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Encyclopedia > Corrido

The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry form, a ballad, of the mestizo Mexican cultural area (which includes the Southwestern states of the United States, taken from Mexican sovereignty in the mid 19th Century). It derives largely from the 18th century Spanish romance, and in its most known form consists of 1) a salutation from the singer and prologue to the story; 2) the story itself; 3) a moral and farewell from the singer. In jazz and popular music, the term ballad denotes a short song in a slow tempo, usually with a romantic or sentimental text, though the term is also used for instrumental pieces. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other religions) Related ethnic groups Other Spanish people, Portuguese people, Amerindian, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ...

Contents

Themes

Various themes are featured in Mexican corridos, and corrido lyrics are often old legends and ballads about a famed criminal or hero in the rural frontier areas of northern Mexico. Some corridos may also be love stories. Contemporary corridos written within the past few decades feature much more modern themes.


Form

Corridos, like rancheras, have introductory instrumental music and adornos interrupting the stanzas of the lyrics. However, unlike rancheras, its rhythm remains fairly consistent. The corrido has a rhythm very much similar to the European waltz; rancheras can be played at a variety of rhythms. Corridos often tell stories, while rancheras are for dancing. The ranchera is a genre of the traditional music of Mexico. ... A waltz (German: , Italian: , French: , Catalan: ) is a ballroom and folk dance in   time, done primarily in closed position. ...


Like rancheras, corridos can be played by mariachi, norteño, banda, duranguense, Tejano and grupero bands. The instruments used to play the song differs with the type of band that plays the corrido. Mariachi is a type of musical group, originally from Mexico. ... Norteño (literally meaning northern in Spanish; also known as conjunto) is a genre of Mexican music. ... Banda is a brass-based form of traditional Mexican music. ... A Tejano (Spanish for Texan; archaic spelling texano) is a person of Hispanic descent born and living in the U.S. state of Texas. ...

An example of a corrido song sheet or sheet music, this one from 1915 at the height of the Mexican Revolution

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (424x640, 104 KB) An example of a Mexican corrido song sheet or sheet music from 1915. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (424x640, 104 KB) An example of a Mexican corrido song sheet or sheet music from 1915. ...

History

Until the arrival and success of electronic mass-media (mid-20th century), the corrido served in Mexico as the main informational and educational outlet, even with subversive purposes, due to its apparent linguistic and musical simplicity, appropriate for oral transmission. After the spread of radio and television, the genre evolved into a new stage and is still in process of maturity. Some scholars, however, consider the corrido to be dead or agonizing in more recent times (see affirmations of Vicente T. Mendoza, El corrido mexicano, 1954). In more rural areas where Spanish and Mexican cultures have been preserved because of isolation, the romance has taken on other forms related to the corrido as well. In New Mexico, for example, a story-song emerged during the colonial period that was known as an Indita, which loosely follows the format of a corrido, but is chanted rather than sung, similar to a Native American chant, hence the name Indita. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... This article is about the computer software framework. ...


The earliest living specimens of corrido are adapted versions of Spanish romances or European tales, mainly about disgraced or idealized love, or religious topics. These, that include (among others) "La Martina" (an adaptation of the romance "La Esposa Infiel") and "La Delgadina", show the same basic stylistic features of the mainstream of later corridos (1/2 or 3/4 tempo and "verso menor" lyric composing, meaning verses of eight or less phonetic syllables, grouped in strophes of six or less verses).


Beginning with the Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821) and culminating during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1921), the genre flourished and acquired its "epic" tones, along with the three-step narrative structure as described above. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Many portions of this article are translations of excerpts from the article Revolución Mexicana in the Spanish Wikipedia. ...


Prior to widespead use of radio, popular corridos were passed around as an oral tradition, often to spread news of events and popular heroes, and popular humor, to the population, many of whom were illiterate prior to the improvements to the educational system that occurred after the Revolution. Academic study of corridos written during the Mexican revolution shows they were used as a means to communicate news throughout Mexico as a response to the propoganda being spread in the newspapers which were owned by the corrupt government of Pofirio Díaz. Sheet music of popular corridos were sold or included in publications. Other corrido sheets were passed out free as a form of propaganda, to eulogize leaders, armies, and political movements, or in some cases to mock the opposition. The best known Revolutionary corrido, is, of course, La cucaracha, an old song that was rephrased to celebrate the exploits of Pancho Villa's army and poke fun at his nemesis Venustiano Carranza. Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the Great Patriotic War. ... A contemporary corrido song sheet of La cucaracha issued duren the Mexican Revolution. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Doroteo Arango Arámbula (June 5, 1878 – July 23, 1923) — better known as Francisco Villa or, by the nickname for Francisco Pancho. Pancho Villa — was one of the foremost leaders of the Mexican Revolution and provisional governor of the... Venustiano Carranza Garza (December 29, 1859 – May 21, 1920) was one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. ...


