye south of Khabarovsk along the Ussuri River, the Sungari River, and around the Khanka Lake. ... Azov Cossack Host was a Cossack host created in 1828 of Trans-Danubian Sich Cossacks (Задунайская Сечь) returned under the Russian patronage during the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 under the command of kosh ataman Osip Hladkiy (Осип Михайлов Гладкий). When the war ended, they were given land between Berdyansk and Mariupol. ... Caucasus Line Cossack Host (Черноморское казачье войско) was a Cossack host created in 1787 in Southern Ukraine from former Zaporozhians. ... The Bug Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a Cossack host, which used to be located along the Southern Buh River. ... Caucasus Line Cossack Host (Кавказское линейное казачье войско) was a Cossack host created in 1832 in the Northern Caucasus. ... The Danubian Sich (Danube Sich, Trans-Danube Sich, Zadunayska Sich) was a fortified settlement (sich) of Zaporozhian Cossacks who fled in the territory of the Ottoman Empire after their home Zaporizhian Sich was overwhelmed by the Russian army in 1775, see, see Zaporozhian Host: Russian rule. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Nekrasov Cossacks, Nekrasovite Cossacks, Nekrasovites, Nekrasovtsy (Russian: ) are descendants of Don Cossacks which, after the defeat of the Bulavin Rebellion fled to Kuban (in September 1708), headed by Ignat Nekrasov, hence the name. ... The Persian Cossack Brigade was the imperial gaurd of the royal family of Persia (Iran). ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... The History of the Cossacks spans several centuries. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... This is a 19th century design for a COA of a proposed Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth which never came into being. ... The Bulavin Rebellion, also called the Astrakhan Rebellion (Russian: Булавинское восстание), is the name given to a violent civil uprising in Imperial Russia between the years 1707 and 1709. ... It has been suggested that Yemelyan Pugachev be merged into this article or section. ... The 1st Cavalry Army (Russian: ) was the most famous Red Army сavalry formation also known as Budyonnys Cavalry Army or simply Konarmia. ... In 1919 the Soviet engaged in a policy to eliminate the Cossack threat to proletarian power by de-Cossackization: extirpating the Cossack elite; terrorizing all other Cossacks; and bringing about the formal liquidation of the Cossackry. ... Combatants Lienz Cossacks Allied Forces Strength >50,000 Casualties 45,000 - 50,000 repatriated The Betrayal of Cossacks refers to the forced transfer of Cossacks who fought against Allied forces in World War II to the Soviet Union after the war, including those who were never Soviet citizens (having left... The XVth Cossack Cavalry Corps was a German cavalry corps during World War II. By the end of the war the Corps was placed under the Waffen-SS administration. ... Russian Cossacks in Wehmacht uniform The 1st Cossack Division (German: ) is a Russian Cossack division within the German WW II Army. ... Andrei Shkuro Andrei Grigoriyevich Shkuro (Shkura) (Андрей Григорьевич Шкуро (Шкура) in Russian) (January 19, 1887 (O.S.: January 7) – January 17, 1947) was a Lieutenant General (1919) of the White Army. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: , commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, translit. ... Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Ukrainian: , Russian: , historically spelled as Mazeppa; circa 1640—August 28, 1709), Cossack Hetman (Ataman) of the Hetmanate in Left-bank Ukraine, in 1687–1708. ... Ataman Ivan Sirko Ukrainian hryvnia coin depicting Ivan Sirko Ivan Sirko (Ukrainian: Іван Сірко)(born near 1610 died in 1680), Cossack military leader, Koshovyi Otaman of the Zaporozhian Host and author of the famous Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks that inspired a major painting by the 19th-century artist Ilya Repin. ... Ataman Pyotr Krasnov Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Петр Николаевич Краснов in Russian) (September 22 (10 O.S.), 1869 — January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counterrevolutionary White movement afterwards. ... Semyon Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25 [O.S. April 13] 1883 – October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. ... Stepan (Stenka) Timofeyevich Razin (Степан (Стенька) Тимофеевич Разин in Russian) (1630 - 6. ... Emelyan Pugachov Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Russian: ), born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II. Alexander Pushkin wrote a remarkable history of the rebellion; and he recounted some of the events... Ataman (variants: wataman, vataman, otaman, Cyrillic: атаман (Russian), ватаман (Russian, regional), отаман (Ukrainian)) was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds. ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Papakha (Russian: ) is a high fur hat, usually made of karakul sheep skin, worn by many peoples of the Caucasus, Don Cossacks and Russian army. ... Plastun or plastoon (Ukrainian, Russian: ) was originally a Cossack of dismounted scouting and sentry military units in Black Sea Cossack Host and later in Kuban Cossack Host in 19-20th ceturies. ... A Cossack from Orenburg, with shashka at his side. ... Stanitsa (Russian: , pronounces stah-nee-tsah) is a village inside a Cossack host or Cossack voisko (Казачье войско, kazachye voysko, sometimes incorrectly translated as Cossack Army). ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


Different Cossack groups are identified with different hosts, or regions. The Cossacks of the Zaporozhian, Don, Terek and Ural hosts, as well as areas of Siberia (such as the Baikal Cossacks) are the best known. Cossacks first became widely known in western Europe in the mid-17th century as a result of the great revolt of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the Zaporozhians against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in what is now Ukraine, which shook the geopolitical foundations of eastern Europe.[1][2][3][4] The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... Terek Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks resettled from Volga to Terek River. ... The Ural Cossack Host was a cossack host formed from the Ural Cossacks -- those cossacks settled by the Ural River. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... Baikal Cossacks were cossacks of the Transbaikal Cossack Host (Russian: Забайкальское казачье войско), a Cossack host formed in 1851 in the areas beyond Lake Baikal (hence, Transbaikal). ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: , commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, translit. ... Zaporizhia (Ukrainian: Запоріжжя, Zaporizhia; Polish: Zaporoże or Dzikie Pola (Wild Fields or Savage Steppe), Russian: Запоро́жье, Zaporozhye) is a historical region which is situated about the Dnieper River, below the Dnieper rapids (porohy, poroża), (now Ukraine), hence the name, translated as territory beyond the rapids. During the 16th to 18th... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Their numbers grew during late medieval times, joined by numerous Russian and Ukrainian serfs fleeing from their owners. Eventually Cossacks became guardians of ethnic and state boundaries. In the 19th century Cossacks in Europe became known for the numerous wars with Russia and contributed to the stereotypical portrayal of Russia. Cossacks served in the Russian regular army in various wars throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. During the Russian Civil War they fought for both the Red Army and White Army. The Don Cossack Host were one of the main military forces resisting the Bolsheviks. Cossack military regiments were, however, reformed prior to the World War II. Currently in Russia, Cossacks are seen as either ethnic descendants or by their active military service and often both. The latter category was listed as a separate group in the census and there are currently up to 150,000 Cossacks in military service in Russia and up to several million descendants aware of their Cossack heritage, which is now experiencing a revival, particularly in the south of Russia. A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ... The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... White Army redirects here. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Cossacks (Козаки́, Kozaky) of the Zaporozhian Host, who lived on the steppes of Ukraine, are another well known group of Cossacks. Their numbers increased greatly between the 15th to 17th centuries, fed by poor Ruthenian boyar-nobility, merchants and runaway peasants from Poland-Lithuania. The Zaporozhian Cossacks played an important role in European geopolitics, undergoing a series of conflicts and alliances with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire. As a result of the Khmelnytsky Uprising in the middle of the 17th century Zaporozhian Cossacks managed to briefly create an independent state, which later became the autonomous Cossack Hetmanate, a suzerainty under protection of the Russian Tsar but ruled by the local Hetmans for half a century. In the later half of the 18th century the Zaporozhian Host was dissolved by the Russian authorities. Some of Cossacks' descendants have moved to the Danube delta region and Kuban, although after 1828 most of the Danubians have moved to Russia as well, first to the Azov and later to the Kuban. Although today the Kuban Cossacks do not consider themselves Ukrainians, many historians consider their predecessors, the Dnieper Cossacks, as founders of what became a modern Ukrainian nation. The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: ) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century through the 17th century. ... The Commonwealth around 1619 Official languages Polish, Latin Established church Roman Catholic Capital Cracow (until 1596) Warsaw (from 1596) Largest City Gdańsk, later Warsaw Head of state King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania Area about 1 million km² Population about 11 million Existed 1569 - 1795 The Polish... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Bulava-mace traditional symbol of the supreme power of Ukrainian Hetmans. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Russian Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские козаки, Kubanskie Kozaki) were cossacks that settled in the region around the Kuban River protected the southern borders of the Russian Empire. ...


