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Encyclopedia > Cosmology

Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογος (logos) word, reason, plan) is the quantitative (usually mathematical) study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanity's place in it. Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff's Cosmologia Generalis), study of the Universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, and religion. The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf; also known as Wolfius) (January 24, 1679 - April 9, 1754) was a German philosopher. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Disciplines

In recent times, physics and astrophysics have come to play a central role in shaping what is now known as physical cosmology by bringing observations and mathematical tools to analyze the universe as a whole: in other words, in the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. This discipline, which focuses on the universe as it exists on the largest scale and at the earliest moments, is generally understood to begin with the big bang (possibly combined with cosmic inflation) - an expansion of space from which the Universe itself is thought to have emerged ~13.7±0.2×109 ( 13.7 billion) years ago[1] . From its violent beginnings and until its various speculative ends, cosmologists propose that the history of the Universe has been governed entirely by physical laws. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... This article is about the physics subject. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation is the idea that the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion that was driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density. ... This box:      The metric expansion of space is a key part of sciences current understanding of the universe, whereby spacetime itself is described by a metric which changes over time in such a way that the spatial dimensions grow or stretch as the universe gets older. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Many religions have postulated an end to the Universe. ... A physical law or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations. ...


Between the domains of religion and science, stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw intuitive conclusions about the nature of the universe, man, god and/or their relationships based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from spiritual experience and/or observation. Religious and scientific modes of knowledge Generally speaking, religion and science use different methods in their effort to ascertain Truth. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Cosmology is the branch of philosophy and metaphysics that deals with the world as the totality of all phenomena in space and time. ... Intuition has many meanings across many cultures, including: quick and ready insight seemingly independent of previous experiences and empirical knowledge immediate apprehension or cognition knowledge or conviction gained by intuition the power or faculty of attaining to direct knowledge or cognition without evident rational thought and inference. ...


But metaphysical cosmology has also been observed as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is demonstrated by the observation made by Marcus Aurelius of a man's place in that relationship: " “He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, and he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is.” This is the purpose of the ancient metaphysical cosmology. However, Stoicism rejected Aristotle's theory of universals as being "in the things themselves," calling them "figments of the mind." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy[2] adopting the concept of universals as being "concepts," and therefore of the mind, and therefore controllable by free will. Thus, we get the analysis of Aurelius' that the nature of the universe is not from "intuition," but from a free-will, conceptual understanding of the nature of the universe. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ...


Cosmology is often an important aspect of the creation myths of religions that seek to explain the existence and nature of reality. In some cases, views about the creation (cosmogony) and destruction (eschatology) of the universe play a central role in shaping a framework of religious cosmology for understanding humanity's role in the universe. A creation myth is a supernatural mytho-religious story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony),[1] usually as a deliberate act of creation by a supreme being. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... Religious cosmologies are ways of explaining the history and evolution of the universe based, at least in part, on the acceptance of principles that cannot be justified by accepted scientific arguments (those are otherwise generally considered via physical cosmology). ...


A more contemporary distinction between religion and philosophy, esoteric cosmology is distinguished from religion in its less tradition-bound construction and reliance on modern "intellectual understanding" rather than faith, and from philosophy in its emphasis on spirituality as a formative concept. Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ...


There are many historical cosmologies:

“…the universe itself acts on us as a random, inefficient, and yet in the long run effective, teaching machine. …our way of looking at the universe has gradually evolved through a natural selection of ideas.” —Steven Weinberg [3] For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American physicist. ...

Historical Cosmologies

Main article: Timeline of cosmology

The following table outlines the significant historical cosmologies in chronological order. This lists a timeline of cosmological theories and discoveries. ...