With the consolidation of "Presidencialismo" (the political era following the Mexican Revolution) and the success of electronic mass-media, the corrido lost its primacy as a mass communications form, becoming part of a folklorist cult on one branch, and on another, the voice of the new subversives: oppressed workers, drug growers or traffickers; leftist activists, emigrated farmworkers (mainly to the USA)... This is what scholars call the "decaying" stage of the genre, which tends to erase the stylistic or structural characteristics of "revolutionary" or traditional corrido, without a clear and unified understanding of its evolution. This is mainly signified by the "narcocorrido", many of which are egocentric ballads paid for by drug smugglers to anonymous and almost illiterate composers (more about this asserts in Spanish_Wikipedia), but others coming from the most popular norteno and banda artists, and written by some of the most successful and influential ranchera composers. A narcocorrido is a kind of Mexican music which evolved out of folk corridos, using dance-able, accordion-based polka as a rhythmic base. ...


In mestizo-Mexican cultural area the three variants of corrido (romance, revolutionary and modern) are both alive and sung, along with sister narrative-popular genres, such as the "valona" of Michoacán state, the "son arribeño" of the Sierra Gorda (Guanajuato, Hidalgo and Querétaro states) and others. Its vitality and flexibility allow original corrido lyrics to be built on non-Mexican musical genres, such as blues and ska, and even non-Spanish lyrics, like the ones composed or translated by Mexican indigenous communities or by the "Chicano" people in USA, in English or "Spanglish". The corrido was, for example, a favorite device employed by the Teatro Campesino led by Luis Valdez in mobilizing largely Mexican and Mexican American farmworkers in California during the 1960s. Valona is a popular narrative song and poetry form of the Mexican state of Michoacán. ... The Sierra Gorda region of the State of Querétaro, Mexico, is a biosphere reserve and home to five Franciscan missions declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The region is formed by the municipalities of Arroyo Seco, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros, Pinal de Amoles, and Peñamiller. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Ska (pron. ... Chicano teenager in El Pasos second ward. ... It has been suggested that Hispanicisms_in_English be merged into this article or section. ... Poster for Teatro Campesino performing at a strike benefit with Quicksilver Messenger Service July 1966 at the Fillmore Auditorium, San Francisco. ... Luis Valdez depicted on a 1981 silkscreen poster announcing a dance fundraiser. ...


Musical characteristics

The corrido was originally performed as a melodically simple tune with guitar accompaniment. It was performed in waltz time and now commonly adopts a polka rhythm. Since the commercialization of the corrido, it is often performed by conjuntos produced professionally by recording companies. A waltz (German: , Italian: , French: , Catalan: ) is a ballroom and folk dance in   time, done primarily in closed position. ... Street musicians in Prague playing a polka Polka is a type of dance, and also a genre of dance music. ... Tejano is also the name of Texans of Spanish origin. ...


Films

  • 2006 - Al Otro Lado (To the Other Side). Directed by Natalia Almada.

References

  • Americo Paredes. "With His Pistol in His Hand: A Border Ballad and its Hero" (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1958)
  • Richard Flores. "The Corrido and the Emergence of Texas-Mexican Social Identity" (Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 105, Spring 1992)
  • Dan Dickey. "The Kennedy Corridos: A Study of the Ballads of a Mexican American Hero" (Center for Mexican-American Studies, University of Texas at Austin, 1978)
  • Merle Simmons. "The Mexican Corrido as a Source of an Interpretive Study of Modern Mexico, 1870-1950" (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1957).

External links

  • Narcocorrido [Online Community],
  • Narcocorrido, though its title refers to the modern style focusing on drug smugglers, includes a variety of information about the contemporary scene, including a page of topical corrido lyrics and one on the censorship of corridos in Mexico.
  • Here is a PDF_in_Spanish with complementary information and a research proposal.
  • Renowned folklorist Dr. Americo Paredes [[1]] (1915-1999) has transcribed several corridos from the Texas - Mexico border.
  • Dan Dickey has concisely summarized the corrido [[2]] for The University of Texas at Austin's Handbook of Texas Online.
  • Corridos Sin Fronteras - Ballads Without Borders [3] - This bilingual web site teaches the rich history of Mexico through narrative songs known as "corridos." The site supports a Smithsonian Institution's traveling exhibition. Visitors learn about revolutionaries, bandits, war heroes, drug smugglers and more through music, art, photography and video. A teacher section helps integrate the site into the classroom, and a resource section provides even more information on this popular musical tradition. Winner of Museums and the Web Best Online Exhibition Award 2003. (site developed by Interactive Knowledge, Inc)
  • corrido [Corridos],

  Results from FactBites:
 
Corrido - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (573 words)
The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry form of the mestizo Mexican cultural area (which includes the Southern states of USA, taken from Mexican sovereignship in the midst and late 19th.
Until the arrival and success of electronic mass-media (mid-20th century), the corrido served in Mexico as the main informational and educational mean, even with subversive purposes, due to its apparent linguistic and musical simplicity, proper for oral transmission.
In mestizo-Mexican cultural area those three variants of corrido (transcultured romances, "Revolution corrido" and the modern one) are samely alive and sung, along with brother narrative-popular genres, such as the "valona" of Michoacán state, the "son arribeño" of the Sierra Gorda (Guanajuato, Hidalgo and Querétaro states) and others.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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