Less well-known are the Polish Cossacks (Kozacy) and the Tatar Cossacks (Nağaybäklär). The name 'Cossacks' was also given to a kind of light cavalry in the army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This article is about the people. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ...

Conquest of Siberia by Yermak, painting by Vasily Surikov.
Conquest of Siberia by Yermak, painting by Vasily Surikov.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x433, 84 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Siberia Age of Discovery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x433, 84 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Siberia Age of Discovery ... The name Yermak (Ермак) may refer to Yermak Timofeyevich, a Don Cossack ataman, subjugator of Siberia to Russia Icebreaker Yermak, Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Self-Portrait Vasily Ivanovich Surikov (Василий Иванович Суриков) (January 24, 1848 (Julian calendar: January 12) – March 19, 1916 (Julian calendar: March 6)) was the foremost Russian painter of large-scale historical subjects. ...

Etymology

The name entered the English language from the French Cosaque, in turn, probably via Polish from the Ukrainian Kozak rather than the modern Russian Kazak. It is ultimately derived from a Turkic social term qazaq meaning "adventurer" or "free man". This term is first mentioned in a Ruthenian chronicle dated 1395. Cossacks (Qazaqlar) were also border keepers in the Khanate of Kazan. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ...


History

The History of the Cossacks spans several centuries. ...

Origins

It is not clear when the Slavic people started settling in the lower reaches of the Don and the Dnieper. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongol hordes broke the power of the Cumans and other Turkic tribes on that territory. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ...


Proto-Cossack groups most likely came into existence within the territories of today's Ukraine in the mid-13th century. In 1261 some Slavic people living in the area between the Dniester and the Volga were mentioned in Ruthenian chronicles. Historical records of the Cossacks before the 16th century are scant. In the 15th century, the Cossack society was described as a loose federation of independent communities, often forming local armies, entirely separate from the neighbouring states (of, e.g, Poland, Grand Duchy of Moscow or the Khanate of Crimea). The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... “Volga” redirects here. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ...


By the 16th century these Cossack societies merged into two independent territorial organisations as well as other smaller, still detached groups.

  • The Cossacks of Zaporizhia, centred around the lower bends of Dnieper, inside the territory of modern Ukraine, with the fortified capital of Zaporozhian Sich. They were formally recognised as a state, the Zaporozhian Host, by a treaty with Poland in 1649.
  • The Don Cossack State, on the river Don, separating the Grand Duchy of Moscow from the Nogai states, vassals of the Ottoman Empire. The capital of the Don Cossack State was Cherkassk, later moved to Novocherkassk.

Some historical documents of that period refer to those states as sovereign nations with unique warrior cultures, whose main source of income was derived from the pillaging of their neighbours. They were renowned for their raids against the Ottoman Empire and its vassals, although they did not shy away from pillaging other neighbours. Their actions increased tension along the southern border of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Kresy), which resulted in almost a constant low-level warfare taking place in those territories for almost the entire existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. For other uses, see Zaporizhia (disambiguation). ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ... The Nogai Horde was the Tatar horde that controlled the Caucasus Mountain region after the Mongol invasion. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Starocherkasskaya. ... Roads leading to Novocherkassk are graced by triumphal arches, erected to commemorate the Cossack victory over Napoleon. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Conflicts with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891.
Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891.

After being asked in 1539 by the Grand Duke Vasili III of Russia to restrain the Cossacks, the Ottoman Sultan replied: "The Cossacks do not swear allegiance to me, and they live as they themselves please." In 1549, Czar Ivan the Terrible replied to a request of the Turkish Sultan to stop the attacks of the Don Cossacks, stating, "The Cossacks of the Don are not my subjects, and they go to war or live in peace without my knowledge." Similar exchanges passed between Russia, the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, each of which tried to exploit Cossack warmongering for its own purposes. Cossacks for their part were mostly happy to plunder everybody more or less equally, although in the 16th century, with the dominance of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth extending south, the Zaporozhian Cossacks were mostly, if tentatively, regarded by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as their subjects. Registered Cossacks were a part of the Commonwealth army until 1699. The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey (1880-91). ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey (1880-91). ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey is a famous painting by the Russian artist Ilya Repin. ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Registered Cossacks (Polish: Kozacy rejestrowi) is the term used for Cossacks (mostly from the Zaporizhian Sich) who were part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth armies. ...

A Ukrainian Cossack in the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Painting by Dariusz T. Wielec.
A Ukrainian Cossack in the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Painting by Dariusz T. Wielec.