Historical descriptions of the cosmos

NAME Author & Date Classification REMARKS
Brahmanda Ancient Hindu Rig-Veda treatise on cosmology Cyclical or oscillating. Infinite in time. The universe is a cosmic egg that cycles between expansion and total collapse. It expanded from a concentrated form —a point called a Bindu. The universe, as a living entity, is bound to the perpetual cycle of birth, death, and rebirth
Atomist universe Anaxagoras (500-428 B.C.) & later Epicurus Infinite in extent The universe contains only two things: an infinite number of tiny seeds, or atoms, and the void of infinite extent. All atoms are made of the same substance, but differ in size and shape. Objects are formed from atom aggregations and decay back into atoms. Incorporates Leucippus’ principle of causality: ”nothing happens at random; everything happens out of reason and necessity.” The universe was not ruled by gods.
Stoic universe Stoics 3rd & 4th c. B.C. Island universe The cosmos is finite and surrounded by an infinite void. It is in a state of flux, as it pulsates in size and periodically passes through upheavals and conflagrations.
Aristotelian universe Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Geocentric, static, steady state, finite Spherical earth is surrounded by concentric celestial spheres. Universe exists unchanged throughout eternity. Contains a 5th element called aether (later known as quintessence).
Aristarchean universe Aristarchus of Samos (circa 280 B.C.) Heliocentric Earth rotates daily on its axis and revolves annually about the sun in a circular orbit. Sphere of fixed stars is centered about the sun.
Ptolemaic model (based on the Aristotelian universe) Claudius Ptolemaeus

(2nd century A.D.) Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text , is considered the last of the Puranas, and it once contained Aadhyatma Ramayana. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bindu is an Indian concept that signifies action (as in worship or prayer) - a concept that can take the meaning of a single dot. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: discussions of existence of atoms among prominent physicists up to the end of 19th century. ... Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (Greek: Αναξαγόρας, c. ... Epicure redirects here. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Look up void in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Gods can refer to: Plurality of Gods (see polytheism); Postulated preternatural beings (see deity); The upper levels of a theatre (see the gods); A 1991 video game (see Gods (video game)); A sixties rock band (see The Gods (band)). An internet term, common among usenet veterans, for those who engage... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... This article is about a celestial body. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = earth and centron = centre) of the universe is a paradigm which places the Earth at its center. ... The celestial sphere is divided by the celestial equator. ... Look up aether, ether in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Statue of Aristarchus at Aristoteles University in Thessaloniki, Greece Aristarchus (310 BC - circa 230 BC) was a Greek astronomer and mathematician, born in Samos, Greece. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... This article is about the historical term. ... This article is about the geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. ...

Geocentric Universe orbits about a stationary Earth. Planets move in circular epicycles, each having a center that moved in a larger circular orbit (called an eccentric or a deferent) around a center-point near the Earth. The use of equants added another level of complexity and allowed astronomers to predict the positions of the planets. The most successful universe model of all time, using the criterion of longevity. Almagest (the Great System).
Copernican universe Nicolaus Copernicus 1543 Heliocentric The ancient Aristarchean universe rediscovered.

Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. In the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the epicycle (literally: on the cycle in Greek) was a geometric model to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets. ... Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic name (al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i. ... In cosmology, the Copernican principle, named after Nicolaus Copernicus, states [1] More recently, the principle is generalised to the relativistic concept that humans are not privileged observers of the universe. ... Copernicus redirects here. ...

Static Newtonian Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. Matter on the large scale is uniformly distributed. Gravitationally balanced but UNSTABLE.
Cartesian Vortex universe René Descartes

17th century Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Basic description The theory of a static universe is the rival theory to an expanding universe and all of its subvarieties. ... Descartes redirects here. ...

Static (evolving), steady state, infinite A system of huge swirling whirlpools of aethereal or fine matter produces what we would call gravitational effects. His vacuum was not empty. All space was filled with matter that swirled around in large and small vortices.
Hierarchical universe Immanuel Kant, Johann Lambert 1700s Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Matter is clustered on ever larger scales of hierarchy. Matter is endlessly being recycled.
Einstein Universe with a cosmological constant Albert Einstein 1917 Static (nominally). Bounded (finite) “Matter without motion.” Contains uniformly distributed matter. Uniformly curved spherical space; based on Riemann’s hypersphere. Curvature is set equal to Λ. In effect Λ is equivalent to a repulsive force which counteracts gravity. UNSTABLE.
De Sitter universe Willem de Sitter 1917 Expanding flat space.

