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Encyclopedia > Cosmetics
Assorted cosmetics and tools
Assorted cosmetics and tools

Cosmetics (pronunciation: cosmetic ) are substances used to enhance or protect the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toenail polishes, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user’s appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics. Look up cosmetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a magazine cover. ... This is a magazine cover. ... Image File history File links En-us-cosmetic. ... Aroma redirects here. ... For other uses of Cream, see Cream (disambiguation). ... A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity medicated or non-medicated topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. ... Look up Powder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the book Perfume by Patrick Süskind, see Perfume (book). ... Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color and texture to the lips. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... A gel is an apparently solid, jellylike material formed from a colloidal solution. ... Stick deodorant Roll-on deodorant Deodorants are cosmetic substances applied to the body, most frequently the armpits, to reduce the body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration. ... The term has two distinct meanings, depending on whether the bubbles are in, or on top of, the bath water. ... The name bath salts is applied to a range of soluble solid products designed to be added to a bath, either to improve cleaning, provide a medical improvement, or to improve the experience of bathing. ... Leopold Butters Stotch, voiced by Matt Stone, is a fictional character in the animated TV series South Park. ... Look up West in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. FDA which regulates cosmetics in the United States[1] defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes, as well, any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.[2] A multinational corporation (MNC) or transnational corporation (TNC) is one that spans multiple nations; these corporations are often very large. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... In general, a things components are its parts; the things that compose it. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

An 1889 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec painting of a woman applying cosmetics to her face
An 1889 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec painting of a woman applying cosmetics to her face
Main article: History of cosmetics

The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Ancient Egypt around 4000 BC. The Ancient Greeks and Romans also used cosmetics. The Romans and Ancient Egyptians used cosmetics containing poisonous mercury and often lead. The land of Palestine was influenced by cosmetics as recorded in the Old Testament—2 Kings 9:30 where Jezebel painted her eyes—approximately 840 BC. The Biblical book of Esther describes various beauty treatments as well. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (866x708, 177 KB) Henri Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901): woman_at_her_toilette_1889 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cosmetics ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (866x708, 177 KB) Henri Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901): woman_at_her_toilette_1889 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cosmetics ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (IPA ) (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... The history of cosmetics spans at least 6000 years of human history, and almost every society on earth. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ...


In the western world, the advent of cosmetics was in the middle ages, although typically restricted to use within the upper classes. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ...


Cosmetic use was frowned upon at some points in history. For example, in the 1800s, make-up was used primarily by prostitutes, and Queen Victoria publicly declared makeup improper, vulgar, and acceptable only for use by actors.[3] Adolf Hitler told women that face painting was for clowns and not for the women of the Master Race.[citation needed] Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... The term vulgar originally meant of the common people, from the Latin vulgus. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Hitler redirects here. ... A clown participating in a Memorial Day parade A clown today is one of various types of comedic performers, on stage, television, in the circus and rodeo. ... The master race (German: die Herrenrasse,  ) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Indigenous Australians at the bottom of the...


By the middle of the 20th century, cosmetics were in widespread use in nearly all societies around the world. A society is a group of people living or working together. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ...


Cosmetics have been in use for thousands of years. They also attached silk or leather with adhesive to cover a blemish. The absence of regulation of the manufacture and use of cosmetics has led to negative side effects, deformities, blindness, and even death through the ages. Examples of this were the prevalent use of ceruse(white lead), to cover the face during the Renaissance, and blindness caused by the mascara Lash Lure during the early 1900s. A side-effect is any effect other than an intended primary effect. ... A deformity, dysmorphism, or dysmorphic feature is a major difference in the shape of the body a body part, or a body organ (internal or external) compared to the average shape for the part in question. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Sample of cerussite-bearing quartzite Cerussite (also known as lead carbonate or white lead ore) is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an important ore of lead. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... A mascara tube and a wand applicator Mascara is a cosmetic used to darken, thicken and define eyelashes. ...


