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Encyclopedia > Cortes Generales
Las Cortes Generales
The General Courts
Type Bicameral
Houses Senado de España
Congreso de los Diputados
President of the Senate Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE
since 2004
President of the Congress José Bono Martínez, PSOE
since 2008
Members 609
259 senators
350 deputies
Political groups Senado: PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto
Congreso: PSOE, PP, CiU, ERC, PNV, IU, Mixto
Last elections 2008
Meeting place Palacio del Congreso de los Diputados, Carrera de San Jerónimo, Madrid
Spain

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Spain
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... Type Lower house Houses Congreso de los Diputados President Manuel Marín González, PSOE since 2004 Members 350 Political groups PSOE, PP, CiU, ERC, PNV, IU, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place El Palacio del Congreso de los Diputados, Carrera de San Jerónimo, Madrid Web site www. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... José Bono. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... Type Lower house Houses Congreso de los Diputados President Manuel Marín González, PSOE since 2004 Members 350 Political groups PSOE, PP, CiU, ERC, PNV, IU, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place El Palacio del Congreso de los Diputados, Carrera de San Jerónimo, Madrid Web site www. ... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular, PP) is the main centre-right political party in Spain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Catalan Agreement of Progress (Catalan: , ECP) is a union of leftist and catalanist political parties in Catalonia. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Convergence and Unity (Convergència i Unió, CiU) is a political party in Catalonia, Spain. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Spanish political parties ... Type Lower house Houses Congreso de los Diputados President Manuel Marín González, PSOE since 2004 Members 350 Political groups PSOE, PP, CiU, ERC, PNV, IU, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place El Palacio del Congreso de los Diputados, Carrera de San Jerónimo, Madrid Web site www. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular, PP) is the main centre-right political party in Spain. ... Convergence and Unity (Convergència i Unió, CiU) is a political party in Catalonia, Spain. ... Logo of the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC) party. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... United Left (Izquierda Unida) is an electoral coalition that was organized in 1986 during the mobilizations in Spain against NATO. It was formed by several groups of leftists, greens, left-wing socialists and republicans, but was always dominated by the Communist Party of Spain (PCE). ... Legislative elections for the Spanish Cortes Generales will be held on March 9[1], 2008. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links Escudo_de_España. ... Politics of Spain takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the Monarch is the Head of State and the President of the Government is the head of government and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts or Cortes Españolas, Spanish Courts) is the legislature of Spain. It is a bicameral parliament, composed of the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house). The Cortes has power to enact any law and to amend the constitution. Moreover, the lower house has the power to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister. However, because Spain is a European Union (EU) member state, it shares its legislative authority with the council and parliament of the EU. Due to its turbulent history, Spain has had many constitutions since the first one was drafted in 1812. ... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ... Juan Carlos I redirects here. ... The President of the Government of Spain (realy in Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno), sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the Spanish head of government. ...   (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1960), better known under his second surname Zapatero, is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... (1977 - 1979): Council of Ministers of Spain (1st Legislature) (1979 - 1982): Council of Ministers of Spain (2nd Legislature) (1982 - 1986): Council of Ministers of Spain (3rd Legislature) (1986 - 1989): Council of Ministers of Spain (4th Legislature) (1989 - 1993): Council of Ministers of Spain (5th Legislature) (1993 - 1996): Council of Ministers... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... Type Lower house Houses Congreso de los Diputados President Manuel Marín González, PSOE since 2004 Members 350 Political groups PSOE, PP, CiU, ERC, PNV, IU, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place El Palacio del Congreso de los Diputados, Carrera de San Jerónimo, Madrid Web site www. ... The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the largest party not in government in Spanish Congress of Deputies. ... Political parties in Spain lists political parties in Spain. ... Elections in Spain gives information on election and election results in Spain. ... Won by a Mr Martin J Hollerwatch of 34 Clackton Road, Cumberbatch-On-Sea (El Partido Malvado - The Evil Party) through a sliding majority poll of fifty to something. ... Results for the 1979 Spanish general election Reference El País official webpage (spanish) Congreso de españa official webpage (spanish) ... PSOE and PSC presented two different candidatures: PSOE in Spain and PSC (Catalan Social Party) only in Catalunya. ... References El País official webpage (spanish) http://www. ... External links Official results Categories: Elections in Spain ... External links Official results Categories: | ... External links Official results Categories: Elections in Spain ... Legislative elections were held in Spain on March 12, 2000. ... Map of Spains electoral circumscriptions, and the parties leading in each circumscription in the election for the Congress of Deputies Legislative elections were held in Spain on March 14, 2004. ... Legislative elections for the Spanish Cortes Generales will be held on March 9[1], 2008. ... The Spanish Judiciary is the combination of the Court and Tribunals, composed of Judges and Magistrates that have the power to administrate justice in the name of the King. ... The Constitutional Court of Spain (Spanish: Tribunal Constitucional de España) is the highest judicial body with the power to determine the constitutionality of acts and statutes of the Spanish Government. ... The General Council of the Judicial Power is the autonomous institution which governs all the judicial instances of Spain, such as tribunals, courts, and judges, as it is established by the Spanish Constitution of 1978, article 122. ... The Supreme Court of Spain is the highest judicial body in Spain for all matters not pertaining to the Constitution. ... The Audiencia Nacional de España, is a high court in Spain. ... For the Canadian television series, see Ombudsman (TV series). ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... List of Spanish Regional Governments Spain has 17 autonomous regions (comunidades autonomas), plus two autonomous cities (ciudades autonomas). ... Andalucia - Parlamento de Andalucia Aragon - Cortes de Aragón Asturias - Junta del Principado Basque Country - Basque Parliament Canary Islands - Parlamento de Canarias Cantabria - Parlamento de Cantabria Castilla y León - Cortes de Castilla y León Castilla La Mancha - Cortes de Castilla La Mancha Catalonia - Parlament de Catalunya Extremadura - Asamblea... In addition to its autonomous communities, Spain is divided into fifty provinces. ... Comarcas of Spain In Spain traditionally and historically, some provinces are also divided into comarcas (singular comarca). ... The municipalities of Spain (Spanish: municipios), 8111 in total, are the basic level of Spanish local government. ... Spain is a democracy with a Constitutional monarch. ... After the return of democracy following the death of General Franco in 1975, Spains foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Type Lower house Houses Congreso de los Diputados President Manuel Marín González, PSOE since 2004 Members 350 Political groups PSOE, PP, CiU, ERC, PNV, IU, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place El Palacio del Congreso de los Diputados, Carrera de San Jerónimo, Madrid Web site www. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The President of the Government of Spain (realy in Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno), sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the Spanish head of government. ...