Steady state. Λ > 0 Kant redirects here. ... Basic description The theory of a static universe is the rival theory to an expanding universe and all of its subvarieties. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... A de Sitter universe is a solution to Einsteins field equations of General Relativity which is named after Willem de Sitter. ... Willem de Sitter (May 6, 1872 – November 20, 1934) was a mathematician, physicist and astronomer. ... This box:      The metric expansion of space is a key part of sciences current understanding of the universe, whereby spacetime itself is described by a metric which changes over time in such a way that the spatial dimensions grow or stretch as the universe gets older. ... The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ...

“Motion without matter.” Only apparently static. Based on Einstein’s General Relativity. Space expands with constant acceleration. Scale factor (radius of universe) increases exponentially, i.e. constant inflation.
MacMillan William MacMillan 1920s Static &

steady state For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... The accelerating universe is the observation that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerated rate. ... The scale factor, parameter of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model, is a function of time which represents the relative expansion of the universe. ...

New matter is created from radiation. Starlight is perpetually recycled into new matter particles.
Friedmann universe of spherical space Alexander Friedmann 1922 Spherical expanding space.

k= +1 ; no Λ For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... The Friedmann equations relate various cosmological parameters within the context of general relativity. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman (June 16, 1888 – September 16, Russian cosmologist and mathematician. ...

Positive curvature. Curvature constant k = +1

Expands then recollapses. Spatially closed (finite). This box:      The metric expansion of space is a key part of sciences current understanding of the universe, whereby spacetime itself is described by a metric which changes over time in such a way that the spatial dimensions grow or stretch as the universe gets older. ... This article is about the cosmological theory. ... The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ...

Friedmann universe of hyperbolic space Alexander Friedmann 1924 Hyperbolic expanding space.

k= -1 ; no Λ The Friedmann equations relate various cosmological parameters within the context of general relativity. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman (June 16, 1888 – September 16, Russian cosmologist and mathematician. ...

Negative curvature. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). Unbounded. Expands forever.
Dirac large numbers hypothesis Paul Dirac 1930s Expanding Demands a large variation in G, which decreases with time. Gravity weakens as universe evolves.
Friedmann zero-curvature, aka the Einstein-DeSitter universe Einstein & DeSitter 1932 Expanding flat space.

k= 0 ; Λ = 0 Critical density The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ... The Dirac large numbers hypothesis refers to an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the universe to that of force scales. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ...

Curvature constant k = 0. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). ‘Unbounded cosmos of limited extent.’ Expands forever. ‘Simplest’ of all known universes. Named after but not considered by Friedmann. Has a deceleration term q =½ which means that its expansion rate slows down.
Georges Lemaître

the original Big Bang. aka Friedmann-Lemaître Model The deceleration parameter in cosmology is a dimensionless measure of the cosmic acceleration of the expansion of the universe. ... Monsignor Georges Lemaître, priest and scientist. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ...

Georges Lemaître 1927-29 Expansion

Λ > 0 Λ > |Gravity| Monsignor Georges Lemaître, priest and scientist. ...

Λ is positive and has a magnitude greater than Gravity. Universe has initial high density state (‘primeval atom’). Followed by a two stage expansion. Λ is used to destabilize the universe. (Lemaître is considered to be the father of the big bang model.)
Oscillating universe

(aka Friedmann-Einstein; was latter’s 1st choice after rejecting his own 1917 model) The Oscillatory Universe is the hypothesis, due to Richard Tolman, that the universe undergoes an infinite series of oscillations, each beginning with a big bang and ending with a big crunch. ...

Favored by Friedmann

1920s

Expanding and contracting in cycles Time is endless and beginningless; thus avoids the beginning-of-time paradox. Perpetual cycles of big bang followed by big crunch.
Eddington Arthur Eddington 1930 first Static

then Expands One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ...

Static Einstein 1917 universe with its instability disturbed into expansion mode; with relentless matter dilution becomes a DeSitter universe. Λ dominates gravity.
Milne universe of kinematic relativity Edward Milne, 1933, 1935;

William H. McCrea, 1930s Edward Arthur Milne (February 14, 1896 – September 21, 1950) was a British mathematician and astrophysicist. ... Sir William Hunter McCrea (13 December 1904 – April 25, 1999) was an astronomer and mathematician. ...