Around the end of the 16th century, relations between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, which were not cordial to begin with, were further strained by increasing Cossack aggressiveness. From the second part of the 16th century, Cossacks started raiding Ottoman territories. The Polish government could not control the fiercely independent Cossacks, but since they were nominally subjects of the Commonwealth, it was held responsible for the raids by their victims. Reciprocally, the Tatars living under Ottoman rule launched raids into the Commonwealth, mostly in the sparsely inhabited south-east territories. Cossack pirates, however, were raiding wealthy merchant port cities in the heart of the Ottoman Empire, which were just two days away by boat from the mouth of the Dnieper. By 1615 and 1625, Cossacks had even managed to raze townships on the outskirts of Istanbul, forcing the Ottoman Sultan to flee his palace.[1] Consecutive treaties between Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth called for both parties to keep the Cossacks and Tatars in check, but enforcement was almost non-existent on both sides. In internal agreements, forced by the Polish side, Cossacks agreed to burn their boats and stop raiding. However, boats could be rebuilt quickly, and the Cossack lifestyle glorified raids and booty. During this time, the Habsburg Empire sometimes covertly employed Cossack raiders to ease Ottoman pressure on their own borders. Many Cossacks and Tatars shared an animosity towards each other due to the damage done by raids from both sides. Cossack raids followed by Tatar retaliation, or Tatar raids followed by Cossack retaliation were an almost regular occurrence. The ensuing chaos and string of retaliations often turned the entire south-eastern Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth border into a low-intensity war zone and led to escalation of Commonwealth-Ottoman warfare, from the Moldavian Magnate Wars to the Battle of Cecora and Wars in 1633–1634. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (650x900, 126 KB) Picture by Dariusz T. Wielec related to the w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (16th-18th century) and szlachta (nobleman). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (650x900, 126 KB) Picture by Dariusz T. Wielec related to the w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (16th-18th century) and szlachta (nobleman). ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Ottoman Empire Commanders StanisÅ‚aw Żółkiewski Iskander Pasha Strength ~10. ...

"Bohdan Chmielnicki with Toğay bey at Lwow", oil on canvas, 1885, National Museum in Warsaw. Painted by Jan Matejko.
"Bohdan Chmielnicki with Toğay bey at Lwow", oil on canvas, 1885, National Museum in Warsaw. Painted by Jan Matejko.

Cossack numbers expanded with peasants running from serfdom in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Attempts by the szlachta to turn the Zaporozhian Cossacks into serfs eroded the Cossacks' once fairly strong loyalty towards the Commonwealth. Cossack ambitions to be recognised as equal to the szlachta were constantly rebuffed, and plans for transforming the Polish-Lithuanian Two-Nations Commonwealth into Three Nations (with the Ruthenian Cossack people) made little progress due to the Cossacks' unpopularity. The Cossack's strong historic allegiance to the Eastern Orthodox Christianity put them at odds with the Catholic-dominated Commonwealth. Tensions increased when Commonwealth policies turned from relative tolerance to suppression of the Orthodox church, making the Cossacks strongly anti-Catholic, which at the time was synonymous with anti-Polish. Download high resolution version (537x800, 167 KB)Bohdan Chmielnicki with Tuhaj Bej at Lwow painted by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (537x800, 167 KB)Bohdan Chmielnicki with Tuhaj Bej at Lwow painted by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as... Tugay Bey, part of Bohdan Chmielnicki with Tugay Bey at Lwów, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1885, National Museum in Warsaw (see full picture here). ... Lviv ( Львів in Ukrainian; Львов, Lvov in Russian; Lwów in Polish; Leopolis in Latin; Lemberg in German—see also cities alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine with 830,000 inhabitants (an additional 200,000 commute daily from... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... 19th-century proposed coat of arms for a Polish–Lithuanian– Ruthenian Commonwealth. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


The waning loyalty of the Cossacks and the szlachta's arrogance towards them resulted in several Cossack uprisings against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the early 17th century. Finally, the King's adamant refusal to cede to the Cossack's demand to expand the Cossack Registry was the last straw that prompted the largest and most successful of these: the Khmelnytsky uprising that started in 1648. The uprising became one of a series of catastrophic events for the Commonwealth known as The Deluge, which greatly weakened the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and set the stage for its disintegration 100 years later. The rebellion ended with the 1654 Treaty of Pereyaslav in which Cossacks pledged their loyalty to the Russian Tsar with the latter guaranteeing Cossacks his protection, recognition of Cossack starshyna (nobility) and the autonomy under his rule, freeing the Cossacks from the Polish sphere of influence.[5] The last, ultimately unsuccessful, attempt to rebuild the Polish-Cossack alliance and create a Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth was the 1658 Treaty of Hadiach, which was approved by the Polish King and Sejm as well as by some of the Cossack starshyna, including Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky.[6] The starshyna were, however, divided on the issue and the treaty had even less support among Cossack rank-and-file; thus it failed. Registered Cossacks - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian , in scholarly transliteration respectively car and car ), often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is the official Slavonic title designating Emperor in the following states: Bulgaria in 913-1422 (for later usage in 1908-1946, see below) Serbia in... Starshina, or Starshyna (Ukrainian and Russian: , from старший, starshyi, senior), had a number of meanings, all related to the position of chiefdom. ... This is a 19th century design for a COA of a proposed Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth which never came into being. ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Ivan Vyhovsky (Іван Виговський)(reigned 1657-1659) was a hetman (or otoman) of the Ukrainian Cossacks, and the successor to the famous hetman and rebel leader Bohdan Khmelnytsky (see Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks). ...

Cossack's wedding. Painting by Józef Brandt.
Cossack's wedding. Painting by Józef Brandt.

Under Russian rule the Cossack nation of the Zaporozhian Host was divided into two semiautonomous republics of the Grand Duchy of Moscow: the Cossack Hetmanate, and the more independent Zaporizhia. A Cossack organisation was also established in the Russian colony of Sloboda Ukraine. These organisations gradually lost their independence, and were abolished by Catherine II by the late 18th century. The Hetmanate became the governorship of Little Russia, Sloboda Ukraine the Kharkiv province, and Zaporizhia was absorbed into New Russia. In 1775 the Zaporozhian Host was dissolved and high ranking Cossack leaders were granted titles of nobility (dvoryanstvo). Most of the Zaporozhians resettled to colonise the Kuban steppe which was a crucial foothold for Russian expansion in the Caucasus. Some however ran away across the Danube (territory under the control of the Ottoman Empire) to form a new host before rejoining the others in the Kuban. Download high resolution version (515x800, 120 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (515x800, 120 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Józef Brandt Signature of Józef Brandt Józef Brandt (b. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Sloboda Ukraine (Russian: Слободская Украина) or Slobozhanshchina (Слобожанщина) was a historical region (17th–18th centuries) on the frontier of Muscovy and Imperial Russia... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... Kharkiv Oblast (Харківська область, Kharkivs’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian; Харьковская область, Khar’kovskaya oblast’ in... Novorossiya (Russian: , literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, and partially in southern Russia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Russian nobility. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...

