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Encyclopedia > Cosmopolitanism

Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. This is contrasted with communitarian theories, in particular the ideologies of patriotism and nationalism. Cosmopolitanism may or may not entail some sort of world government or it may simply refer to more inclusive moral, economic, and/or political relationships between nations or individuals of different nations[citation needed]. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolite. The Human Race could be: The Human race. ... A moral community is a group of people drawn together by a common interest in living according to a particular moral philosophy. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... World empire redirects here. ...


The word derives from Greek cosmos Κόσμος (the Universe) and polis Πόλις (city). The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ...

Contents

Cultural cosmopolitanism

Cultural cosmopolitanism pertains to wide international experience. It refers to a partiality for cultures besides one's own culture of origin, as with a traveler or globally conscious person. The term derives from Greek κόσμος (cosmos) meaning world + πολίτης (politēs) meaning citizen, and was widely used by ancient Stoic philosophers to describe a universal love of humankind as a whole, regardless of nation. The term may also be used as a synonym for 'worldly' or 'sophisticated'. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ...


Philosophical cosmopolitanism

Further information: Global justice, Moral universalism

Global justice is a concept in political philosophy denoting justice between societies or between individuals in different societies, as opposed to within a specific society. ... Moral universalism is a moral view, often related to humanist philosophy, which claims that the fundamental basis for a universalist ethic—universally applicable to all humanity—can be derived or inferred from what is common among existing moral codes. ...

Philosophical roots

Cosmopolitanism can be traced back to the founding father of the Cynic movement in Ancient Greece, Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412 B.C.). Of Diogenes (who was reportedly living in a barrel) it is said: “Asked where he came from, he answered: “I am a citizen of the world (kosmopolitês)". [1] Although today it has a snobby connotation in the sense of the well-to-do inhabitant of a large city where different cultures meet, this wasn’t what was originally intended. The Stoics, who later took Diogenes' idea and developed it into a full blown concept, typically stressed that each human being “dwells […] in two communities – the local community of our birth, and the community of human argument and aspiration”.[2] A common way to understand Stoic cosmopolitanism is through Hierocles' circle model of identity that states that we should regard ourselves as concentric circles, the first one around the self, next immediate family, extended family, local group, citizens, countrymen, humanity. The task of world citizens becomes then to “draw the circles somehow towards the centre, making all human beings more like our fellow city dwellers, and so forth.”[3] Kant seems to have adopted the Stoic ideas. In his 1795 essay “Perpetual Peace” he stages a ius cosmopoliticum (cosmopolitan law/right) as a guiding principle to protect people from war, and morally grounds this cosmopolitan right by the principle of universal hospitality. After the conception of the concept and its revival by Kant, a third cosmopolitan moment occurred after the Second World War. As a reaction to the Holocaust and the other massacres, the concept of crimes against humanity becomes a generally accepted category in international law. This clearly shows the appearance and acceptance of a notion of individual responsibility that is considered to be existing vis-à-vis all of humankind.[4] Diogenes (Greek: Diogenes o Sinopeus) the Cynic, Greek philosopher, was born in Sinope (modern day Sinop, Turkey) about 412 BC (according to other sources 399 BC), and died in 323 BC at Corinth. ... Hierocles, (Greek: ), a Stoic philosopher, who lived in the 2nd century AD. Nothing is known about his life. ...


Modern cosmopolitan thinkers

Philosophical cosmopolitans are moral universalists: they believe that all humans, and not merely compatriots or fellow-citizens, come under the same moral standards. The boundaries between nations, states, cultures or societies are therefore morally irrelevant. A widely cited example of a contemporary cosmopolitan is Kwame Anthony Appiah.[5] Moral universalism is a moral view, often related to humanist philosophy, which claims that the fundamental basis for a universalist ethic—universally applicable to all humanity—can be derived or inferred from what is common among existing moral codes. ... Kwame Anthony Appiah (1954-) is a philosopher whose interests include political and moral theory, the philosophy of language and mind, and African intellectual history. ...


The cosmopolitan writer Demetrius Klitou argues, in "The Friends and Foes of Human Rights", that cosmopolitanism is a necessary element in the human rights movement. Furthermore, Klitou argues that a cosmopolitan "human identity" is as necessary for the triumph of human rights, as a European identity is for a political European Union. He controversially argues that "This is a major dilemma for the European project. We have a European Union, but no Europeans or a European identity. The same is equally true for human rights. We have human rights, but no Humans or a human identity."