Kinematic expansion with NO space expansion Rejects general relativity and the expanding space paradigm. Gravity not included as initial assumption. Obeys cosmological principle & rules of special relativity. The Milne expanding universe consists of a finite spherical cloud of particles (or galaxies) that expands WITHIN flat space which is infinite and otherwise empty. It has a center and a cosmic edge (the surface of the particle cloud) which expands at light speed. His explanation of gravity was elaborate and unconvincing. For instance, his universe has an infinite number of particles, hence infinite mass, within a finite cosmic volume.
Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker class of models Howard Robertson, Arthur Walker, 1935 Uniformly expanding Class of universes that are homogenous and isotropic. Spacetime separates into uniformly curved space and cosmic time common to all comoving observers. The formulation system is now known as the FLRW or Robertson-Walker metrics of cosmic time and curved space.
Steady-state expanding (Bondi & Gold) Herman Bondi, Thomas Gold 1948 Expanding, steady state, infinite Matter creation rate maintains constant density. Continuous creation out of nothing from nowhere. Exponential expansion. Deceleration term q = -1.
Steady-state expanding (Hoyle) Fred Hoyle 1948 Expanding, steady state; but unstable Matter creation rate maintains constant density. But since matter creation rate must be exactly balanced with the space expansion rate the system is unstable.
Ambiplasma Hannes Alfvén 1965 Oskar Klein Cellular universe, expanding by means of matter-antimatter annihilation Based on the concept of plasma cosmology. The universe is viewed as meta-galaxies divided by double layers —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic matter-antimatter annihilations keep the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting.
Brans-Dicke Carl H. Brans; Robert H. Dicke Expanding Based on Mach’s principle. G varies with time as universe expands. “But nobody is quite sure what Mach’s principle actually means.”
Cosmic inflation Alan Guth 1980 Big Bang with modification to solve horizon problem and flatness problem. Based on the concept of hot inflation. The universe is viewed as a multiple quantum flux —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic expansion kept the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting.
Eternal Inflation (a multiple universe model) Andreï Linde 1983 Big Bang with cosmic inflation A multiverse, based on the concept of cold inflation, in which inflationary events occur at random each with independent initial conditions; some expand into bubble universes supposedly like our entire cosmos. Bubbles nucleate in a spacetime foam.
Cyclic model Paul Steinhardt; Neil Turok 2002 Expanding and contracting in cycles; M theory. Two parallel orbifold planes or M-branes collide periodically in a higher dimensional space. With quintessence or dark energy