Late 19th century
Late 19th century

During their stay there, a new host was founded which by the end of 1778 numbered around 12000 Cossacks. Their settlement at the border with Russia was approved by the Ottoman Empire after the Cossacks officially vowed to serve the Sultan. Yet the conflict inside the new host of the new loyalty, and the political manoeuvres used by the Russian Empire, led to a split in the Cossacks. After a portion of the runaway Cossacks returned to Russia they were used by the Russian army to form new military bodies that also incorporated Greek Albanians and Crimean Tatars. However after the Russo-Turkish war of 1787–1792, most of them were incorporated into the Black Sea Cossack Host which moved to the Kuban steppes. The remaining Cossacks that stayed in the Danube delta returned to Russia in 1828 and created the Azov Cossack Host between Berdyansk and Mariupol. In 1864 all of them were resettled to the North Caucasus and merged into the Kuban Cossack Host. Image File history File links Kub_kaz. ... Image File history File links Kub_kaz. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792 was a futile attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to Russia in the course of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774. ... Caucasus Line Cossack Host (Черноморское казачье войско) was a Cossack host created in 1787 in Southern Ukraine from former Zaporozhians. ... Azov Cossack Host was a Cossack host created in 1828 of Trans-Danubian Sich Cossacks (Задунайская Сечь) returned under the Russian patronage during the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 under the command of kosh ataman Osip Hladkiy (Осип Михайлов Гладкий). When the war ended, they were given land between Berdyansk and Mariupol. ... Berdyansk (Бердянськ; Russian Berdyansk) is a port city in southeastern Ukraine within its Zaporizka oblast. Between 1939 and 1958 it was known as Osipenko. ... now. ... Russian Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские козаки, Kubanskie Kozaki) were cossacks that settled in the region around the Kuban River protected the southern borders of the Russian Empire. ...

In the Russian Empire

From the start, relations of Cossacks with Muscouvy were very much varied, at times this involved combined military operations, and at others there were famous Cossack uprisings. One particular example was the dissolution of the Zaporozhian Host, which took place at the end of the 18th century. The divisions of the Cossacks within was clearly visible between those that chose to stay loyal to the Russian Monarch and continue the service (who later moved to the Kuban) and those that chose to continue their pro-mercenary role and ran off the Danube delta. This article is about the Danube River. ...


Nevertheless by the 19th century, the Russian Empire managed to fully annex all the control over the hosts and instead rewarded the Cossacks with privileges for their service. At this time the Cossacks were actively participating in many Russian wars. Although Cossack tactics in open battles were generally inferior to those of regular soldiers such as the Dragoons, nevertheless Cossacks were excellent for scouting and reconnaissance duties, as well as undertaking ambushes. French dragoon, 1745. ...

Cossack patrol near Baku oil fields, 1905
Cossack patrol near Baku oil fields, 1905

The Cossack sense of being a separate and elite community gave them a strong sense of loyalty to the Tsarist government and Cossack units were frequently used to suppress domestic disorder, especially during the widespread worker and peasant unrest of 1905–06. The Imperial Government depended heavily on the perceived reliability of the Cossacks, although by the early twentieth century their separate communities and semi-feudal military service were increasingly being seen as obsolete. In strictly military terms the Cossacks were not highly regarded by the Russian Army Command, who saw them as less well disciplined, trained and mounted than the hussars, dragoons and lancers of the regular cavalry.[7] The Cossack qualities of initiative and rough-riding skills were not always fully appreciated. As a result, Cossack units were frequently broken up into small detachments for use as scouts, messengers or picturesque escorts. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x590, 91 KB)Cossack patrol near Baku oil fields. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x590, 91 KB)Cossack patrol near Baku oil fields. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... A British Hussar from the Crimean War Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok, Polish: Husaria) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of the City of PoznaÅ„ in the uniform of the 15th Uhlan Regiment of PoznaÅ„ from 1939 A lancer (uhlan) was a cavalry soldier who fought with a lance. ...


When revolution came in February 1917, the Cossacks appear to have shared the general disillusionment with Tsarist leadership and the Cossack regiments in Saint Petersburg joined the uprising. While only a few units were involved, their defection (and that of the Konvoi) came as a stunning psychological blow to the Government of Nicholas II and sped his abdication. Nicholas II redirects here. ...


At the end of the 19th century, the Cossack communities enjoyed a privileged tax-free status in the Russian Empire, although having a military service commitment of twenty years (reduced to eighteen years from 1909). Only five years had to be spent in full time service, the remainder of the commitment being spent with the reserves. In the beginning of the twentieth century Russian Cossacks counted 4.5 million and were organised into separate regional Hosts, each comprising a number of regiments. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


After the Russian Revolution

In the Civil War that followed the Russian Revolution, the Cossacks found themselves on both sides of the conflict. Many officers and experienced Cossacks fought for the White Army, and some of the other ones joined the Red Army. Following the defeat of the White Army, a policy of Decossackization (Raskazachivaniye) took place on the surviving Cossacks and their homelands since they were viewed as potential threat to the new regime. This mostly involved dividing their territory amongst other divisions and giving it to new autonomous republics of minorities, and then actively encouraging settlement of these territories with those peoples. This was especially true for the Terek Cossacks land. The Cossack homelands were often very fertile, and during the collectivisation campaign many Cossacks shared the fate of kulaks. The famine of 1933 hit the Don and Kuban territory the hardest. According to Michael Kort, "During 1919 and 1920, out of a population of approximately 3 million, the Bolshevik regime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 Cossacks".[8] Including 45 thousand Terek Cossacks.[9] In 1919 the Soviet engaged in a policy to eliminate the Cossack threat to proletarian power by de-Cossackization: extirpating the Cossack elite; terrorizing all other Cossacks; and bringing about the formal liquidation of the Cossackry. ... The collectivisation campaign in the USSR, 1930s. ... Terek Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks resettled from Volga to Terek River. ...


Nevertheless, in 1936, under pressure from former Cossack descendants, it was decided to reintroduce Cossack forces into the Red Army. During the Second World War Cossacks found themselves on both sides of the conflict again, as most of the Nazi collaborators came from former White Army refugees. Red Army Cossacks fought on the Southern theatre of the front, where open steppes made them ideal for frontal patrols and logistics. A Cossack detachment marched on Red Square during the famous victory parade in 1945. For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ...

Soviet Kuban Cossack regiments marching. 24 June 1945, Victory Parade after the Great Patriotic War.
Soviet Kuban Cossack regiments marching. 24 June 1945, Victory Parade after the Great Patriotic War.