Contents

History of the Cortes

Origins: the Feudal Age (8th-12th centuries)

The system of Cortes arose in the Middle Ages as part of feudalism. A Corte was an advisory council made up of the most powerful feudal lords closest to the king. The Cortes of the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of León were combined from 1188 AD, first Hispanic government with some claim to being representative. Prelates, nobles and commoners remained separated in the three estates within the Cortes. The king had the ability to call and dismiss the Cortes, but, as the lords of the Cortes headed the army and controlled the money, the King usually signed treaties with them to pass bills for war at the cost of concessions to the lords and the Cortes. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... For other uses, see Lord (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... Saladin unsuccessfully besieges the Hospitaller fortress of Krak des Chevaliers in modern Syria. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ...


The rise of the bourgeoisie (12th-15th centuries)

With the reappearance of the cities near the 12th century, a new social class started to grow: people living in the cities were neither vassals (servants of feudal lords) nor nobles themselves. Furthermore, the nobles were experiencing very hard economic times due to the Reconquista; so now the bourgeoisie (Spanish burguesía, from burgo, city) had the money and thus the power. So the King started admitting representatives from the cities to the Cortes in order to get more money for the Reconquista. The frequent payoffs were the Fueros, grants of autonomy to the cities and their inhabitants. At this time the Cortes already had the power to oppose the King's decisions, thus effectively vetoing them. In addition, some representatives (elected from the Cortes members by itself) were permanent advisors to the King, even when the Cortes was not. For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ...


The Catholic Monarchs (15th century)

Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, the Catholic Monarchs, started a specific policy to diminish the power of the bourgeoisie and nobility. They greatly reduced the powers of the Cortes to the point where they simply rubberstamped the monarch's acts, and brought the nobility to their side. One of the major points of friction between the Cortes and the monarchs was the power of raising and lowering taxes. It was the only matter that the Cortes had under some direct control; when Queen Isabella wanted to fund Christopher Columbus's trip, she had a hard time battling with the bourgeoisie to get the Cortes' approval. Isabella I redirects here. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... This article is about vulcanized rubber stamps. ... Taxes redirects here. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ...