Table Notes: the term “static” simply means not expanding and not contracting. Symbol G represents Newton’s gravitational constant; Λ (Lambda) is the cosmological constant. For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... The Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric describes a homogeneous, isotropic expanding/contracting universe. ... Howard Percy Robertson (January 27, 1903 – August 26, 1961) was an American mathematician and physicist known for contributions related to physical cosmology and the uncertainty principle. ... In cosmology, the steady state theory (also known as the Infinite Universe Theory or continuous creation) is a model developed in 1948 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, Hermann Bondi and others as an alternative to the Big Bang theory (known, usually, as the standard cosmological model). ... Professor Sir Hermann Bondi, KCB , FRS (1 November 1919–10 September 2005) was a Anglo-Austrian mathematician and cosmologist. ... This article is about Thomas Gold, an Austrian astrophysicist. ... Sir Frederick Hoyle, FRS, (born on June 24, 1915 in Gilstead, Yorkshire, England – August 20, 2001 in Bournemouth, England)[1] was a British astronomer, he was educated at Bingley Grammar School and notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of... In the history of cosmology an ambiplasma is a hypothetical plasma containing a mixture of both matter and antimatter. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908-1995) at the 1970 Nobel Prize ceremonies Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (May 30, 1908; Norrköping, Sweden – April 2, 1995; Djursholm, Sweden) was a Swedish plasma physicist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his work on the theory of magnetohydrodynamics. ... Oskar Klein (September 15, 1894 - February 5, 1977) was a Swedish theoretical physicist. ... Hannes Alfvén suggested that, by scaling laboratory results by a factor of 109, he could extrapolate magnetospheric conditions. ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Annihilation (disambiguation). ... Brans-Dicke theory is an extension to Einsteins theory of general relativity. ... In theoretical physics, particularly in discussions of gravitation theories, Machs principle is the name given by Einstein to a vague hypothesis first supported by the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. ... In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation is the idea that the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion that was driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density. ... Alan Harvey Guth (born February 27, 1947) is a physicist and cosmologist. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The flatness problem is a cosmological problem with the Big Bang theory, which is solved by hypothesising an inflationary universe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Andrei Linde is an American physicist and professor of Physics at Californias Stanford University. ... In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation is the idea that the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion that was driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density. ... For other uses, see Multiverse (disambiguation). ... The cyclic model is a brane cosmology model of the creation of the universe, derived from the earlier ekpyrotic model. ... Paul J. Steinhardt is the Albert Einstein Professor of Science at Princeton University and a professor of theoretical physics. ... For the comic book character see Turok; for the video game series see Turok video games. ... This box:      For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to M-theory. ... In topology and group theory, an orbifold (for orbit-manifold) is a generalization of a manifold. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In physics, quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy postulated as an explanation of observations of an accelerating universe. ... In physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. ... The gravitational constant G is a key element in Newtons law of universal gravitation. ... In physical cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification of his original theory of general relativity to achieve a stationary universe. ...


Physical cosmology

Main article: Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins of the Universe and the nature of the Universe on its very largest scales. In its earliest form it was what is now known as celestial mechanics, the study of the heavens. The Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. In particular, the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory to explain the motion of the heavens until Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system in the 16th century. This is known as one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology. This article is about the physics subject. ... Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. ... The celestial sphere is divided by the celestial equator. ... For other uses of this name, including the grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace, see Aristarchus Statue of Aristarchus at Aristotle University in Thessalonica, Greece Aristarchus (Greek: Ἀρίσταρχος; 310 BC - ca. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = earth and centron = centre) of the universe is a paradigm which places the Earth at its center. ... Mediaeval drawing of the Ptolemaic system. ... Copernicus redirects here. ... Kepler redirects here. ... Galileo redirects here. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Article to come soon, with notable examples through science history and articulations made up by Gaston Bachelard. ...


With Isaac Newton and the 1687 publication of Principia Mathematica, the problem of the motion of the heavens was finally solved. Newton provided a physical mechanism for Kepler's laws and his law of universal gravitation allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton's cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies. This was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology. Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Johannes Keplers primary contributions to astronomy/ astrophysics were the three laws of planetary motion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gravity. ... Anomalies is Cephalic Carnages 3rd full-length album released on Relapse Records, and their most current album to date. ... In cosmology, the Copernican principle, named after Nicolaus Copernicus, states [1] More recently, the principle is generalised to the relativistic concept that humans are not privileged observers of the universe. ... For a list of set rules, see Laws of science. ...