One notable group of those who fought for the Germans in the Wehrmacht was the XVth SS Cossack Cavalry Corps under the German General Helmuth von Pannwitz in combat against the partisans in Yugoslavia. They surrendered to the British Army in Austria in 1945, hoping to join the British to fight Communism. There was little sympathy at the time for a group who were seen as Nazi collaborators and who were reported to have committed atrocities against resistance fighters in Eastern Europe. They were accordingly handed over to the Soviet Government. At the end of the war, British commanders "repatriated" between 40 to 50 thousand Cossacks, including their families, to the Soviet Union. An unknown number were subsequently executed or imprisoned. Reportedly many of those punished had never been Soviet citizens. This event is widely known as the Betrayal of the Cossacks or the Secret Betrayal. Image File history File linksMetadata KubanCossacks2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata KubanCossacks2. ... Kuban Cossacks at the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945 Kuban Cossacks (Russian: ) are Cossacks that live on the Kuban region of Russia, they consider themselves direct successors to the Zaporozhian Cossacks. ... Victory Parade on Red Square, Moscow on June 24, 1945. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... The XVth Cossack Cavalry Corps was a German cavalry corps during World War II. By the end of the war the Corps was placed under the Waffen-SS administration. ... Born in Silesia on October 14, 1898, Helmuth von Pannwitz was a Nazi General who commanded anti-partisan troops in Yugoslavia He was hanged by a Russian court on January 16, 1947. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were one of the two main resistance movements engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, alongside rival Chetniks, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Operation Keelhaul was a programme carried out in Austria by British forces in May and June 1945 that decided the fate of thousands of post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe. ... Combatants Lienz Cossacks Allied Forces Strength >50,000 Casualties 45,000 - 50,000 repatriated The Betrayal of Cossacks refers to the forced transfer of Cossacks who fought against Allied forces in World War II to the Soviet Union after the war, including those who were never Soviet citizens (having left...


Following the war, Cossack units, along with cavalry in general, were rendered obsolete and released from the Soviet Army. In the post-war years many Cossack descendants were thought of as simple peasants, and those who lived inside an autonomous republic usually gave way to the particular minority and migrated elsewhere (notably, to the Baltic region).


In the Perestroika-enlightened USSR of the late 1980s, many successors of the Cossacks became enthusiastic about reviving their national traditions. In 1988 the USSR passed a law which allowed formation of former hosts and the creation of new ones. The ataman of the largest, the All-Mighty Don Host, was granted Marshal rank and the right to form a new host. The Cossacks have taken an active part in many of the conflicts that took place afterwards: Transdniester, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Kosovo and Chechnya. While their impact on the outcome of the conflict rarely by-passed mass-media attention, and were immediately recognised for their high morale and bravery. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ...


At the same time many attempts were made to increase the Cossack impact on Russian society and throughout the 1990s many regional authorities agreed to hand over some local administration and policing duties to the Cossacks. However in April 2005, Russian President Vladimir Putin introduced a bill "On the State Service of the Russian Cossacks" (O gosudarstvennoy sluzhbe rossiyskogo kazachestva) to the State Duma, which was passed in the first reading on May 18, 2005. For the first time in decades the Cossacks were recognised as not only a distinct ethnocultural entity but also as a potent military service. Although their full ambition to administer wholly the territory stretching from Transdniester all the way along the steppe to the Ural River might be distant, the bill made a significant step towards achieving it. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ...


Russian Cossacks

The native land of the Cossacks is defined by a line of the Russian/Ruthenian town-fortresses located on the border with the steppe and stretching from the middle Volga to Ryazan and Tula, then breaking abruptly to the south and extending to the Dnieper via Pereyaslavl. This area was settled by a population of free people practicing various trades and crafts.


These people, constantly facing the Tatar warriors on the steppe frontier, received the Turkic name Cossacks which was then extended to other free people in northern Russia. The oldest reference in the annals mentions Cossacks of the Russian city of Ryazan taking part in the city's service in the battle against the Tatars in 1444. In the 16th century, the Cossacks (firstly those of Ryazan) were grouped in military and trading communities on the open steppe and started to migrate into the area of the Don (source Vasily Klyuchevsky, The course of the Russian History, vol.2). Vasily Osipovich Klyuchevsky (January 16, 1841 - May 12, 1911) dominated the Russian historiography at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. ...

Don Cossacks house in khutor Kruzhilinsky, Rostov oblast
Don Cossacks house in khutor Kruzhilinsky, Rostov oblast

Cossacks served as border guards and protectors of towns, forts, settlements and trading posts, performed policing functions on the frontiers and also came to represent an integral part of the Russian army. In the 16th century, to protect the borderland area from Tatar invasions, Cossacks carried out sentry and patrol duties, observing Crimean Tatars and nomads of the Nogai Horde in the steppe region. Image File history File linksMetadata Вешенская_12_хутор_кружилинский.jpg‎ Description Kuren - a Don Cossacks house. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Вешенская_12_хутор_кружилинский.jpg‎ Description Kuren - a Don Cossacks house. ... Khutor or hutor (Russian: ; Ukrainian: , Khutir) was usually a single-homestead rural settlement (farmstead) in Ukraine, Russia, and some parts of Central Asia. ... Flag of Rostov Oblast Rostov Oblast (Russian: , Rostovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Southern Federal District. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ...


Russian Cossacks played a key role in the expansion of the Russian Empire into Siberia (particularly by Yermak Timofeyevich), the Caucasus and Central Asia in the period from the 16th to 19th centuries. Cossacks also served as guides to most Russian expeditions formed by civil and military geographers and surveyors, traders and explorers. In 1648 the Russian Cossack Simeon Dezhnev discovered a passage between America and Asia. Cossack units played a role in many wars in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries (such as the Russo-Turkish Wars and the Russo-Persian Wars, annexation of Central Asia). Yermak Yermak Timofeyevich (Russian: Ерма́к Тимофе́евич, also Ermak) (born between 1532 and 1542 – August 5 or 6, 1585), Cossack leader and explorer of Siberia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Russo-Turkish wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire during the 17th, 18th, and 19th and 20th centuries. ... The Russo-Persian Wars were wars fought between the Russian Empire and Persia in 18-20th centuries. ...


During Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, Cossacks were the Russian soldiers most feared by the French troops. Napoleon himself stated "Cossacks are the best light troops among all that exist. If I had them in my army, I would go through all the world with them."[10] Cossacks also took part in the partisan war deep inside French-occupied Russian territory attacking communications and supply lines. These attacks, carried out by Cossacks along with Russian light cavalry and other units, were one of the first developments of guerrilla warfare tactics and, to some extent, special operations as we know them today. Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ...


Western Europeans had had few contacts with Cossacks before the Allies occupied Paris in 1814. As the most exotic of the Russian troops seen in France, Cossacks drew a great deal of attention and notoriety for their alleged excesses during the Napoleon's 1812 campaign.


Organization

In early times, Cossack bands were commanded by an ataman (later called hetman). He was elected by the tribe members at a Cossack rada, as were the other important band officials: the judge, the scribe, the lesser officials, and even the clergy. The ataman's symbol of power was a ceremonial mace, a bulava. Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Rada is the term for council or assembly borrowed by Polish from Middle High German Rat (council) and later passed into Czech, Ukrainian, and Belarusian languages. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

"Cossack on duty", painting by Józef Brandt.
"Cossack on duty", painting by Józef Brandt.

