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Encyclopedia > Correspondence theory of truth

The correspondence theory of truth states that something (for example, a proposition or statement or sentence) is rendered true by the existence of a fact with corresponding elements and a similar structure. The theory maintains that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world, and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world. The theory presupposes an objective world and is therefore antagonistic to theories that problematise objectivity such as external world skepticism or metaphysical subjectivism. For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Look up fact in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Limited information sources, article is object for nothing but original research If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

Contents

Examples

A practical example of correspondence is as follows. For example, there is a true distance to the moon when we humans attempt to go there, and this true distance is necessary to know so that the journey can be successfully made. Another example of how some words can accurately describe the world around us, especially by demonstration, is the ability to teach a child that cars move at certain speeds, and that one can judge the proper time to cross the road or highway based on real distances and speeds. Plato and other classical philosophers helped to teach the idea of true or false statements in deductions and inductions, especially in the studies of logic, math, geometry, astronomy, architecture, and natural philosophy. When someone sincerely agrees with an assertion, they might claim that it is the truth. ... Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning. ... A man holds up a street puppet designed to resemble George W. Bush at a demonstration against the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005 in Washington, D.C.. American Civil Rights March on Washington, leaders marching from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, August 28... A pocket watch, a device used to keep time There are two distinct views on the meaning of time. ... For distance between people, see proxemics. ... For alternate uses, see Speed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... There are several meanings for the word deduction: Natural deduction Deductive reasoning Deductions in terms of taxation, such as Itemized deductions Standard deduction See also: Logic Venn diagram Inductive reasoning Both statistics and the scientific method rely on both induction and deduction. ... Look up induction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of patterns found in reasoning. ... Incorrect shortening of Mathematics. ... Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ...


Problems with the theory arise from consideration of precisely what is supposed to correspond with what. If a statement is just a sentence then it is merely a physical thing (for example, ink on a page, or sound waves in the air) with no intrinsic meaning. Therefore it is usually claimed that it is the proposition (or meaning) expressed by a statement that is supposed to correspond with the facts. Yet both these "entities", propositions and facts, may be unappealing to minimalists who refuse to admit such abstract entities to their ontology. Also, precisely defining what constitutes correspondence is also a problem. Proposition is a term used in logic to describe the content of assertions. ... An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... Correspondence may refer to: In the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg, correspondence is the relationship between spiritual and physical realities. ...


Philosopher's views

Immanuel Kant discussed the correspondence theory of truth in the following manner: Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ...

Truth is said to consist in the agreement of knowledge with the object. According to this mere verbal definition, then, my knowledge, in order to be true, must agree with the object. Now, I can only compare the object with my knowledge by this means, namely, by taking knowledge of it. My knowledge, then, is to be verified by itself, which is far from being sufficient for truth. For as the object is external to me, and the knowledge is in me, I can only judge whether my knowledge of the object agrees with my knowledge of the object. Such a circle in explanation was called by the ancients Diallelos. And the logicians were accused of this fallacy by the sceptics, who remarked that this account of truth was as if a man before a judicial tribunal should make a statement, and appeal in support of it to a witness whom no one knows, but who defends his own credibility by saying that the man who had called him as a witness is an honourable man.
 
— (Kant, 45)

According to Kant, the definition of truth as correspondence is a "mere verbal definition", here making use of Aristotle's distinction between a nominal definition, a definition in name only, and a real definition, a definition that shows the true cause or essence of the thing whose term is being defined. From Kant's account of the history, the definition of truth as correspondence was already in dispute from classical times, the "skeptics" criticizing the "logicians" for a form of circular reasoning, though the extent to which the "logicians" actually held such a theory is not evaluated. Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical...


The most commonly cited problem for the correspondence theory is defining the relation of correspondence, and when a proposition corresponds with the facts. Bertrand Russell, and shortly after, Ludwig Wittgenstein, suggested that proposition and fact "correspond" when their structure is isomorphic. See Richard Kirkham's book cited below for a discussion of this view. Look up Relation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In mathematics, a relation is a generalization of arithmetic relations, such as = and <, which occur in statements, such as 5 < 6 or 2 + 2 = 4. See relation (mathematics), binary relation (of set theory and logic) and relational algebra. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to contemporary philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... In mathematics, an isomorphism (in Greek isos = equal and morphe = shape) is a kind of interesting mapping between objects. ... Richard Ladd Kirkham, American philosopher, was born 18 June 1955. ...


