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Encyclopedia > Corruption Perceptions Index
Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006
Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006

Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to "the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians".[2] The organization defines corruption as "the abuse of public office for private gain".[2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 70 KB) Data source: Corruption Perceptions Index 2006 by Transparency International. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 70 KB) Data source: Corruption Perceptions Index 2006 by Transparency International. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ...


The 2003 poll covered 133 countries; the 2006 survey, 163. A higher score means less (perceived) corruption. The results show seven out of every ten countries (and nine out of every ten developing countries) with an index of less than 5 points out of 10. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Methods and interpretation

Transparency International commissioned Johann Graf Lambsdorff of the University of Passau to produce the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI).[2] The CPI 2005 draws on "16 different polls and surveys from 10 independent institutions… The institutions who provided data for the CPI 2005 are: Columbia University, Economist Intelligence Unit, Freedom House, Information International, International Institute for Management Development, Merchant International Group, Political and Economic Risk Consultancy, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, World Economic Forum and World Markets Research Centre. Early CPIs used public opinion surveys, but now only "experts" are used. TI requires at least three sources to be available in order to rank a country in the CPI.[2] The University of Passau is a university in the town of Passau, in Bavaria, Germany. ... Columbia University is a private research university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... The International Institute for Management Development is a business school located in Lausanne, Switzerland. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA or ECA) was established in 1958 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states (the nations of the African continent). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


TI writes in their FAQ on the CPI that "residents' viewpoints correlate well with those of experts abroad. In the past, the experts surveyed in the CPI sources were often business people from industrialised countries; the viewpoint of less developed countries was underrepresented. This has changed over time, giving increasingly voice to respondents from emerging market economies".[2]


As this index is based on polls, the results are subjective and are less reliable for countries with fewer sources. Also, what is legally defined, or perceived, to be corruption differs between jurisdictions: a political donation legal in some jurisdiction may be illegal in another; a matter viewed as acceptable tipping in one country may be viewed as bribery in another. Thus the poll results must be understood quite specifically as measuring public perception rather than being an objective measure of corruption. A tip (also known as gratuity) is a small amount of money received by some service sector professionals from persons they serve, in addition to or instead of a formally required payment. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ...


Statistics like this are necessarily imprecise; statistics from different years are not necessarily comparable. The ICCR itself explains, "…year-to-year changes in a country's score result not only from a changing perception of a country's performance but also from a changing sample and methodology. Each year, some sources are not updated and must be dropped from the CPI, while new, reliable sources are added. With differing respondents and slightly differing methodologies, a change in a country's score may also relate to the fact that different viewpoints have been collected and different questions been asked… [despite] anti-corruption reform… [or] recent exposure of corruption scandals… [i]t is often difficult to improve a CPI score over a short time period, such as one or two years. The CPI is based on data from the past three years (for more on this, see the question on the sources of data, below). This means that a change in perceptions of corruption would only emerge in the index over longer periods of time".[3]


Increasingly, the CPI is being criticized for deflecting attention from other important types of corruption in global financial centers such as New York and the City of London that deliberately attract and handle many hundreds of billions of dollars in corrupt flows of money each year from poor countries, involving capital flowing "uphill" from poor countries to rich countries, contrary to traditional economic theories.[citation needed]


Countries perceived to be least and most corrupt

According to the 2006 Survey, the countries perceived to be least corrupt are:


According to the 2006 Survey, the countries perceived to be most corrupt are: Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ...