After the split of Ukraine along the Dnieper River by the Polish-Russian Treaty of Andrusovo, 1667, Ukrainian Cossacks were known as Left-bank Cossacks and Right-bank Cossacks. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Treaty of Andrusovo, 1667 (Polish Rozejm w Andruszowie, Russian Андрусовское перемирие, Ukrainian Андрусівське переми&#1088...


The ataman had executive powers and at time of war he was the supreme commander in the field. Legislative power was given to the Band Assembly (Rada). The senior officers were called starshyna. In the absence of written laws, the Cossacks were governed by the "Cossack Traditions," the common, unwritten law. Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Cossack society and government were heavily militarized. The nation was called a host (vois’ko, translated as 'army'), and subdivided into regimental and company districts, and village posts (polky, sotni, and stanytsi). British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ...


Each Cossack settlement, alone or in conjunction with neighbouring settlements, formed one or more military units and regiments of light cavalry (or mounted infantry, for Siberian Cossacks) ready to respond to a threat on very short notice.


Settlements

Russian Cossacks founded numerous settlements (called stanitsas) and fortresses along "troublesome borders" such as forts Verny (Almaty, Kazakhstan) in south Central Asia, Grozny in North Caucasus, Fort Alexandrovsk (Fort Shevchenko, Kazakhstan), Krasnovodsk (Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan) Novonikolayevskaya stanitsa (Bautino, Kazakhstan), Blagoveshchensk, towns and settlements at Ural, Ishim, Irtysh, Ob, Yenisei, Lena, Amur, Anadyr (Chukotka), and Ussuri Rivers. A group of Albazin Cossacks settled in China as early as 1685. Stanitsa (Russian: , pronounces stah-nee-tsah) is a village inside a Cossack host or Cossack voisko (Казачье войско, kazachye voysko, sometimes incorrectly translated as Cossack Army). ... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Fort Shevchenko (Russian: ) is a town in Mangghystau Oblys, Kazakhstan on the Caspian Sea. ... Türkmenbaşy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Welayaty, on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... TürkmenbaÅŸy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. ... Blagoveshchensk (Russian: Благовещенск) (pop. ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... The Ishim River (Иши́м, another name is Esil River) is a river running through Kazakhstan and Russia. ... Irtysh (Иртыш ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Central Asia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ... Ob (also Obi, Russian Обь) is a river in West Siberia, Russia, the countrys fourth longest. ... The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. ... The Lena (Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. ... The Amur River or Heilong Jiang (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: , Khar Mörön or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is the worlds eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. ... Anadyr (Ана́дырь) is a river in the extreme northeast of Siberia, Russia. ... The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotski Peninsula or Chukotsk Peninsula, at about 66° North, 169° East, is the northeastern extremity of Asia. ... The Ussuri River (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Russian: река Уссури; Manchu: Usuri ula) is a river in the east of Northeast China and south of the Russian Far East. ... The Albazinians (Russian: албазинцы, Chinese: 阿尔巴津人) are approximately 250 modern descendants of about fifty Russian Cossacks from Albazin on the Amur River that were resettled by the Kangxi Emperor in the northeastern periphery of Beijing in 1685. ...


Although Cossacks are sometimes regarded as xenophobic, some Cossacks readily adapted to the cultures and customs of nearby peoples (for example, the Terek Cossacks, who were heavily influenced by the culture of North Caucasian tribes) and frequently married local residents (other non-Cossack settlers and natives) regardless of race or origin, sometimes setting aside religious restrictions.[11] War brides brought from distant lands were also common in Cossack families. One of the Russian Volunteer Army commanders, General Bogaevsky mentions in his book one of his Cossacks unit's servicemen, sotnik Khoperski, who was Chinese by origin and brought from Manchuria during the Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905 as a child, adopted and raised by a Cossack family.[12] The Volunteer Army (Добровольческая армия in Russian, or Dobrovolcheskaya armiya) was a counterrevolutionary army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of Imperial Russia and Japan in Manchuria and Korea. ...


Popular image

Cossacks have long appealed to romantics as idealizing freedom and resistance to external authority, and their military exploits against enemies of the Russian people have contributed to this favourable image. For others they have been a symbol of repression because of their role in suppressing popular uprisings in the Russian Empire, as well as their assaults against Jews.


Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, many have begun seeing Cossacks as defenders of Russian sovereignty. Cossacks not only reestablished all of their hosts, they also took over police and even administrative duties in their homelands. The Russian military also took advantage of the patriotic feelings amongst the Cossacks and as the hosts become increasingly larger and more organised, has in past overturned some of its surplus technology to them. On par with that the Cossacks also play a large cultural role in the South of Russia. Since the whole rural population of the Rostov, Krasnodar and Starvropol territories as well as the Autonomous republics of the Northern Caucasus consists almost exclusively of Cossack descendants (amongst the ethnic Russian population) the region was always known, even in the Soviet times for its high discipline, low crime and conservative sentiments, like having one of the highest rates of religious attendance and literacy rates. The result was that, amongst Russian youth, Cossacks began to represent order and, in some cases, hope, especially when compared with the presently unpopular Russian Army. Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ...

A Ukrainian folk musician, Ostap Kindratchuk, playing the bandura on an Old Market in Poznań wearing the traditional cossack outfit.
A Ukrainian folk musician, Ostap Kindratchuk, playing the bandura on an Old Market in Poznań wearing the traditional cossack outfit.

In Ukraine where the Cossackdom represents historical and cultural heritage, some people have been attempting to recreate the images of Ukrainian Cossacks, that survived through Soviet times via various propaganda images, like the glorification of the Pereyaslvl Rada. Presently traditional Ukrainian culture is often tied in with these images and a result the Ukrainian government actively supports this, like having the Bulava club as its national symbolism and the restoration of the Hortytsia island, where the famous Zaporozhian Sich once dwelled. Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 622 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 622 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A Bandura and a Torban, at the Royal College of Music Julian Kytasty, plays a prima Chernihiv bandura The Experimental Bandura Тrio: Jurij Fedynsky, Julian Kytasty,and Michael Andrec Ken Bloom, plays a Kharkiv bandura Yuri Singalevych(Lviv) playing a diatonic bandura c. ... Poznań ( ; full official name: The Capital City of Poznań, Polish: Stołeczne Miasto Poznań (Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ...


Literary reflections of Cossack culture abound in Russian and Ukrainian literatures, particularly in the works of Nikolai Gogol, Taras Shevchenko and Mikhail Sholokhov. Moreover, they were portrayed in the Henryk Sienkiewicz's book With Fire and Sword, where Bohun, bold and desperate Cossack, is one of the main characters. Ukrainian literature is literature written in the Ukrainian language. ... Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: ; IPA: ; Ukrainian: ) (April 1, 1809 — March 4, 1852) was a Russian-language writer of Ukrainian origin. ... Taras Shevchenko Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1814 [O.S. February 25] – March 10, 1861 [O.S. February 26]) was a Ukrainian poet, also an artist and a humanist. ... Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (ru: Михаил Александрович Шолохов) (May 24, 1905 (Old Style May 11) - February 21, 1984) was a Russian novelist. ... Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (IPA: [], artistic name: “Litwos”, IPA: []) ( May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Congress Poland, - November 15, 1916, Vevey, Switzerland), Oszyk Coat of Arms, was a Polish novelist and publicist. ... Movie poster With Fire and Sword (Polish Ogniem i mieczem) is a historical novel by the Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz, published in 1884, and made into a movie (With Fire and Sword - the movie) in 1999. ...