Modern scientific cosmology is usually considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein's publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper "Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity," (although this paper was not widely available outside of Germany until the end of World War I). General relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild and Arthur Eddington to explore the astronomical consequences of the theory, which enhanced the growing ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Prior to this (and for some time afterwards), physicists assumed that the Universe was static and unchanging. In parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, a debate was unfolding regarding the nature of the cosmos itself. On the one hand, Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of a cosmos made up of the Milky Way star system only. Heber D. Curtis, on the other hand, suggested spiral nebulae were star systems in their own right, island universes. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate at the meeting of the (US) National Academy of Sciences in Washington on 26 April 1920. The resolution of the debate on the structure of the cosmos came with the detection of novae in the Andromeda galaxy by Edwin Hubble in 1923 and 1924. Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the edge of the Milky Way and as galaxies of their own. Subsequent modeling of the universe explored the possibility that the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein in his 1917 paper may result in an expanding universe, depending on its value. Thus the big bang theory was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 which was subsequently corroborated by Edwin Hubble's discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964. These findings were a first step to rule out some of many alternative physical cosmologies. “Einstein” redirects here. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Willem de Sitter (May 6, 1872 – November 20, 1934) was a mathematician, physicist and astronomer. ... Karl Schwarzschild (October 9, 1873 - May 11, 1916) was a noted German Jewish physicist and astronomer, father of astrophysicist Martin Schwarzschild. ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ... Heber Doust Curtis (June 27, 1872 – January 9, 1942) was an American astronomer. ... The Andromeda Galaxy The Great Debate was an influential debate between the astronomers Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis which concerned the nature of spiral nebulae and the size of the universe. ... The Andromeda Galaxy (IPA: , also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224; often referred to as the Great Andromeda Nebula in older texts) is a spiral galaxy approximately 2. ... Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. ... In physical cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification of his original theory of general relativity to achieve a stationary universe. ... Accelerating universe is a term for the idea that our universe is undergoing divergent rapid expansion. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... Monsignor Georges Lemaître, priest and scientist. ... Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. ... This article is about the physical phenomenon. ... CMB redirects here. ... Arno Allan Penzias (born April 26, American physicist. ... Robert Woodrow Wilson Robert Woodrow Wilson (born January 10, 1936) is an American physicist. ... A non-standard cosmology is any cosmological framework that has been, or still is, proposed as an alternative to the big bang model of physical cosmology. ...


Recent observations made by the COBE and WMAP satellites observing this background radiation have effectively, in many scientists' eyes, transformed cosmology from a highly speculative science into a predictive science, as these observations matched predictions made by a theory called Cosmic inflation, which is a modification of the standard big bang theory. This has led many to refer to modern times as the "Golden age of cosmology". [4] The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), also referred to as Explorer 66, was the first satellite built dedicated to cosmology. ... Artist depiction of the WMAP satellite at the L2 point The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a NASA satellite whose mission is to survey the sky to measure the temperature of the radiant heat left over from the Big Bang. ... In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation is the idea that the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion that was driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ...


Metaphysical cosmology

Hand-coloured version of the anonymous wood engraving known as the Flammarion woodcut(1888).
Hand-coloured version of the anonymous wood engraving known as the Flammarion woodcut(1888).

In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as: Image File history File linksMetadata Universum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Universum. ... Hand-colouring refers to any of a number of methods of manually adding colour to a black-and-white photograph or other image to heighten its realism. ... Image and text from page 163 of Latmosphère: météorologie populaire, by Camille Flammarion, 1888. ... Cosmology is the branch of philosophy and metaphysics that deals with the world as the totality of all phenomena in space and time. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ...

For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Emanationism is a component in the cosmology or cosmogony of certain religious or philosophical systems that argue that a sentient, self-aware Supreme Being, born from an unmanifested The Absolute (Root of Existence) beyond comprehension, emanated lower and lower spiritual modalities and lastly matter (the physical universe) as the resultant... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... In philosophy, mechanism is a theory that all natural phenomena can be explained by physical causes. ... Dynamism is a term coined by libertarian pundit Virginia Postrel to describe her social philosophy that embraces cultural change, individual choice, and the open society. ... Hylomorphism (Greek υλο- hylo-, wood, matter + -morphism < Greek -μορφη, morph, form) is a philosophical concept that highlights the significance of matter in the composition of being, regarding matter to be as essential to a being as its form. ... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: discussions of existence of atoms among prominent physicists up to the end of 19th century. ... Teleology (Greek: telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. ...

Religious cosmology

Large scale structure of the Universe according to one Hindu cosmology.
Large scale structure of the Universe according to one Hindu cosmology.
Main article: Religious cosmology

Many world religions have creation myths that explain the beginnings of the Universe and life. Often these are derived from scriptural teachings and held to be part of the faith's dogma, but in some cases these are also extended through the use of philosophical and metaphysical arguments. Image File history File links Hinducosm_Map1. ... Image File history File links Hinducosm_Map1. ... // an egg broke and out came the planets thanks to gods pet hen The Rig Veda describes the origin of the universe as: Then was not non-existence nor existence: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it. ... Religious cosmologies are ways of explaining the history and evolution of the universe based, at least in part, on the acceptance of principles that cannot be justified by accepted scientific arguments (those are otherwise generally considered via physical cosmology). ... A creation myth is a supernatural mytho-religious story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony),[1] usually as a deliberate act of creation by a supreme being. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ...


