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Encyclopedia > Cosmo Lang

Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth (31 October 18645 December 1945) was Archbishop of York (19081928) and Archbishop of Canterbury (19281942). October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


Lang (like his predecessor as Archbishop of Canterbury, Randall Davidson) was a Scot and originally a Presbyterian. He was educated at the University of Glasgow and at Oxford, and studied law, envisaging a career as a barrister and probably later as a progressive Conservative politician. However, he became convinced that he was called to be a priest, and with great reluctance abandoned his previous plans. Randall Thomas Davidson, by Leslie Ward, 1901. ... The University of Glasgow was founded in 1451, in Glasgow, Scotland. ...


Lang's beliefs were Anglo-Catholic but liberal; seeing the Lux Mundi essays as his early ideal. During his career he gently encouraged the Catholic trend in the Church of England, succeeding in "normalizing" it. He was the first Archbishop since the Reformation actually to wear a mitre, previously seen as too Catholic a symbol (although bishops had used them as emblems). The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


In his early career he was a "slum priest", living in conditions of great discomfort in a condemned building and mixing with what would now be called the "underclass". In 1901 he became Suffragan Bishop of Stepney in London. In 1908 he was appointed Archbishop of York, a stunning promotion which recognized his status as a rising star.


As Archbishop of York, however, Lang began to behave, at least in public, more as a "prince of the Church". It was unkindly said of him that "he could have been St Francis of Assisi or Cardinal Wolsey, and he chose to be Cardinal Wolsey". Nevertheless those who knew him personally were impressed more by his kindness and shrewd judgment.


In the First World War, Lang criticized some of the excesses of anti-German propaganda, and as a result became a target of public abuse; a shock which seems to have had a deep impact. Contrary to his public appearance, Lang was a man who lacked inner confidence. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


In 1928, when Randall Davidson retired, Lang was made Archbishop of Canterbury. Davidson's retirement followed, but was not in fact connected with, Parliament's rejection of the proposed new Prayer Book. Lang was faced with calls either to reopen the question or to challenge parliament, but in fact he took what proved the wiser course of simply letting the new book come into unofficial use. Randall Thomas Davidson, by Leslie Ward, 1901. ... For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ...


Lang had probably gone to Canterbury too late. He was still a superb speaker and preacher, but the energy that had made him such a star at the turn of the century had departed. His image was now as "proud, pompous and prelatical". Soon after appointment, he was seriously ill, further reducing his energy and impact.


However, he was active in both Church and public affairs in the 1930s. In 1930 he presided over the Lambeth Conference. The 1930 conference is especially remembered for its declaration on contraception. Previously, the Anglican Church had taken essentially the same line as Roman Catholicism, opposing any artificial contraception, and this had been endorsed at the previous (1920) Lambeth Conference. However in 1930 the Conference agreed by majority that contraception could in certain circumstances be justified. Lang did not seem to have strong views on the subject, and was apparently mainly concerned with achieving an agreed outcome. The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ...


In 1936 he treated A. P. Herbert's Divorce Law Reform Bill with neutrality, taking the view that although the Church disapproved of easier divorce he accepted that the bill was desirable for the state. Lang was relatively close to both Stanley Baldwin and (somewhat more surprisingly) Neville Chamberlain, and was broadly a supporter of their appeasement policies. Sir Alan Patrick Herbert (September 24, 1890 - November 11, 1971) was a British humorist, Member of Parliament, barrister, and novelist. ...



A committee was appointed in 1937 by the Church of England and headed by the Archbishops of Canterbury and York to investigate spiritual mediumship. After two years of work and a careful study of the subject, Archbishop Lang and Archbishop Temple submitted the committees report. It was expected by the Committee and by the general public that the guidance contained therein would be made available to the rank and file of the Church of England who, up to then had been given no official lead whatsoever regarding communication with the deceased. However, the report was never published; it was suppressed. The guidance, which the membership of the Church of England had been expecting, about communication with the so-called "dead", was shelved by the House of Bishops.


In 1936 Edward VIII abdicated in order to marry a divorced woman. It was widely assumed that Lang had played a leading role in forcing the King out, both the King and the Prime Minister (Baldwin) knew his views. He stated on film that he had the gravest doubts about the sanctity of the marriage, thus indicating that for him it was potentially a resignation issue. [1] After the abdication, Lang made a very unwise radio broadcast on the subject which was seen as "kicking Edward VIII when he is down"; this probably helped to cement the public belief that he was the key figure, which has since passed into popular historical memory. Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on...


However, his historical reputation has been considerably improved by recent research which has shown his active concern about the Nazis' racial policies. Lang supported moves to assist refugees and backed George Bell, who supported anti-Nazi clergy in Germany, against Bishop Headlam, who wanted to emphasize good relations with Germany. George Kennedy Allen Bell (born February 4, 1883 in Hayling Island, Hampshire; died October 3, 1958 in Canterbury) was an Anglican theologian, Dean of Canterbury , Bishop of Chichester, member of House of Lords and a pioneer of the Ecumenical Movement. ...


Lang retired in 1942, partly in order to make way for William Temple. Temple was a strong Christian Socialist, and opinion both in the Church and the general public foresaw great changes in the post-war period. It seemed Temple's hour had come. However, Temple died in 1944. William Temple (15 October 1881 – 26 October 1944), Archbishop of Canterbury (1942–1944) was the second son of Archbishop Frederick Temple (1821-1902). ...


Lang died in 1945. He died suddenly, while on his way to a meeting of the Trustees of the British Museum; his last words are said to have been "I must get to the station", as he lay dying on the pavement near Kew Gardens station. He was cremated, his ashes are buried in Canterbury Cathedral.


Lang has generally been seen as a man of great gifts who failed to live up to his early promise. Lang himself seems to have agreed with this: in contrast to his public air of pride and conceit he was privately filled with self-recrimination and a sense of failure. He never married. There have been rumours that he was a celibate homosexual.


Cosmo Lang baptised Princess Elizabeth, the future Queen Elizabeth II, when he was Archbishop of York. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


References

  • John G. Lockhart, Cosmo Gordon Lang (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1949).
  • Archbishop of Canterbury – Succession List
  1. ^ Lang spoke in 'Abdication: A very British Coup' on BBC 4 on December 14th 2006. Showing it was effectively King vs Church and 'King vs Establishment.
Religious Posts
Preceded by
William Dalrymple Maclagan
Archbishop of York
1909–1928
Succeeded by
William Temple
Preceded by
Randall Thomas Davidson
Archbishop of Canterbury
1928–1942
Succeeded by
William Temple
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New Creation
Baron Lang of Lambeth
1942–1945
Succeeded by
Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cosmo Lang - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1074 words)
Lang (like his predecessor as Archbishop of Canterbury, Randall Davidson) was a Scot and originally a Presbyterian.
Lang was faced with calls either to reopen the question or to challenge parliament, but in fact he took what proved the wiser course of simply letting the new book come into unofficial use.
Lang did not seem to have strong views on the subject, and was apparently mainly concerned with achieving an agreed outcome.
Cosmo Lang: Information from Answers.com (1072 words)
Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth (31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945) was Archbishop of York (1908–1928) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1928–1942).
After the abdication, Lang made a very unwise radio broadcast on the subject which was seen as "kicking Edward VIII when he is down"; this probably helped to cement the public belief that he was the key figure, which has since passed into popular historical memory.
Lang himself seems to have agreed with this: in contrast to his public air of pride and conceit he was privately filled with self-recrimination and a sense of failure.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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