Cossacks are also portrayed in Tennyson's "The Charge of the Light Brigade," and Richard Connell's short story, "The Most Dangerous Game." Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... The Charge of the Light Brigade is a poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson about the Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War. ... Richard Edward Connell, Jr. ... This article is about the short story by Richard Connell. ...


Because of their long history as important soldiers in the employ of Russia, Cossacks feature as prominent special military units in various strategy games, including Age of Empires III, Medieval II: Total War, Civilization III, and most notably Ukrainian GSC Game World's Cossacks: European Wars and its expansions. Age of Empires III (also called AoE III) is a real-time strategy (RTS) game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft. ... Sid Meiers Civilization III is a turn-based strategy computer game by Firaxis Games, the sequel to Sid Meiers Civilization II. It was followed by Civilization IV. Also called Civ 3 or Civ III for short, the game is the third generation of the original Civilization. ... GSC Game World is a Kiev-based computer game developer. ...


Terminology

Russian Cossacks

In the Russian Empire, the Cossacks were organised into several voiskos (hosts), which lived along Russian borderland, or internal borders between Russian and non-Russian peoples. Each host had its own leadership and regalia as well as uniforms as well as ranks. However by the late 19th century the latter were standardised of the example of the Imperial Russian Army. Following the 1988 law, which allowed the hosts to reform and the 2005 one that legally recognised the hosts as a combat service the ranks and insignia were kept but on all military tickets that are standard for the Russian Army they are given bellow.

Ataman Komandir Commander
Modern Cossack rank Equivalent modern Russian Army Equivalent foreign rank
Kazak Ryadovoy Private
Prikazny Yefreitor Corporal
Mladshy Uryadnik Mladshy Serzhant Junior Sergeant
Uryadnik Serzhant Sergeant
Starshy Uryadnik Starshy Serzhant Senior Sergeant
Mladshy Vakhmistr Mladshy Praporshik* Junior Warrant Officer
Vakhmistr Praporshchik Warrant officer
Starshy Vakhmistr Starshy Praporshchik Senior Warrant Officer
Podkhorunzhy Mladshy Leitenant* Junior Lieutenant
Khorunzhy Leitenant Lieutenant
Sotnik Starshy Leitenant Senior Lieutenant
Podyesaul Kapitan Captain
Yesaul Mayor Major
Voiskovy Starshyna Podpolkovnik Lieutenant-Colonel
Kazachy Polkovnik Polkovnik Colonel
Kazachy General** General General

*Rank Presently absent in the Russian Army
**The application of ranks Polkovnik and General is only stable for small hosts. Large hosts are divided into divisions and consequently the Russian Army sub-ranks General-Mayor, General-Leitenatant and General-Polkovnik are used to distinguish the Atamans' hierarchy of command, with the Supreme Ataman having the highest rank available. In such a case the shoulder insignia will have a dedicated one, two and three star alignment as normal in the Russian Army otherwise it will be blank.
Ataman (variants: wataman, vataman, otaman, Cyrillic: атаман (Russian), ватаман (Russian, regional), отаман (Ukrainian)) was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds. ... Sotnik (Russian: ) was a military rank in Russian Strelets Troops (1600s) and Imperial Cossack cavalry (since 1826), equivalent to Poruchik (Lieutenant). ... Yesaul (Turkic: yasaul=chief; Russian: есау́л), a post and a rank in the Cossack units. ...


The same can be said about the colonel ranks as they are given to atamans of regional and district status. The lowest group—stanitsa, is commanded by Yesaul. If the region or district lacks any other stanitsas then the rank polkovnik is applied automatically but with no stars on the shoulder. As the host continue to grow, starless shoulder batches are becoming increasingly rare.


In addition to all that, the Supreme Ataman of the largest Don Cossack Host, is officially titled as Marshal and consequently wears insignia that is derived from the Russian/Soviet Marshal ranks, including the diamond Marshal Star. This is because the Don Cossack Supreme Ataman is recognised as the official head of all Cossack armies (including those outside the present Russian borders). He also has the authority to recognise and dissolve new hosts.


Uniform

Each Host had its own distinctive uniform colourings. Cossacks were expected to provide their own uniforms. While these were sometimes manufactured in bulk by factories owned by the individual Host, garments were often handed down or cut out within a family. Individual items might accordingly vary from those laid down by regulation or be of obsolete pattern.

A Cossack officer from Orenburg, with a shashka at his side
A Cossack officer from Orenburg, with a shashka at his side

For most Hosts the basic uniform comprised the standard loose fitting tunics and wide trousers typical of Russian regular troops during the period 1881-1908. However the Caucasian Hosts (Kuban and Terek) wore the very long, open fronted, cherkesska coats with ornamental cartridge loops and coloured beshmets (waistcoats), that epitomise the popular image of the Cossacks. Most Hosts wore fleece hats with coloured cloth tops in full dress with peaked caps for ordinary duties. The two Caucasian Hosts however appear to have worn high fleece caps on most occasions. Download high resolution version (640x950, 98 KB)An Orenburg Cossack with his military equipment. ... Download high resolution version (640x950, 98 KB)An Orenburg Cossack with his military equipment. ... Orenburg (Russian: ) is a city on the Ural River and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast in the Volga Federal District of Russia. ... A Cossack from Orenburg, with shashka at his side. ...


Until 1909 white blouses and cap covers of standard Russian army pattern were worn by the Cossack regiments in summer. The shoulder straps and cap bands were in the Host colour as detailed below. From 1910 to 1918 a khaki-grey jacket was worn for field wear with the blue or green breeches and coloured stripes of the dress uniform.


While most Cossacks served as cavalry, there were infantry and artillery units in several of the hosts. Three regiments of Cossacks formed part of the Imperial Guard, as well as the Konvoi—the tsar's mounted escort. The Imperial Guard regiments wore tailored Government issue uniforms which were of spectacular and colourful appearance. As an example, the Konvoi wore scarlet cherkesskas, white beshmets and red crowns on their fleece hats.