Alphabetical listing

Country or Region 2001 Survey 2002 Survey 2003 Survey 2005 Survey 2006 Survey[4]
Index Rank Index Rank Index Rank Index Rank Index Rank
Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan 2.5 117/159
Flag of Albania Albania 2.5 81/102 2.5 92/133 2.4 126/159 2.6 111/163
Algeria 2.6 88/133 2.8 97/159 3.1 84/163
Flag of Angola Angola 1.7 98/102 1.8 124/133 2.0 151/159 2.2 142/163
Flag of Argentina Argentina 3.5 57/91 2.8 70/102 2.5 92/133 2.8 97/159 2.9 93/163
Flag of Armenia Armenia 3.0 78/133 2.9 88/159 2.9 93/163
Flag of Australia Australia 8.5 11/91 8.6 11/102 8.8 8/133 8.8 9/159 8.7 9/163
Flag of Austria Austria 7.8 15/91 7.8 15/102 8.0 14/133 8.7 10/159 8.6 11/163
Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 2.0 84/91 2.0 95/102 1.8 124/133 2.2 137/159 2.4 130/163
Bahrain 6.1 27/133 5.8 36/159 5.7 36/163
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh 0.4 91/91 1.2 102/102 1.3 133/133 1.7 158/159 2.0 156/163
Flag of Barbados Barbados 6.9 24/159 6.7 24/163
Flag of Belarus Belarus 4.8 36/102 4.2 53/133 2.6 107/159 2.1 151/163
Belgium 6.6 24/91 7.1 20/102 7.6 17/133 7.4 19/159 7.3 20/163
Flag of Belize Belize 4.5 46/133 3.7 62/159 3.5 66/163
Flag of Benin Benin 2.9 88/159 2.5 121/163
Flag of Bhutan Bhutan 6.0 32/163
Bolivia 2.0 84/91 2.2 89/102 2.3 106/133 2.5 117/159 2.7 105/163
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia-Herzegovina 3.3 70/133 2.9 88/159 2.9 93/163
Flag of Botswana Botswana 6.0 26/91 6.4 24/102 5.7 30/133 5.9 32/159 5.6 37/163
Flag of Brazil Brazil 4.0 46/91 4.0 45/102 3.9 54/133 3.7 62/159 3.3 70/163
Bulgaria 3.9 47/91 4.0 45/102 3.9 54/133 4.0 55/159 4.0 57/163
Flag of Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 3.4 70/159 3.2 79/163
Flag of Burundi Burundi 2.3 130/159 2.4 130/163
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia 2.3 130/159 2.1 151/163
Flag of Cameroon Cameroon 2.0 84/91 2.2 89/102 1.8 124/133 2.2 137/159 2.3 138/163
Canada 8.9 7/91 9.0 7/102 8.7 11/133 8.4 14/159 8.5 14/163
Flag of Central African Republic Central African Rep. 2.4 130/163
Flag of Chad Chad 1.7 158/159 2.0 156/163
Chile 7.5 18/91 7.5 17/102 7.4 20/133 7.3 21/159 7.3 20/163
China, People's Rep. of 3.5 57/91 3.5 59/102 3.4 66/133 3.2 78/159 3.3 70/163
Flag of Republic of China China, Rep. of (Taiwan) 5.9 27/91 5.6 29/102 5.7 30/133 5.9 32/159 5.9 34/163
Flag of Colombia Colombia 3.8 50/91 3.6 57/102 3.7 59/133 4.0 55/159 3.9 59/163
Costa Rica 4.5 40/91 4.5 40/102 4.3 50/133 4.2 51/159 4.1 55/163
Côte d'Ivoire 2.1 118/133 1.9 152/159 2.1 151/163
Flag of Croatia Croatia 3.9 47/91 3.8 51/102 3.7 59/133 3.4 70/159 3.4 69/163
Flag of Cuba Cuba 4.6 43/133 3.8 59/159 3.5 66/163
Cyprus 6.1 27/133 5.7 37/159 5.6 37/163
Czech Republic 3.9 47/91 3.7 52/102 3.9 54/133 4.3 47/159 4.8 46/163
Flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo Dem. Rep. of the Congo 2.1 144/159 2.0 156/163
Flag of Denmark Denmark 9.5 2/91 9.5 2/102 9.5 3/133 9.5 4/159 9.5 4/163
Flag of Dominica Dominica 4.5 53/163