Some philosophers and scholars argue that the objective and subjective conditions arising in today's unique historical moment, an emerging planetary phase of civilization, creates a latent potential for the emergence of a cosmopolitan identity as global citizens and possible formation of a global citizens movement.[6] These emerging objective and subjective conditions in the planetary phase include everything from improved and affordable telecommunications, space travel and the first images of our fragile planet floating in the vastness of space, global warming and other ecological threats to our collective existence, new global institutions such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization, or International Criminal Court, the rise of transnational corporations and integration of markets often termed economic globalization, the emergence of global NGOs and transnational social movements, such as the World Social Forum and so on. Globalization, a more common term, typically refers more narrowly to the economic and trade relations and misses the broader cultural, social, political, environmental, demographic, values and knowledge transitions taking place. The Planetary Phase of Civilization is a concept defined by the Global scenario group (GSG), an environmental organization that specializes in scenario analysis and forecasting. ... The first people to identify themselves as world citizens were the Stoic philosophers (see Zeno of Citium). ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... ISS in earth orbit. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... UN redirects here. ... WTO redirects here. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Transnationalism is a social movement grown out of the heightened interconnectivity between people all around the world and the loosening of boundaries between countries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ...


Political and sociological cosmopolitanism

Ulrich Beck (b. May 15, 1944) is a sociologist who has posed the new concept of cosmopolitan critical theory in direct opposition to traditional nation-state politics. Nation-state theory sees power relations only between different state actors, and excludes a global economy, or subjugates it to the nation-state model. Cosmopolitanism sees global capital as a possible threat to the nation state and places it within a meta-power game in which global capital, states and civil society are its players. Ulrich Beck Dr. Ulrich Beck (b. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


It is important to mark a distinction between Beck's cosmopolitanism and the idea of a world state. For Beck, imposing a single world order is considered hegemonic at best and ethnocentric at worst. Rather, political and sociological cosmopolitanism rests upon these fundamental foundations: Look up hegemony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ...

  • "Acknowledging the otherness of those who are culturally different"
  • "Acknowledging the otherness of the future"
  • "Acknowledging the otherness of nature"
  • "Acknowledging the otherness of the object"
  • "Acknowledging the otherness of other rationalities"

Cosmopolitanism shares some aspects of universalism – namely the globally acceptable notion of human dignity that must be protected and enshrined in international law. However, the theory deviates in recognising the differences between world cultures. Thus, a "cosmopolitan declaration of human rights" would be defined in terms of negatives that no one could disagree over. In addition, cosmopolitanism calls for equal protection of the environment and against the negative side effects of technological development. Moral universalism is a moral view, often related to humanist philosophy, which claims that the fundamental basis for a universalist ethic—universally applicable to all humanity—can be derived or inferred from what is common among existing moral codes. ...


According to those who follow Beck's reasoning, a cosmopolitan world would consist of a plurality of states, which would use global and regional consensus to gain greater bargaining power against opponents. States would also utilise the power of civil society actors such as Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and consumers to strengthen their legitimacy and enlist the help of investors to pursue a cosmopolitan agenda. Some examples: The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

  • States hand over the global monitoring of human rights and environmental issues to NGOs like Amnesty International and Greenpeace who enjoy a high level of legitimacy in the public sphere.
  • States support NGOs to persuade consumers to "divest" from products that break cosmopolitan human and environmental codes.

Other authors imagine a cosmopolitan world moving beyond today's conception of nation-states. These scholars argue that a truly cosmopolitan identity of Global Citizen will take hold, diminishing the importance of national identities. The formation of a global citizens movement would lead to the establishment of democratic global institutions, creating the space for global political discourse and decisions, would in turn reinforce the notion of citizenship at a global level. Nested structures of governance balancing the principles of irreducibility (i.e., the notion that certain problems can only be addressed at the global level, such as Global Warming) and subsidiarity (i.e., the notion that decisions should be made at as local a level possible) would thus form the basis for a cosmopolitan political order.[7] NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The first people to identify themselves as world citizens were the Stoic philosophers (see Zeno of Citium). ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Subsidiarity is the principle which states that matters ought to be handled by the smallest (or, the lowest) competent authority. ...


Institutional cosmopolitanism advocates some reforms in global governance to allow world citizens to take more directly a part into political life. A number of proposals have been made in order to make this possible. Cosmopolitan democracy, for example, suggests strengthening the United Nations and other international organizations by creating a World Parliamentary Assembly. .[8]


Notes

  1. ^ Diogenes Laertius, "The Lives of Eminent Philosophers"
  2. ^ Nussbaum, Martha C. (1997). Kant and Stoic Cosmopolitanism, in The Journal of Political Philosophy, Volume 5, Nr 1, pp. 1-25
  3. ^ Ibid: p. 9
  4. ^ Beck, Ulrich (2006). The Cosmopolitan Vision, Cambridge: Polity Press, p. 45
  5. ^ Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2006), Cosmopolitanism. Ethics in a World of Strangers, London: Penguin Books
  6. ^ GTI Paper Series see Dawn of the Cosmopolitan: The Hope of a Global Citizens Movement, paper #15, and Global Politics and Institutions, paper #3
  7. ^ GTI Paper Series see Global Politics and Institutions, paper #3
  8. ^ Daniele Archibugi, editor, Debating Cosmopolitics, London: Verso, 2003.