In some creation myths, the universe was created by a direct act of a god or gods who are also responsible for the creation of humanity (see creationism). In many cases, religious cosmologies also foretell the end of the Universe, either through another divine act or as part of the original design. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... The Human Race could be: The Human race. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ...

  • Both Christianity and Judaism rely on the Genesis narrative as a scriptural account of cosmology. See also Biblical cosmology and Tzimtzum.
  • Islam relies on understanding from the Qur'an as its major source for explaining cosmology. See Islamic cosmology. Also see The Quran and Cosmology
  • Certain adherents of Buddhism, Hinduism (See also Hindu cosmology) and Jainism believe that the Universe passes through endless cycles of creation and destruction, each cycle lasting for trillions of years (e.g. 331 trillion years, or the life-span of Brahma, according to Hinduism), and each cycle with sub-cycles of local creation and destruction (e.g. 4.32 billion years, or a day of Brahma, according to Hinduism). The Vedic (Hindu) view of the world sees one true divine principle self-projecting as the divine word, 'birthing' the cosmos that we know from the monistic Hiranyagarbha or Golden Womb.
  • A complex mixture of native Vedic gods, spirits, and demons, overlaid with imported Hindu and Buddhist deities, beliefs, and practices are the key to the Sri Lankan cosmology.
  • The Australian Aboriginal concept of Dreaming explains the creation of the universe as an eternal continuum; everywhen. Through certain ceremonies, the past "opens up" and comes into the present. Each topographical feature is a manifestation of dormant creation spirits; each individual has personal Dreamings and ceremonial responsibilities to look after the spirits/land, determined at birth, within this belief framework.

Many religions accept the findings of physical cosmology, in particular the big bang, and some, such as the Roman Catholic Church, have embraced it as suggesting a philosophical first cause. Others have tried to use the methodology of science to advocate for their own religious cosmology, as in intelligent design or creationist cosmologies. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the biblical text. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... It has been suggested that Biblical astronomy be merged into this article or section. ... In Jewish Mysticism, Tzimtzum (צמצום Hebrew: contraction or constriction) refers to the notion in the Kabbalistic theory of creation that God contracted his infinite essence in order to allow for a conceptual space in which a finite, independent world could exist. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Islamic cosmology is mainly derived from the Quran as well as other pre-Islamic sources. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... // an egg broke and out came the planets thanks to gods pet hen The Rig Veda describes the origin of the universe as: Then was not non-existence nor existence: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Veda redirects here. ... Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ... Dreaming is a common term among Indigenous Australians for a personal, or group, creation story and for the mythological time of creation, as well as for the places where the creation spirits now lie dormant in the land. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ... Creationist cosmologies are pseudoscientific arguments by various creationists that a significant portion of the observable universe is a few thousands of years old, and as such, run contrary to the Big Bang Theory, which states that all of the universe is billions of years old. ...


Esoteric cosmology

Main article: Esoteric cosmology

Many esoteric and occult teachings involve highly elaborate cosmologies. These constitute a "map" of the Universe and of states of existences and consciousness according to the worldview of that particular doctrine. Such cosmologies cover many of the same concerns also addressed by religious and philosophical cosmology, such as the origin, purpose, and destiny of the Universe and of consciousness and the nature of existence. For this reason it is difficult to distinguish where religion or philosophy end and esotericism and/or occultism begins. Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought. ... Esoteric knowledge is knowledge that is secret or not generally known. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... This article is about the radio show. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ...


