In logic, correlative based fallacies, also known as fallacies of distraction, are logical fallacies based on correlative conjunctions.
A correlative conjunction is a relationship between two statements where one must be false and the other true. In formal logic this is known as the exclusive or relationship. Examples of correlatives are:
A: Object one is larger than object two.
B: Object one is smaller or the same size as object two.
A: Fido is a dog.
B: Fido is not a dog.
Fallacies based on correlatives include:
The false dilemma or false correlative. Here something which is not a correlative is treated as a correlative, excluding some other valid possibility.
The fallacy of denying the correlative, where an attempt is made to introduce some other invalid option into what is a true correlative.
The fallacy of suppressed correlative, where the definitions of a correlative are changed so that one of the options includes the other, making one option impossible.
The false choice, in which options are presented as being exclusive, when that is not the case.
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