Industry Today

The worldwide annual expenditures for cosmetics is estimated at U.S. $18 billion.[4] Of the major firms, the oldest and the largest is L'Oréal, which was founded by Eugene Schueller in 1909 as the French Harmless Hair Colouring Company (now owned by Liliane Bettencourt 27.5% and Nestlé 26.4%, with the remaining 46.1% are publicly traded). The market was developed in the USA during the 1910s by Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and Max Factor. These firms were joined by Revlon just before World War II and Estée Lauder just after. suck my doodle ... The LOréal Group Euronext: FR0000120321, headquartered in the Paris suburb of Clichy, France, is the worlds largest cosmetics and beauty company. ... Eugène Schueller was a chemist and the founder of LOréal, the worlds leading company in cosmetics and beauty. ... Liliane Bettencourt (born 21 October 1922) is the second richest person in France, ranking 17th in wealthiest people in the world and the wealthiest woman living. ... This article is about the company. ... Elizabeth Arden (1939) Elizabeth Arden (December 31, 1878 - October 18, 1966) was a Canadian businesswoman who built a cosmetics empire in the United States. ... Helena Rubinstein was born in this house in Kazimierz in Krakau Helena Rubinstein (b. ... The cosmetic firm Max Factor was named after Max Factor, Sr (b. ... Revlon (NYSE: REV) is an American cosmetics company. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Estée Lauder Companies Inc. ...


Like most industry, cosmetic companies resist regulation by government agencies like the FDA, and have lobbied against this throughout the years. A lobby can be: An entryway or waiting area, such as a foyer, from the Latin word lobium, or vestibule. ...


Criticism and controversy

Further information: Campaign for Safe Cosmetics and California Safe Cosmetics Act of 2005

During the 20th century, the popularity of cosmetics increased rapidly. Especially in the United States, cosmetics are used by girls at an increasingly young age. Many companies have catered to this expanding market by introducing more flavored lipsticks and glosses, cosmetics packaged in glittery, sparkly packaging and marketing and advertising using young models. The social consequences of younger and younger beautification has had much attention in the media over the last few years. The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics is a coalition of public health, educational, religious, labor, womens, environmental and consumer groups with a goal to protect the health of consumers and workers by requiring the health and beauty industry to phase out the use of chemicals linked to cancer, birth defects and... California Safe Cosmetics Act of 2005 (SB 484) is a state law that requires cosmetics manufacturers that sell products in the U.S. state of California to label any ingredient that is on state or federal lists of chemicals that cause cancer or birth defects, demands manufacturers to supply any... A model is a person who poses or displays for purposes of art, fashion, or other products and advertising. ... Note: Not to be confused with beatification Beautification is the process of making visual improvements in a town or city, typically to an urban area. ...


Criticism of cosmetics has come from a variety of sources, including feminists, animal rights activists, authors and public interest groups. There is a growing awareness and preference for cosmetics that are without any toxic ingredients, especially those derived from petroleum, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and parabens.[5] A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... The Beauty Myth, published in 1991, is a book by Naomi Wolf. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Petro redirects here. ... Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or NaDS) (CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na) (FW 288. ... General chemical structure of a paraben (a para-hydroxybenzoate) where R = an alkyl group Parabens are a group of chemicals widely used as preservatives in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. ...


Numerous published reports have raised concern over the safety of a few surfactants. SLS causes a number of skin issues including dermatitis.[6][7][8][9][10] Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. ... Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ...


Parabens can cause skin irritation and contact dermatitis in individuals with paraben allergies, a small percentage of the general population.[11] Animal experiments have shown that parabens have a weak estrogenic activity, acting as xenoestrogens.[12] General chemical structure of a Paraben (a para-hydroxybenzoate) where R = some organic group Parabens are a group of chemicals widely used as preservatives in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. ... Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Estriol. ... Xenoestrogens are synthetic substances that differ from those produced by living organisms and imitate or enhance the effect of estrogens. ...


Prolonged use of makeup has also been linked to thinning eyelashes.[13]


Synthetic fragrances are widely used in consumer products. Studies concluded from patch testing show synthetic fragrances are made of many ingredients which cause allergic reactions.[14] For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor (American English) or odour (Commonwealth English) is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ...