Common themes addressed in esoteric cosmology are emanation, involution, evolution, epigenesis, planes of existence, hierarchies of spiritual beings, cosmic cycles (e.g., cosmic year, Yuga), yogic or spiritual disciplines, and references to altered states of consciousness. Examples of esoteric cosmologies can be found in modern Theosophy, Gnosticism, Tantra (especially Kashmir Shaivism), Kabbalah, or Sufism. Emanationism is a component in the cosmology of certain religious or philosophical belief systems that claim that the supreme god did not create the physical universe, but instead emanated lower spiritual beings who consequently carried out the actual work. ... The term involution refers to different things depending on the writer. ... ... Epigenesis is the philosophical/theological/esoteric idea that since the mind was given to the human being, it is this original creative impulse, epigenesis, which has been the cause of all our development. ... In metaphysics and esoteric cosmology, a plane of existence (sometimes called simply a plane, dimension, vibrating plane, or an inner, invisible, spiritual, supraphysical world, or egg) is conceived as a subtle region of space (and/or consciousness) beyond, but permeating, the known physical universe (or a portion of the physical... This list of deities aims to give information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... According to Jeung San Do, the universe generates and cultivates life through a cyclic process of birth, growth, harvest, and rest(生長殮藏). ... Yuga (Devnāgari: युग) in Hindu philosophy refers to an epoch or era within a cycle of four ages: the Satya Yuga (or Krita Yuga), the Treta Yuga, the Dvapara Yuga and finally the Kali Yuga. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... The phrase altered state of consciousness was coined in the 1970s and describes induced changes in ones mental state, almost always temporary. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... Kashmir Shaivism is a school of spiritual teaching and practice that arose during the eighth century in Kashmir, India. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Although there is no consensus with regard to Sufi cosmology, one can disentangle various threads that led to the crystallization of more or less coherent cosmological doctrines. ...


See also

Notes

  1. ^ First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations.
  2. ^ Insert footnote text here
  3. ^ Weinberg, Steven. 1992. Dreams of a Final Theory (Pantheon Books, NY) p158. ISBN 0-679-41923-3
  4. ^ Alan Guth is reported to have made this very claim in an Edge Foundation interview [1].

Alan Harvey Guth (born February 27, 1947) is a physicist and cosmologist. ... The Edge Foundation was created in 1988 to seek out the most complex and sophisticated minds, put them in a room together and have themselves ask each other the questions they are asking themselves. ...

References

  • Jean-Marc Rouvière, Brèves méditations sur la création du monde, L'Harmattan, Paris 2006.
  • Roos, Matts Introduction to Cosmology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester: 2003.
  • Hawley, John F. & Katerine A. Holcomb Foundations of Modern Cosmology. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 1998.
  • Hetherington, Norriss S. Cosmology: Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives. Garland Publishing, New York: 1993.
  • Long, Barry. The Origins of Man and the Universe ISBN 0-9508050-6-8
  • Martinus Thomsen's The Third Testament is about the explanation of life, everything inside it and the reason (or origin) of it.
  • Arthur Koestler's The Sleepwalkers (1959) provides a scholarly study of the history of cosmology from the Chaldeans to Kepler.
  • Gal-Or, Benjamin, Cosmology, Physics and Philosophy, Springer Verlag, 1981, 1983, 1987, New York
  • Schechner, Sara J. Comets, Popular Culture, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1997.

Barry Long (August, 1926 - December 6, 2003[1]) was an Australian spiritual teacher and writer. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... The Sleepwalkers: A History of Mans Changing Vision of the Universe is a book by Arthur Koestler, and one of the main accounts of the history of cosmology and astronomy in the Western World. ...

External links

Look up Cosmology in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cosmology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1522 words)
Cosmology is often an important aspect of the origin beliefs of religions and mythologies that seek to explain the existence and nature of the reality.
Modern scientific cosmology is usually considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein's publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper "Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity," (although this paper was not widely available outside of Germany until end of World War I).
Thus the big bang theory was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 and rapidly confirmed by Edwin Hubble's discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964.
Physical cosmology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2443 words)
Physical cosmology, as a branch of astrophysics, is the study of the large-scale structure of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution.
Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects.
Cosmology is unusual in physics for drawing heavily on the work of particle physicists' experiments, and research into phenomenology and even string theory; from astrophysicists; from general relativity research; and from plasma physics.
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