Flag of Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 3.3 70/133 3.0 85/159 2.8 99/163
Flag of Ecuador Ecuador 2.3 79/91 2.2 89/102 2.2 113/133 2.3 138/159 2.3 138/163
Flag of Egypt Egypt 3.6 54/91 3.4 62/102 3.3 70/133 3.4 70/159 3.3 70/163
Flag of El Salvador El Salvador 3.6 54/91 3.4 62/102 3.7 59/133 4.2 51/159 4.0 57/163
Flag of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 1.9 152/159 2.1 151/163
Flag of Eritrea Eritrea 2.6 107/159 2.9 93/163
Estonia 5.6 28/91 5.6 29/102 5.5 33/133 6.4 27/159 6.7 24/163
Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia 3.5 59/102 2.5 92/133 2.2 137/159 2.4 130/163
Flag of Fiji Fiji 4.0 55/159
Finland 9.9 1/91 9.7 1/102 9.7 1/133 9.6 2/159 9.6 1/163
Flag of France France 6.7 23/91 6.3 25/102 6.9 23/133 7.5 18/159 7.4 18/163
Flag of Gabon Gabon 2.9 88/159 3.0 90/163
Flag of The Gambia Gambia 2.5 92/133 2.7 103/159 2.5 121/163
Georgia 2.4 85/102 1.8 124/133 2.3 130/159 2.8 99/163
Flag of Germany Germany 7.4 20/91 7.3 18/102 7.7 16/133 8.2 16/159 8.0 16/163
Flag of Ghana Ghana 3.4 59/91 3.9 50/102 3.3 70/133 3.5 65/159 3.3 70/163
Flag of Greece Greece 4.2 42/91 4.2 44/102 4.3 50/133 4.3 47/159 4.4 54/163
Flag of Grenada Grenada 3.5 66/163
Flag of Guatemala Guatemala 2.9 65/91 2.5 81/102 2.4 100/133 2.5 117/159 2.6 111/163
Flag of Guinea Guinea 1.9 160/163
Flag of Guyana Guyana 2.5 117/159 2.5 121/163
Flag of Haiti Haiti 2.2 89/102 1.5 131/133 1.8 155/159 1.8 163/163
Flag of Honduras Honduras 2.7 71/91 2.7 71/102 2.3 106/133 2.6 107/159 2.5 121/163
Flag of Hong Kong Hong Kong, China 7.9 14/91 8.2 14/102 8.0 14/133 8.3 15/159 8.3 15/163
Flag of Hungary Hungary 5.3 31/91 4.9 33/102 4.8 40/133 5.0 40/159 5.2 41/163
Flag of Iceland Iceland 9.2 4/91 9.4 4/102 9.6 2/133 9.7 1/159 9.6 1/163
Flag of India India 2.7 71/91 2.7 71/102 2.8 83/133 2.9 88/159 3.3 70/163
Indonesia 1.9 88/91 1.9 96/102 1.9 122/133 2.2 137/159 2.4 130/163
Flag of Iran Iran 3.0 78/133 2.9 88/159 2.7 105/163
Flag of Iraq Iraq 2.2 113/133 2.2 137/159 1.9 160/163
Ireland 7.5 18/91 6.9 23/102 7.5 18/133 7.4 19/159 7.4 18/163
Flag of Israel Israel 7.6 16/91 7.3 18/102 7.0 21/133 6.3 28/159 5.9 34/163
Flag of Italy Italy 5.5 29/91 5.2 31/102 5.3 35/133 5.0 40/159 4.9 45/163
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica 4.0 45/102 3.8 57/133 3.6 64/159 3.7 61/163
Japan 7.1 21/91 7.1 20/102 7.0 21/133 7.3 21/159 7.6 17/163
Flag of Jordan Jordan 4.9 37/91 4.5 40/102 4.6 43/133 5.7 37/159 5.3 40/163
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakstan 2.7 71/91 2.3 88/102 2.4 100/133 2.6 107/159 2.6 111/163
Flag of Kenya Kenya 2.0 84/91 1.9 96/102 1.9 122/133 2.1 144/159 2.2 142/163
Flag of Kuwait Kuwait 5.3 35/133 4.7 45/159 4.8 46/163
Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 2.1 118/133 2.3 130/159
Flag of Laos Laos 3.3 77/159 2.6 111/163
Flag of Latvia Latvia 3.4 59/91 3.7 52/102 3.8 57/133 4.2 51/159 4.7 49/163
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon 3.0 78/133 3.1 83/159 3.6 63/163
Flag of Lesotho Lesotho 3.4 70/159 3.2 79/163