The Imperial Cortes (16th-17th centuries)

The role of the Cortes during the Spanish Empire was mainly to rubberstamp the decisions of the ruling monarch. However, they had some power over economic and American affairs, especially taxes. The Senate appeared here, as a royally appointed legislature, in contrast to the bourgueois lower house. The Siglo de oro, Spanish Golden Age of literacy, was a dark age in Spanish politics: Netherlands declared itself independent and started a war, while some of the last Habsburg monarchs did not rule the country, leaving this task in the hands of viceroys governing in their name, the most famous being the Count-Duke of Olivares, Philip IV's viceroy. This allowed the Cortes to become more influential, even when they did not directly oppose the King's decisions (or viceroys' decisions in the name of the King). An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... This article is about vulcanized rubber stamps. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... Taxes redirects here. ... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... The siglo de oro (a Spanish-language phrase meaning century of gold or golden century) is a term that refers to one of the following: The great age of Spanish wealth and power, roughly from the early-to-mid-16th century to early-to-mid-17th century. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Equestrian portrait of the Count-Duke of Olivares by Diego Velázquez. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ...


Cortes in the Realms of Aragon and Navarre

The states of the Crown of Aragon (Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia) and the Kingdom of Navarre were self-governing entities separate from Castile, until the Nueva Planta Decrees of 1707 abolished this autonomy and united Aragon with Castile in a centralised Spanish state. The abolition in the realms of Aragon was completed by 1716, whilst Navarre retained its autonomy until 1833. Coat of arms of Aragon, 15th century The Crown of Aragon is a term used to refer to the permanent union of multiple titles and states in the hands of the King of Aragon. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Nueva Planta decrees (Spanish:Decretos de Nueva Planta, Catalan: Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon king of Spain—shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. ...


A Cortes (or Corts in Catalonia and Valencia) existed in each of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia and Navarre. It is thought that these legislatures exercised more real power over local affairs than the Castilian Cortes did. Executive councils also existed in each of these realms, overseeing the implementation of decisions made by the Cortes.


Cádiz Cortes (1808-14) and the Three Liberal Years (1820-23)

Cádiz Cortes operated as a government in exile. France under Napoleon had taken control of most of Spain during the Peninsular War after 1808. The Cortes found refuge in the fortified, coastal city of Cádiz. General Cortes were assembled in Cádiz, but since many provinces could not send representatives due to the French occupation, substitutes were chosen among the people of the city - thus the name Congress of Deputies. Liberal factions dominated the body and pushed through the Spanish Constitution of 1812. Ferdinand VII, however, tossed it aside upon his restoration in 1814 and pursued conservative policies, making the constitution an icon for liberal movements in Spain. Many military coups were attempted, and finally Col. Rafael del Riego's one succeeded and forced the King to accept the liberal constitution, which resulted in the Three Liberal Years (Trienio Liberal). The monarch not only did everything he could to obstruct the Government (vetoing nearly every law, for instance), but also asked many powers, including the Holy Alliance, to invade his own country and restore his absolutist powers. He finally received a French army (the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis) which only met resistance in the liberal cities, but easily crushed the National Militia and forced many liberals to exile to, ironically, France. In his second absolutist period up to his death in 1833, Ferdinand VII was more cautious and did not try a full restoration of the Ancien Regime. Monument in Cádiz to the Cortes and the 1812 constitution The Cádiz Cortes was a national legislative body, known in Spain as the Cortes based in the refuge of Cádiz during the occupation of Spain in the Napoleonic Wars. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was promulgated by the Cortes Generales (General Courts), the national legislative assembly of Spain. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Rafael del Riego Rafael del Riego y Nuñez (9 April 1784 - 7 November 1823) was a Spanish general and liberal politician. ... The Holy Alliance was a coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, signed by the three powers in Vienna on September 26, 1815. ... Ancien R gime means Old Regime or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, and secondarily to any regime which shares the formers defining features: a feudal system under the control...