Global politics is the discipline that studies the political and economical patterns of the world. ... Global politics is the discipline that studies the political and economical patterns of the world. ...

See also

Anti-nationalism is the idea that nationalism is undesirable or even dangerous in one form or another, and sometimes, though less often, the idea that all nationalism is dangerous and unfavourable in all cases. ... cross-cultural may refer to cross-cultural studies, a comparative tendency in various fields of cultural analysis any of various forms of interactivity between members of disparate cultural groups (see also cross-cultural communication, interculturalism, intercultural relations, hybridity, cosmopolitanism, transculturation) the discourse concerning cultural interactivity, sometimes referred to as cross... Democratic globalization or mundialization is a movement towards an institutional system of global democracy that would give world citizens a say in world organizations. ... Diogenes (Greek: Diogenes o Sinopeus) the Cynic, Greek philosopher, was born in Sinope (modern day Sinop, Turkey) about 412 BC (according to other sources 399 BC), and died in 323 BC at Corinth. ... Global justice is a concept in political philosophy denoting justice between societies or between individuals in different societies, as opposed to within a specific society. ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... Interculturalism is the philosophy of exchanges between cultural groups within a society. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Rootless cosmopolitan (Russian language: безродный космополит, bezrodniy kosmopolit) was a Soviet euphemism during Joseph Stalins campaign of 1949–1953, which culminated in the exposure of the alleged Doctors plot. ... Transnationalism is a social movement grown out of the heightened interconnectivity between people all around the world and the loosening of boundaries between countries. ... A design for a World Citizen flag World Citizen badge World citizen is a term with a variety of meanings, often referring to a person who disapproves of traditional geopolitical divisions derived from national citizenship and approves world government and democracy. ...

External links

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ...

Resources

  • Amanda Anderson. 1998. Cosmopolitanism, Universalism, and the Divided Legacies of Modernity. In Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation, edited by P. Cheah and B. Robbins. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Ankerl, Guy [2000]. Global communication without universal civilization, INU societal research Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 
  • Daniele Archibugi and David Held. editors, 1995. Cosmopolitan Democracy. An Agenda for a New World Order. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Kwame Anthony Appiah, 2006. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of strangers. New York: W. W. Norton and Co.
  • Luke Martell. 2008. Beck's Cosmopolitan Politics Contemporary Politics 2008.
  • Bruce Robbins. 1998. Comparative Cosmopolitanisms. In Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation, edited by P. Cheah and B. Robbins. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.
  • 2005. The Political Philosophy of Cosmopolitanism, edited by Gillian Brock and Harry Brighouse. Cambridge University Press.
  • 2005. Power in the Global Age, by Ulrich Beck. London: Polity Press
  • Kleingeld, Pauline, Brown, Eric, "Cosmopolitanism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2002 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2002/entries/cosmopolitanism/>.
  • ref 1: GTI Paper Series see Dawn of the Cosmopolitan: The Hope of a Global Citizens Movement, paper #15, and Global Politics and Institutions, paper #3
This article refers to two prominent Americans sharing the name Amanda Anderson. ... David Held (born 1951) is a British political theorist and a prominent figure within the field of international relations. ... Kwame Anthony Appiah (1954-) is a philosopher whose interests include political and moral theory, the philosophy of language and mind, and African intellectual history. ... Global politics is the discipline that studies the political and economical patterns of the world. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cosmopolitan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (288 words)
Cosmopolitan identity would, as all other identities, be contextual and situated.
This might mean that while feeling quite cosmopolitan in a situation, a person could act, for example, as a nationalist in a different context.
The cosmopolitan view is the core of Cosmopolitanism, a socio-political stance or movement which sees all persons in all nations as members of a single global community -- in contrast with nationalism.
SEP: Cosmopolitanism (7347 words)
Cosmopolitan duty is not restricted to duties of beneficence and also requires justice and respect, and cosmopolitan morality has often been invoked as a motivation to oppose slavery and apartheid, and to defend the emancipation of women, or, in the utilitarian tradition, to demand better treatment of animals.
Cosmopolitanism can acknowledge the importance of (at least some kinds of) cultural attachments for the good human life (at least within certain limits), while denying that this implies that a person's cultural identity should be defined by any bounded or homogeneous subset of the cultural resources available in the world (e.g., Waldron).
In fact, some cosmopolitans have adopted a developmental psychology according to which patriotism is a step on the way to cosmopolitanism: as human individuals mature they develop ever wider loyalties and allegiances, starting with attachments to their caregivers and ending with allegiance to humanity at large.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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