Flag of Liberia Liberia 2.2 137/159
Flag of Libya Libya 2.1 118/133 2.5 117/159 2.7 105/163
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania 4.8 38/91 4.8 36/102 4.7 41/133 4.8 44/159 4.8 46/163
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 8.7 9/91 9.0 7/102 8.7 11/133 8.5 13/159 8.6 11/163
Flag of Macau Macau, China 6.6 26/163
Flag of Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 2.3 106/133 2.7 103/159 2.7 105/163
Madagascar 1.7 98/102 2.6 88/133 2.8 97/159 3.1 84/163
Flag of Malawi Malawi 3.2 61/91 2.9 68/102 2.8 83/133 2.8 97/159 2.7 105/163
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 5.0 36/91 4.9 33/102 5.2 37/133 5.1 39/159 5.0 44/163
Flag of Mali Mali 3.0 78/133 2.9 88/159 2.8 99/163
Malta 6.6 25/159 6.4 28/163
Flag of Mauritania Mauritania 3.1 84/163
Flag of Mauritius Mauritius 4.5 40/91 4.5 40/102 4.4 48/133 4.2 51/159 5.1 42/163
Flag of Mexico Mexico 3.7 51/91 3.6 57/102 3.6 64/133 3.5 65/159 3.3 70/163
Flag of Moldova Moldova 3.1 63/91 2.1 93/102 2.4 100/133 2.9 88/159 3.2 79/163
Flag of Mongolia Mongolia 3.0 85/159 2.8 99/163
Flag of Morocco Morocco 3.7 52/102 3.3 70/133 3.2 78/159 3.2 79/163
Flag of Mozambique Mozambique 2.7 86/133 2.8 97/159 2.8 99/163
Flag of Myanmar Myanmar 1.6 129/133 1.8 155/159 1.9 160/163
Flag of Namibia Namibia 5.4 30/91 5.7 28/102 4.7 41/133 4.3 47/159 4.1 55/163
Flag of Nepal Nepal 2.5 117/159 2.5 121/163
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands 8.8 8/91 9.0 7/102 8.9 7/133 8.6 11/159 8.7 9/163
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 9.4 3/91 9.5 2/102 9.5 3/133 9.6 2/159 9.6 1/163
Flag of Nicaragua Nicaragua 2.4 77/91 2.5 81/102 2.6 88/133 2.6 107/159 2.6 111/163
Flag of Niger Niger 2.4 126/159 2.3 138/163
Flag of Nigeria Nigeria 1.0 90/91 1.6 101/102 1.4 132/133 1.9 152/159 2.2 142/163
Flag of Norway Norway 8.6 10/91 8.5 12/102 8.8 8/133 8.9 8/159 8.8 8/163
Oman 6.3 26/133 6.3 28/159 5.4 39/163
Pakistan 2.3 79/91 2.6 77/102 2.5 92/133 2.1 144/159 2.2 142/163
Flag of Palestinian National Authority Palestine 3.0 78/133 2.6 107/159
Panama 3.7 51/91 3.0 67/102 3.4 66/133 3.5 65/159 3.1 84/163
Flag of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 2.1 118/133 2.3 130/159 2.4 130/163
Flag of Paraguay Paraguay 1.7 98/102 1.6 129/133 2.1 144/159 2.6 111/163
Flag of Peru Peru 4.1 44/91 4.0 45/102 3.7 59/133 3.5 65/159 3.3 70/163
Flag of Philippines Philippines 2.9 65/91 2.6 77/102 2.5 92/133 2.5 117/159 2.5 121/163
Poland 4.1 44/91 4.0 45/102 3.6 64/133 3.4 70/159 3.7 61/163
Flag of Portugal Portugal 6.3 25/91 6.3 25/102 6.6 25/133 6.5 26/159 6.6 26/163
Qatar 5.6 32/133 5.9 32/159 6.0 32/163
[[Image:{{{flag alias-Rep. of the Congo}}}|22x20px|Flag of Republic of the Congo]] Rep. of the Congo 2.2 113/133 2.3 130/159 2.2 142/163
Flag of Romania Romania 2.8 69/91 2.6 77/102 2.8 83/133 3.0 85/159 3.1 84/163
Russia 2.3 79/91 2.7 71/102 2.7 86/133 2.4 126/159 2.5 121/163
Flag of Rwanda Rwanda 3.1 83/159 2.5 121/163
Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 4.5 46/133 3.4 70/159 3.3 70/163