The First Republic Parliament (1873-1874)

When the monarchy was overthrown in 1873, the King of Spain was forced into exile. The Senate was abolished because of its royally appointed nature. A republic was proclaimed and the Congress of Deputies members started writing a Constitution, supposedly that of a federal republic, with the power of Parliament being nearly supreme (see parliamentary supremacy, although Spain did not use the Westminster system). However, due to many problems (mainly illiteracy of the people) Spain was not ready to become a republic; after several crises the republic collapsed, and the monarchy was restored in 1874. The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Type Lower house Houses Congreso de los Diputados President Manuel Marín González, PSOE since 2004 Members 350 Political groups PSOE, PP, CiU, ERC, PNV, IU, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place El Palacio del Congreso de los Diputados, Carrera de San Jerónimo, Madrid Web site www. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... Parliamentary sovereignty or Parliamentary supremacy is the concept in British constitutional law that a parliament has sovereignty. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... World illiteracy rates by country Literacy is the ability to read and write. ...


The Restoration Cortes (1874-1930)

The regime just after the First Republic is called the Restoration. It was formally a constitutional monarchy, with the monarch as a rubberstamp to the Cortes' acts but with some reserve powers, such as appointing and dismissing the Prime Minister and appointing senators for the new Senate, remade as an elected House. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Rubber stamp, is a political metaphor referring to an institution that has little power and rarely disagrees with more powerful organs. ... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ...


Soon after the Soviet revolution (1917), the Spanish political parties started polarizing, and the left-wing PCE and PSOE blamed the Government for supposed election fraud in small towns (caciquismo), which was incorrectly supposed to have been wiped out in the 1900s by the failed regenerationist movement. In the meantime, spiralling violence started with the murders of many leaders by both sides. Deprived of those leaders, the regime entered a general crisis, with extreme police measures which led to a dictatorship (1921-1930) during which the Senate was again abolished. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... PCE may stand for: Parametric cost estimation Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (New Zealand) Partial chemical equilibrium Partial Compliance Evaluation (EPA) Partido Comunista de España, the Communist Party of Spain Partido Comunista del Ecuador, the Communist Party of Ecuador Patrol escort (US Navy hull classification symbol) Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene) Porsche... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


The Second Republic Parliament (1931-1939)

In the first elections after the dictatorship, the republican parties lost by almost two thirds, but won in all province capitals and big cities (where caciquismo was not present; also, some say that the republicans actually won nationally). The King left Spain, and a Republic was declared. The Second Spanish Republic was established as a presidential republic, with a unicameral Parliament and with a President of the Republic as the Head of State. He had the power to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister on the advice of Parliament (or just hearing it before) and to dissolve the Parliament and call for new elections. The first term was the constituent term, with the ex-monarchist leader Niceto Alcalá Zamora as President of the Republic and the Jacobin leader Manuel Azaña as Prime Minister. The majority in the Cortes (and thus, the Government) was held by a coalition between Azaña's party and the PSOE. A remarkable deed is universal suffrage, allowing women to vote, a provision highly criticized by socialist leader Indalecio Prieto, who said the Republic had been backstabbed. Also, for the second time in Spanish history, some regions were granted autonomous governments within the unitary state. Many on the extreme right rose up with General José Sanjurjo in 1932 against the Government's social policies, but the revolution was quickly suppressed. Republics with presidential systems are shown in blue A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. For The unicameral, see Nebraska Legislature. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Niceto Alcala-Zamora Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres (July 6, 1877 – February 18, 1949), served as first president of the Second Spanish Republic from 1931 to 1936. ... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794), but even at that time, the term Jacobins had been popularly applied to all promulgators of extreme revolutionary opinions: for example, Jacobin democracy is synonymous with totalitarian democracy. ... Image:F manuel azana. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Indalecio Prieto Tuero (April 30, 1883 - February 11, 1962) was a Spanish politician, one of the leading figures of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) in the years before and during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Jose Sanjurjo José Sanjurjo Sacanell (Pamplona, 1872 - Estoril, Portugal, July 20, 1936) Marquess of the Rif and general, was a Spanish Army Officer who was one of the chief conspirators of the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War. ...