Makeup Types

Also included in the general category of cosmetics are skin care products. These include creams and lotions to moisturize the face and body, sunscreens to protect the skin from damaging UV radiation, and treatment products to repair or hide skin imperfections (acne, wrinkles, dark circles under eyes, etc.). Cosmetics can also be described by the form of the product, as well as the area for application. Cosmetics can be liquid or cream emulsions; powders, both pressed and loose; dispersions; and anhydrous creams or sticks. Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color and texture to the lips. ... Lip Gloss is a new song by rapper Lil Mama In the music video, Lil Mama is a new student who seeks popularity. ... Lip Plumper is a cosmetics product used primarily by women to give the lips an enhanced, fuller look along with subtle color. ... A tube of ChapStick. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Face (disambiguation). ... Face powder is a cosmetic powder applied to the face to set foundation after application. ... Matte refers to the following: the surface surrounding a framed picture, between the picture itself and the frame; usually made from coloured card a surface with a non-glossy finish (also matt or mat) a filmmaking technique a smelted sulfide material in extractive metallurgy a form of the name Matthew... A case of modern rouge powder and brushes. ... The word cheek can mean several things. ... The zygomatic bone (malar bone) is a paired bone of the human skull. ... Tan can mean several things: tan is shorthand in mathematics for the tangent trigonometric function. ... A mascara tube and a wand applicator Mascara is a cosmetic used to darken, thicken and define eyelashes. ... An eyelash or simply lash is one of the hairs that grow at the edge of the eyelid. ... Waterproof fabrics are usually natural or synthetic fabrics that are laminated to or coated in some sort of permanently waterproofing material, such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU), silicone elastomer, and wax. ... Eye liner Eye liner is a make-up used to define the eyes, to change their perceived shape or to create a certain mood: a razor-sharp matte line or smoky kohl contour may change the entire look of the face. ... Eye shadow being applied before a wedding Eye shadow is a cosmetic which is applied on the eyelids and under the eyebrows, to help make wearers eyes stand out or look more attractive. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Pink nail polish. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the body part. ... A conceler is a type of makeup used to cover pimples and spots. ... A pimple is a type of skin lesion caused by inflamed and/or obstructed pores. ... Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that is intended to protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... A wrinkle is a ridge or crease of a surface. ... A. Two immisicble liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ...


Special Effects

Cosmetic contact lenses
Cosmetic contact lenses

In addition to over-the-counter cosmetic products, recent years have seen an increasing market for prescription or surgical cosmetic procedures. These range from temporary enhancements, such as cosmetic colored contact lenses, to major cosmetic surgery. Download high resolution version (954x738, 312 KB) The photographer has in this case submitted the photo Cosmetic_Contact_Lenses. ... Download high resolution version (954x738, 312 KB) The photographer has in this case submitted the photo Cosmetic_Contact_Lenses. ... Look up prescription in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Surgery Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... A pair of contact lenses, positioned with the concave side facing upward. ... Plastic surgery is a general term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. ...


Many techniques, such as microdermabrasion and physical or chemical peels, remove the oldest, top layers of skin cells. The younger layers of skin left behind appear more plump, youthful, and soft. Permanent application of pigments (tattooing) is also used cosmetically. Microdermabrasion (often referred to as Microderm) is a cosmetic procedure popular in day spas, doctors practices, and medical spas, in which the stratum corneum (dead outermost surface of the skin) is partially or completely removed by light abrasion. ... A chemical peel is a body treatment technique used to improve and smooth the texture of the facial skin using a chemical solution that causes the skin to blister and eventually peel off. ... A cell is a single unit or compartment, enclosed by a border or wall. ...


Ingredients

Eye shadow being applied
Eye shadow being applied
Broadway actor Jim Brochu applies make-up before the opening night of a play.
Broadway actor Jim Brochu applies make-up before the opening night of a play.
The chin mask known as chutti for Kathakali, a performing art in Kerala, India is considered as the thickest makeup applied for any artform.
The chin mask known as chutti for Kathakali, a performing art in Kerala, India is considered as the thickest makeup applied for any artform.

While there is assurance from the largest cosmetic companies that their various ingredients are safe to use, there is a growing preference for cosmetics that are without any "synthetic" ingredients, especially those derived from petroleum. Once a niche market, certified organic products are becoming more mainstream. Assorted cosmetics and tools Cosmetics ingredients come from a variety of sources but, unlike the ingredients of food, are often not considered by most consumers. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 1212 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cosmetics ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 1212 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cosmetics ... Eye shadow being applied before a wedding Eye shadow is a cosmetic which is applied on the eyelids and under the eyebrows, to help make wearers eyes stand out or look more attractive. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 164 KB) Actor Jim Brochu puts on his makeup. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 164 KB) Actor Jim Brochu puts on his makeup. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Kathakali (IPA: [kat̪ʰakaɭi], Malayalam:�·ഥ�·ളി , Sanskrit:�·थ�·ळि) is a form of Indian dance-drama. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... A niche market also known as a target market is a focused, targetable portion (subset) of a market sector. ... Organic certification is an accreditation process for producers of agricultural products. ... Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ingredients' listings in cosmetics are highly regulated in many countries. The testing of cosmetic products on animals is a subject of some controversy. It is now illegal in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Belgium, and a ban across the European Union is due to come into effect in 2009. For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... Ban could be: Look up ban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Organic and Natural Ingredients