Host Year est. Cherkesska or Tunic Beshmet Trousers Fleece Hat Shoulder Straps
Don Cossacks 1570 blue tunic none blue with red stripes red crown blue
Ural Cossacks 1571 blue tunic none blue with crimson stripes crimson crown crimson
Terek Cossacks 1577 grey-brown cherkesska light blue grey light blue crown light blue
Kuban Cossacks 1864 grey-brown cherkesska red grey red crown red
Orenburg Cossacks 1744 green tunic none green with light blue stripes light blue crown light blue
Astrakhan Cossacks 1750 blue tunic none blue with yellow stripes yellow crown yellow
Siberian Cossacks 1750s green tunic none green with red stripes red crown red
Baikal Cossacks 1851 green tunic none green with yellow stripes yellow crown yellow
Amur Cossacks 1858 green tunic none green with yellow stripes yellow crown green
Semiryechensk Cossacks 1867 green tunic none green with crimson stripes crimson crown crimson
Ussuri Cossacks 1889 green tunic none green with yellow stripes yellow crown yellow

*All details are based on the 1914 dress uniform. Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... The Ural Cossack Host was a cossack host formed from the Ural Cossacks -- those cossacks settled by the Ural River. ... Terek Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks resettled from Volga to Terek River. ... Russian Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские козаки, Kubanskie Kozaki) were cossacks that settled in the region around the Kuban River protected the southern borders of the Russian Empire. ... The Orenburg Cossack Host (Оренбургское казачье войско in Russian), a part of the Cossack population in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in the Orenburg province (todays Orenburg Oblast, part... Astrakhan Cossack Host (Астраханское казачье войско in Russian) was a Cossack host of Imperial Russia drawn from the Cossacks of the Lower Volga region, who had been patrolling... Siberian Cossacks were Cossacks who settled in the Siberian region of Russia. ... Baikal Cossacks were cossacks of the Transbaikal Cossack Host (Russian: Забайкальское казачье войско), a Cossack host formed in 1851 in the areas beyond Lake Baikal (hence, Transbaikal). ... The Amur Cossack Host (Амурское казачье войско in Russian), a Cossack host created in the Amur region and Primorye in the 1850s on the basis of the Cossacks relocated from the Transbaikal region and freed miners of Nerchinsk region. ... Semiryechensk Cossask Host (Семиреченское казачье войско in Russian; the correct name would be Semiryechye Cossack Host) was Cossack host in Imperial Russia, located in the Semiryechye Oblast... Ussuri Cossack Host (Russian: Уссури́йское каза́чье во́йско) was a Cossack Host in Imperial Russia, located in Primorye south of Khabarovsk along the Ussuri River, the Sungari River, and around the Khanka Lake. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cossacks

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The History of the Cossacks spans several centuries. ... Combatants Lienz Cossacks Allied Forces Strength >50,000 Casualties 45,000 - 50,000 repatriated The Betrayal of Cossacks refers to the forced transfer of Cossacks who fought against Allied forces in World War II to the Soviet Union after the war, including those who were never Soviet citizens (having left... Registered Cossacks (Polish: Kozacy rejestrowi) is the term used for Cossacks (mostly from the Zaporizhian Sich) who were part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth armies. ... Bulava-mace traditional symbol of the supreme power of Ukrainian Hetmans. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... KosiÅ„ski Uprising (1591 - 1593) is a name applied to two rebellions in Ukraine organised by Krzysztof KosiÅ„ski against the local Ruthenian nobility and magnates. ... Dmytro Yavornytsky , pen name in Russian Evarnitsky, (November, 6 1855- August, 5 1940) was a noted Ukrainian historian, archeologist, ethnographer, folklorist, and lexicographer. ... The term Cossack motorcycle can apply to any number of motorcycles, made in the former Soviet Union, a reference to the semi-nomadic mounted Cossacks who lived in Eastern Europe. ... The Persian Cossack Brigade was the imperial gaurd of the royal family of Persia (Iran). ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... The Wild Fields (Russian: Дикое Поле, Ukrainian: Дике Поле) is a term used in the documents of the 16th and 17th centuries to refer to the sparsely inhabited steppes between the Don River on the east, the Upper Principalities on the north, and the left tributaries of the Dnieper and Desna on the west. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Chevalier, Pierre (2001). Histoire de la guerre des cosaques contre la Pologne. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1-4212-3269-3. 
  2. ^ N/A (French). Izbornyk. Retrieved on September 25, 2006.
  3. ^ Resume (English). Izbornyk. Retrieved on September 25, 2006.
  4. ^ History of Charles XII (French). Memo. Retrieved on September 25, 2006.
  5. ^ "In 1651, in the face of a growing threat from Poland and forsaken by his Tatar allies, Khmelnytsky asked the tsar to incorporate Ukraine as an autonomous duchy under Russian protection... the details of the union were negotiated in Moscow. The Cossacks were granted a large degree of autonomy, and they, as well as other social groups in Ukraine, retained all the rights and privileges they had enjoyed under Polish rule. "Pereyaslav agreement". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2006). 
  6. ^ Dvornik, Francis (1992). The Slavs in European History and Civilization. Rutgers Univ Pr. ISBN 978-0813507996. 
  7. ^ Seaton, Albert (1972). The Cossacks. Random House. ISBN 978-0-85045-116-0. 
  8. ^ Kort, Michael (2001). The Soviet Colosus: History and Aftermath, p. 133. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0396-9.
  9. ^ Pavel Polyan - Forced migrations in USSR - Retrieved on 5 February 2007
  10. ^ www.napoleon-series.org/reviews/military/c_cossackhurrah.html Cossack Hurrah!. Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
  11. ^ "Сопредельные с ними (поселенцами - Ред.) по "Горькой линии" казаки ... поголовно обучались Киргизскому наречию и переняли некоторые, впрочем, безвредные привычки кочевого народа". Генерал-губернатор Казнаков в докладе Александру III, 1875. "Among - Edit. neighbouring (to settlers -Edit.) in Gor'kaya Liniya Cossacks ... everyone learnt Kyrgys language and adopted some, harmless though, habits of nomadic folks" quoted Report of Governor-General Kaznakov to Tzar Alexander III, 1875.
  12. ^ Богаевский А.П. Ледяной поход. Воспоминания 1918 г.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Figure of speech, see Ellipsis (figure of speech). ... For the Figure of speech, see Ellipsis (figure of speech). ...

Further reading

  • H. Havelock, The Cossacks in the Early Seventeenth Century, English Historical Review, Vol. 13, No. 50 (Apr., 1898), pp. 242-260, JSTOR

External links

  • Cossack Archery Discussion Forum
  • Cossackdom.com - history of Cossacks XV-XXI cent.
  • History of Cossacks
  • Cossack Navy 16th - 17th Centuries
  • Cossack raids
  • Cossack Stan (Russian)
  • Cossacks during the Napoleonic Wars
  • Zaporizhian Cossacks
  • History of Ukrainian Cossacks at Encyclopedia of Ukraine.com
  • Ukrainian Cossacks
  • Cossacks in Wehrmacht (German newsreel)

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