The elections for the second term were held in 1933 and won by the coalition between the Radical Party (center) and the CEDA (right). Initially, only the Radical Party entered the Government, with the parliamentary support of the CEDA because of the threat of rebellion if it did. But, in the middle of the term, corruption scandals sunk the Radical Party and the CEDA entered the Government in 1934. This led to rebellions by leftist parties that were quickly suffocated. In one of them, the left wing government of Catalonia (which had been granted home rule) rose against the central government (right wing). This provoked the dissolution of the Generalitat de Catalunya and the imprisonment of their leaders. Then, the leftist minority in the Cortes told Alcalá Zamora that the "rebellions were consequence of social rejection of the right-wing government" and advised him to call for new elections, which he did. Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA) was a Spanish political party in the Second Spanish Republic. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... The Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia ) is the institution in which the self-government of Catalonia is politically organised. ...


The third elections were won by a small margin by the leftist parties, but the difference in seats was big due to the new electoral system (majority system instead of the old proportional) established by the right-wing government hoping to get a majority. The left coalition used a legal twist to dismiss Alcalá Zamora and replaced him with Azaña: the Constitution stated that if the President of the Republic dismissed Parliament twice and the newly elected Parliament thought that the last dismissal had been unjustified, Parliament could appoint a new President. In fact, Alcalá Zamora did dismiss the Parliament twice, but the first should not be counted, because it was the Constituent Parliament, whose acts and power ended the moment the Constitution it was assembled to write had been completed.


During the third term, the leftist coalition (called the Frente Popular) tried to wipe out right wing opposition (including death threats in Parliament, readable today in the parliamentary Session Log). The already bad political and social climate created by the long term left-right confrontation worsened, and many right-wing rebellions were started. Then, in 1936, the Army's failed coup degenerated into the Spanish Civil War, putting an end to the Second Republic. The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


The Cortes Generales under the Franco regime (1939-1978)

Attending to his words, Francisco Franco's intention was to replace the unstable party system with an "organic democracy", where the people could participate directly in the nation's politics without any parties. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... A party system is a concept in political science concerning the system of government in a state where political parties exist. ...


However, such "good" intentions were never materialized. Franco assumed the office of Head of State for life, and established a unicameral legislature (the Congress of Deputies, or Legislative Assembly), made up of more than 400 "representatives" (Spanish: procuradores, singular procurador) appointed by himself. There was little democracy during this period, but there was the possibility of referendums, where only the family heads could vote. The regime started a shy opening process by the 1960s, with the boom in tourism. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Type Lower house Houses Congreso de los Diputados President Manuel Marín González, PSOE since 2004 Members 350 Political groups PSOE, PP, CiU, ERC, PNV, IU, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place El Palacio del Congreso de los Diputados, Carrera de San Jerónimo, Madrid Web site www. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


The Cortes today (1978 Constitution)

The Cortes are a bicameral parliament composed of a lower house (Congreso de los Diputados, congress of deputies) and an upper house (Senado, senate). Although they share legislative power, the Congress holds the power to ultimately override any decision of the Senate by a sufficient majority (usually absolute majority or three fifths majority). The Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ...


The Congress is composed of 350 deputies (although that figure may change in the future as the constitution establishes a maximum of 400 and a minimum of 300) directly elected by universal suffrage approximately every four years.


The Senate is partly directly elected (four senators per province as a general rule) and partly appointed (by the legislative assemblies of the autonomous communities, two for each community and another one for every million inhabitants in their territory). Although the Senate was conceived as a territorial upper house, it has been argued by nationalist parties and the Socialist Party that it doesn't accomplish such a task. Proposals to reform the Senate have been discussed for at least ten years as of November 2007. Autonomous communities of Spain. ... The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ...


References

External links

  • Official site
The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cortes Generales - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1637 words)
It is a bicameral parliament, composed of the Congress of Deputies, the lower house, and the Senate, the upper house.
The role of the Cortes during the Spanish Empire was mainly to rubberstamp the decisions of the ruling monarch.
The majority in the Cortes (and thus, the Government) was held by a coalition between Azaña's party and the PSOE.
Chapter 3 --The Cortes of Castile-León (7536 words)
The word cortes, the plural of the vernacular cort (a translation of the Latin curia), was used in two thirteenth-century poems, the Cantar de mío Cid (lines 3129-3131) and the Poema de Fernán González (verses 564--568), to describe extraordinary assemblies, chiefly of nobles.
Despite this, Fernando IV enacted an ordinance in the cortes in response to the bishops petitions.
As in Castile, the cortes of Portugal and Catalonia consisted of the bishops, nobles, and representatives of the towns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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