Flag of Senegal Senegal 2.9 65/91 3.1 66/102 3.2 76/133 3.2 78/159 3.3 70/163
Serbia 3.0 90/163
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro Serbia and Montenegro 2.3 106/133 2.8 97/159
Flag of Seychelles Seychelles 4.0 55/159 3.6 63/163
Flag of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 2.2 113/133 2.4 126/159 2.2 142/163
Singapore 9.2 4/91 9.3 5/102 9.4 5/133 9.4 5/159 9.4 5/163
Slovakia 3.7 59/133 4.3 47/159 4.7 49/163
Slovenia 5.2 34/91 6.0 27/102 5.9 29/133 6.1 31/159 6.4 28/163
Flag of Somalia Somalia 2.1 144/159
Flag of South Africa South Africa 4.8 38/91 4.8 36/102 4.4 48/133 4.5 46/159 4.6 51/163
South Korea 4.2 42/91 4.5 40/102 4.3 50/133 5.0 40/159 5.1 42/163
Flag of Spain Spain 7.0 22/91 7.1 20/102 6.9 23/133 7.0 23/159 6.8 23/163
Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 3.7 52/102 3.4 66/133 3.2 78/159 3.1 84/163
Flag of Sudan Sudan 2.3 106/133 2.1 144/159 2.0 156/163
Flag of Suriname Suriname 3.2 78/159 3.0 90/163
Flag of Swaziland Swaziland 2.7 103/159 2.5 121/163
Flag of Sweden Sweden 9.0 6/91 9.3 5/102 9.3 6/133 9.2 6/159 9.2 6/163
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 8.4 12/91 8.5 12/102 8.8 8/133 9.1 7/159 9.1 7/163
Flag of Syria Syria 3.4 66/133 3.4 70/159 2.9 93/163
Flag of Tajikistan Tajikistan 1.8 124/133 2.1 144/159 2.2 142/163
Flag of Tanzania Tanzania 2.2 82/91 2.7 71/102 2.5 92/133 2.9 88/159 2.9 93/163
Flag of Thailand Thailand 3.2 61/91 3.2 64/102 3.3 70/133 3.8 59/159 3.6 63/163
Flag of East Timor Timor-Leste 2.6 111/163
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 4.6 43/133 3.8 59/159 3.2 79/163
Flag of Togo Togo 2.4 130/163
Flag of Tunisia Tunisia 5.3 31/91 4.8 36/102 4.9 39/133 4.9 43/159 4.6 51/163
Flag of Turkey Turkey 3.6 54/91 3.2 64/102 3.1 77/133 3.5 65/159 3.8 60/163
Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 1.8 155/159 2.2 142/163
Flag of Uganda Uganda 1.9 88/91 2.1 93/102 2.2 113/133 2.5 117/159 2.7 105/163
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 2.1 83/91 2.4 85/102 2.3 106/133 2.6 107/159 2.8 99/163
Flag of United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 5.2 37/133 6.2 30/159 6.2 31/163
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom 8.3 13/91 8.7 10/102 8.7 11/133 8.6 11/159 8.6 11/163
Flag of United States United States 7.6 16/91 7.7 16/102 7.5 18/133 7.6 17/159 7.3 20/163
Uruguay 5.1 35/91 5.1 32/102 5.5 33/133 5.9 32/159 6.4 28/163
Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 2.7 71/91 2.9 68/102 2.4 100/133 2.2 137/159 2.1 151/163
Flag of Venezuela Venezuela 2.8 69/91 2.5 81/102 2.4 100/133 2.3 130/159 2.3 138/163
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 2.6 75/91 2.4 85/102 2.4 100/133 2.6 107/159 2.6 111/163
Flag of Yemen Yemen 2.9 65/91 2.7 71/102 2.6 88/133 2.7 103/159 2.6 111/163
Flag of Zambia Zambia 2.6 75/91 2.6 77/102 2.5 92/133 2.6 107/159 2.6 111/163
Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 2.9 65/91 2.7 71/102 2.3 106/133 2.6 107/159 2.4 130/163

Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Benin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia_(state). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burkina_Faso. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Motto: Unité, Dignité, Travail(French) Unity, Dignity, Work Anthem: La Renaissance (French) E Zingo (Sango) Capital (and largest city) Bangui Official languages Sango, French Government Republic  - President François Bozizé  - Prime Minister Élie Doté Independence from France   - Date August 13, 1960  Area  - Total 622,984 km² (43rd) 240,534 sq... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica_(state). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gabon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_The_Gambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hong_Kong. ... Hong Kong (香港; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2; Yale: heūng góng; pinyin: Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang) is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kenya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macau. ... Motto: none Anthem: March of the Volunteers (national anthem of the PRC) Capital none 1 Most populated freguesia Freguesia de Nossa Senhora de Fátima Official languages · Chinese (Cantonese de facto) · Portuguese Government  - Chief Executive Edmund Ho Hau-wah Establishment    - Founded by local Chinese At least 5th century   - occupied by... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Madagascar_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malawi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mali. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritius. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niger. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Palestinian_flag. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Qatar_(bordered). ... Motto: Unité, Travail, Progrès (French: Unity, Work, Progress) Anthem: La Congolaise Capital Brazzaville Largest city Brazzaville Official language(s) French Government Republic President Prime Minister Denis Sassou-Nguesso Isidore Mvouba Independence  - Date From France 15 August 1960 Area    - Total 342,000 km² (62nd)   132047 sq mi   - Water (%) 3. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_(state)_(bordered). ... Anthem: Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment    - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... 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Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tanzania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Timor. ... The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, consisting of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, a political exclave of East Timor situated on the western side of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Togo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... 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References

  1. ^ Corruption Perception Report accessed on January 9, 2007
  2. ^ a b c d e Frequently Asked Questions: TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI 2005). Retrieved on 2005-11-22.
  3. ^ ICCR FAQ. Retrieved on 2005-07-04.

January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ...

See also

External links

  • Internet Center for Corruption Research
  • Transparency International 2004 Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Transparency International 2005 Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Transparency International 2006 Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Survey instrument to measure disaggregated corruption indicators

  Results from FactBites:
 
Press Release: Transparency International Releases the Year 2000 Corruption Perceptions Index. (587 words)
Transparency International, stating that its Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is a valuable reminder that corruption remains widespread in very large numbers of countries, today issued the year 2000 CPI ranking 90 countries.
The Corruption Perceptions Index, which TI first launched in 1995, ranks countries in terms of the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.
The CPI is based on the understanding that levels of corruption are not sharply changed by short-term actions, while perceptions of corruption may fluctuate significantly based on highly visible events.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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