Even though many products in cosmetics are regulated, there are many health concerns that come from harmful chemicals in these products. Some products carry carcinogenic contaminant 1,4- dioxane. Not all organic products are better but they don't carry harmful preservatives that could be harmful. Many cosmetic companies are coming out with "All natural" and "Organic" products. All natural products contain mineral and plant ingredients and organic products are made with agricultural products, grown with out pesticides. Products who claim they are organic are not, unless they are certified "USDA Organic." [15]


See also

For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... Complex Kadakali makeup is a form of body art Body art is art made on, with, or consisting of, the human body. ... Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products that are claimed, primarily by those within the cosmetic industry, to have drug-like benefits. ... Plastic surgery is a general term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. ... Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA) was founded in 1894 as the Manufacturing Perfumers Association and was renamed to the American Manufacturers of Toilet Articles (AMTA) in 1922;[1] in 1970 the association adopted the name Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association. ... The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... Look up henna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A make-up artist is an artist who creates makeup and prosthetics for theatrical, television, film and other similar productions including the modeling world. ... Moulage is the art of applying mock injuries for the purpose of training Emergency Response and other medical personnel. ... Permanent makeup is a cosmetic technique which employs tattoos (permanent pigmentation of the dermis) as a means of producing designs that resemble makeup, such as eyelining and other permanent enhancing colors to the skin of the face, lips and eyelids. ... The Society of Cosmetic Chemists (SCC) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of cosmetic science. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Reed, Sandra I. US Department of Health and Human Services. "Cosmetics and Your Health." 2004. May 14, 2007. [1]
  2. ^ Lewis, Carol. FDA. "Clearing up Cosmetic Confusion." 2000. May 14, 2007. [2]
  3. ^ Pallingston, J (1998). Lipstick: A Celebration of the World's Favorite Cosmetic. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312199147. 
  4. ^ "As Consumerism Spreads, Earth Suffers, Study Says", National Geographic, pp. 2. Retrieved on 2007-08-21. 
  5. ^ "Signers of the Compact for Safe Cosmetics", Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. 
  6. ^ Agner T. Susceptibility of atopic dermatitis patients to irritant dermatitis caused by sodium lauryl sulphate. Acta Derm Venereol. 1991;71(4):296-300. PMID 1681644
  7. ^ A. Nassif, S. C. Chan, F. J. Storrs and J. M. Hanifin. Abstract: Abnormal skin irritancy in atopic dermatitis and in atopy without dermatitis. Arch Dermatol. November 1994;130(11):1402. Abstract
  8. ^ Marrakchi S, Maibach HI. Sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritation in the human face: regional and age-related differences. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;19(3):177-80. Epub 2006 May 4. PMID 16679819
  9. ^ CIR publication. Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. 1983 Vol. 2 (No. 7) pages 127-181.
  10. ^ Loffler H, Effendy I. Skin susceptibility of atopic individuals. Department of Dermatology, University of Marburg, Germany. Contact Dermatitis. 1999 May;40(5):239-42. PMID 10344477
  11. ^ Nagel JE, Fuscaldo JT, Fireman P. Paraben allergy. JAMA. 1977, Apr 11; 237(15):1594-5. Abstract
  12. ^ Byford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD. Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Jan;80(1):49-60. PMID 11867263
  13. ^ Towards Beautiful Eyes – Solutions for Thinning Lashes and Dark Patches, Kamau Austin.
  14. ^ "Patch testing with fragrances: results of a multicenter study of the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group with 48 frequently used constituents of perfumes", Contact Dermatitis, November 1995. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. 
  15. ^ Singer, Natasha. "Natural, Organic Beauty." New York Times. 1 Nov. 2007. 18 Mar. 2008 <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/01/fashion/01skin.html?_r=1&oref=slogin>.

The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics is a coalition of public health, educational, religious, labor, womens, environmental and consumer groups with a goal to protect the health of consumers and workers by requiring the health and beauty industry to phase out the use of chemicals linked to cancer, birth defects and... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Winter, Ruth [2005]. A Consumer's Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients: Complete Information About the Harmful and Desirable Ingredients in Cosmetics (Paperback) (in English). USA: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 1400052335. 
  • Begoun, Paula [2003]. Don't Go to the Cosmetics Counter Without Me(Paperback) (in English). USA: Beginning Press. ISBN 1877988308. 

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

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Natural cosmetics and mineral cosmetics including natural mineral foundation (128 words)
Natural cosmetics and mineral cosmetics including natural mineral foundation
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Camouflaging facial cosmetics are designed to minimize contour and color irregularities or abnormalities of the face based on the same principles used by an artist in painting a picture.
Following this drying period, the cosmetic must be set with an unpigmented, finely ground, talc-based powder to prevent smudging, to improve wearability, to provide waterproof characteristics, and to impart a matte finish.
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