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Encyclopedia > Corticosteroid

In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic systems such as stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... A steroid is a lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... Stress (roughly the opposite of relaxation) is a medical term for a wide range of strong external stimuli, both physiological and psychological, which can cause a physiological response called the general adaptation syndrome, first described in 1936 by Hans Selye in the journal Nature. ... The immune system is the organ system that protects an organism from outside biological influences. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos), the Greek word for change, or overthrow (Etymonline)), is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that contributes to growth. ... An electrolyte is a substance which dissociates free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ...

Some common natural hormones are corticosterone (C21H30O4), cortisone (C21H28O5, 17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone) and aldosterone. The name glucocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. ... Cortisol (hydrocortisone, C21H30O5 ), is a corticosteroid hormone synthesized in the zona fasciculata of the cortex of the adrenal glands. ... Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Eosinophils are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ... Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... Aldosterone is a steroid synthesized in the mid-section of the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Corticosterone structural diagram Created by Maxim Iorsh with xymtex documentclass{letter} usepackage{epic,carom} pagestyle{empty} begin{document} begin{picture}(1000,500) put(0,0){steroid[d]{3D==O;{{10}}==lmoiety{H$_{3}$C};{{13}}==lmoiety{H$_{3}$C};{{11}}==HO}} put(684,606){sixunitv{}{2D==O;1... Corticosterone is a 21 carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands. ... Corticosterone is a 21 carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands. ...


Uses

Synthetic drugs with corticosteroid-like effect are used in a variety of conditions, ranging from brain tumors to skin diseases. Dexamethasone and its derivatives are almost pure glucocorticoids, while prednisone and its derivatives have some mineralocorticoid action in addition to the glucocorticoid effect. Fludrocortisone (Florinef®) is a synthetic mineralocorticoid. Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is available for replacement therapy, e.g. in adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. A drug is any substance that can be used to modify a chemical process or processes in the body, for example to treat an illness, relieve a symptom, enhance a performance or ability, or to alter states of mind. ... A brain tumor is any intracranial mass created by an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells either normally found in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells - astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin producing cells Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary... Dermatology is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases (from Greek derma, skin), as well as its appendages (nails, hair, sweat glands). ... Dexamethasone is a synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of hormones. ... Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which is usually taken orally and can be used for a large number of different conditions. ... Fludrocortisone acetate is a synthetic corticosteroid with moderate glucocorticoid potency and much greater mineralocorticoid potency. ... Hydrocortisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which may be given by injection or by topical application. ... In medicine, adrenal insufficiency is the inability of the adrenal gland to produce adequate amounts of cortisol in response to stress. ...


Synthetic glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of joint pain or inflammation (arthritis), dermatitis, allergic reactions, asthma, hepatitis, lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), sarcoidosis and for glucocorticoid replacement in Addison's disease or other forms of adrenal insufficiency. Topical formulations for treatment of skin or inflammatory bowel disease are available. Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation) is a group of conditions that affect the health of the bone joints in the body. ... Dermatitis is a term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ... In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and, in some cases, the small intestine. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine Crohns disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the digestive tract and it can involve any part of it - from the mouth to the anus. ... Addisons disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, or hypocortisolism) is a rare endocrine disorder, first described by British physician Thomas Addison. ... In medicine, adrenal insufficiency is the inability of the adrenal gland to produce adequate amounts of cortisol in response to stress. ... Dermatology is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases (from Greek derma, skin), as well as its appendages (nails, hair, sweat glands). ... In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and, in some cases, the small intestine. ...


Typical undesired effects of glucocorticoids present quite uniformly as drug-induced Cushing's syndrome. Typical mineralocorticoid side effects are hypertension (abnormally high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels in the blood), hypernatremia (high sodium levels in the blood) without causing peripheral edema, and metabolic alkalosis. A side-effect is any effect other than an intended primary effect. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Hypokalemia is a potentially fatal condition in which the body fails to retain sufficient potassium to maintain health. ... Hypernatremia is a medical condition in which there is excess sodium, urea, and other electrolytes in the body relative to the amount of water. ...


History

Tadeus Reichstein together with Edward Calvin Kendall and Philip Showalter Hench were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1950 for their work on hormones of the adrenal cortex which culminated in the isolation of cortisone. Tadeus Reichstein (July 20, 1897 - August 1, 1996) was a Polish Nobel Prize-winning chemist. ... Edward Calvin Kendall (March 8, 1886 - May 4, 1972) was an American chemist who, with Philip S. Hench and Tadeus Reichstein, won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for research on the structure and biological effects of adrenal cortex hormones. ... Philip Showalter Hench (February 28, 1896 - March 30, 1965) was an American physician who, with E. C. Kendall, in 1948 successfully applied an adrenal hormone (later known as cortisone) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Medicine on the Web NLM (National Library of Medicine, contains resources for patients and healthcare professionals) Virtual Hospital (digital health sciences library by the University of Iowa) Online Medical Dictionary Collection of links to free medical resources Categories: Medicine | Health ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ...


Use of corticosteroids as a drug treatment had been in use for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with desoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile. The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker, at Syntex, discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams. His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker Degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and the birth control pill. In 1952, D.H. Peterson and H.C. Murray of Upjohn Co. developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $0.46 per gram by 1980. The research of Percy Julian also aided progress in the field. The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory nature remained a mystery for years after however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade was fully understood in the early 1980s. Merck & Co. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, greenish-yellow alkaline fluid secreted by the liver of most vertebrates. ... Russell Marker (1902 - 1995, was an American chemist who invented the octane rating system when he was working at the Ethyl Corporation. ... Progesterone is a steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... 1952 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Binomial name Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Percy Lavon Julian (1899-1975) was an African American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of drugs used in medicine. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Corticosteroid definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms (198 words)
Corticosteroid definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms
Corticosteroid: Any of the steroid hormones made by the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland.
Ulcerative Colitis - Read about ulcerative colitis causes, and symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, rectal pain, urgency to defecate, or painful bowel movements; diagnosis and treatment options are also discussed.
corticosteroid drug - Encyclopedia.com (1035 words)
Corticosteroids are very powerful drugs that affect the entire body; even corticosteroids used on large areas of skin for long periods are absorbed in sufficient quantity to cause systemic effects.
Because corticosteroids lower the resistance to infection, patients on steroid therapy cannot be vaccinated for smallpox or immunized.
Corticosteroids: the epidemiology of eye disorders is largely one of inflammation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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