References

  • Armstrong, D.M. (1997), A World of States of Affairs, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Davidson, Donald (1984), Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Haack, Susan (1993), Evidence and Inquiry: Towards Reconstruction in Epistemology, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK.
  • Habermas, Jürgen (2003), Truth and Justification, Barbara Fultner (trans.), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • James, William (1907), Pragmatism, A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking, Popular Lectures on Philosophy, Longmans, Green, and Company, New York, NY.
  • James, William (1909), The Meaning of Truth, A Sequel to 'Pragmatism', Longmans, Green, and Company, New York, NY.
  • Kant, Immanuel (1800), Introduction to Logic. Reprinted, Thomas Kingsmill Abbott (trans.), Dennis Sweet (intro.), Barnes and Noble, New York, NY, 2005.
  • Kirkham, Richard L. (1992), Theories of Truth: A Critical Introduction, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Neale, Stephen (2001), Facing Facts, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Popper, Karl R. (1979, Rev. ed.), Objective Knowledge, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK: 314-29 (Tarski's theory as a rehabilitation of the correspondence theory of truth).
  • Quine, W.V., 1990 (Rev. ed., 1992), Pursuit of Truth. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA: 79-82 (truth as intermediary between the world and a sentence as generalizable object).
  • Runes, Dagobert D. (ed., 1962), Dictionary of Philosophy, Littlefield, Adams, and Company, Totowa, NJ. Cited as DOP.
  • Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, Second Edition, Unabridged (1950), W.A. Neilson, T.A. Knott, P.W. Carhart (eds.), G. & C. Merriam Company, Springfield, MA. Cited as MWU.
  • Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983), Frederick C. Mish (ed.), Merriam–Webster Inc., Springfield, MA. Cited as MWC.

David Malet Armstrong, often D. M. Armstrong, (1926 - ) is an Australian philosopher of mind, and scientific metaphysician. ... Donald Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher and the Willis S. and Marion Slusser Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Susan Haack (born 1945) is a professor of philosophy and law, and is currently on the faculty at the University of Miami in Florida. ... Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas (born June 18, 1929 in Düsseldorf) is a German philosopher, political scientist and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory, best known for his concept of the public sphere. ... For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation) William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Richard Ladd Kirkham, American philosopher, was born 18 June 1955. ... Stephen Neale is Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University. ... Charles Peirce (Bibliography). ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, MA, Ph. ... Alfred Tarski, original name Alfred Teitelbaum (b. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also

For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Sojourner Truth A truth theory or a theory of truth is a conceptual framework that underlies a particular conception of truth, such as those used in art, ethics, logic, mathematics, philosophy, the sciences, or any discussion that either mentions or makes use of a notion of truth. ... Coherentism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism is the claim that a scientific theory cannot be tested in isolation; a test of one theory always depends on other theories and hypotheses. ...

Related topics

Look up belief in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... For themes emphasized by Charles Peirce, see Pragmaticism. ... Pragmaticism was a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce for his philosophy, in order to distance himself from pragmatism of William James ... The pragmatic maxim, also known as the maxim of pragmatism or the maxim of pragmaticism, is a maxim of logic formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... In philosophy, epistemic theories of truth are attempts to analyse the notion of truth in terms of epistemic notions such as belief, acceptance, verification, justification, perspective and so on. ...

Theories of truth

There are two distinct types of Coherentism. ... The consensus theory of truth, originated by Charles Sanders Peirce who called it pragmatism, and later pragmaticism, holds that a statement is true if it would be agreed to by all those who investigate it if investigation were carried sufficiently far in that particular direction. ... The deflationary theory of truth is a family of theories which all have in common the belief that assertions that predicate truth of a statement do not provide any substantive information or insight into the nature of truth. ... In philosophy, epistemic theories of truth are attempts to analyse the notion of truth in terms of epistemic notions such as belief, acceptance, verification, justification, perspective and so on. ... An indefinabilist about truth subscribes to the correspondence view- that truth is agreement with reality- but resists drawing the conclusion that this succeeds in proffering a definition or explanatory reduction of the concept. ... The pragmatic theory of truth is a philosophical theory of truth. ... The Redundancy theory of truth is a philosophical theory about the way in which the predicate is true functions in such sentences as Snow is white is true. In its simplest version, the redundancy theory holds that Snow is white is true says no more than does Snow is white... The semantic theory of truth holds that any assertion that a proposition is true can be made only as a formal requirement regarding the language in which the proposition itself is expressed. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Correspondence theory of truth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (822 words)
The correspondence theory of truth states that something is rendered true by the existence of a fact with corresponding elements and a similar structure.
The theory maintains that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world, and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.
The theory presupposes an objective world and is therefore antagonistic to theories that problematise objectivity such as skepticism or relativism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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