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Encyclopedia > Corregidor
Corregidor and the entrance to Manila Bay
Corregidor and the entrance to Manila Bay
Corregidor in 1941
Corregidor in 1941

Corregidor is an island in the entrance of the Philippines' Manila Bay. It is under the jurisdiction of the province of Cavite. Image File history File links Corregidor_overview_landsat2000. ... Image File history File links Corregidor_overview_landsat2000. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2066x1241, 367 KB) Map of Corregidor island in 1941. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2066x1241, 367 KB) Map of Corregidor island in 1941. ... Photography sunset in Bay City, Pasay (near SM Mall of Asia) Manila Bay is one of the finest natural harbors in the world which serves the port of Manila (on Luzon), in the Philippines. ... w:This article is about the province of Cavite. ...


The island is about 48 kilometers west of Manila. It is shaped like a tadpole, with its tail running eastward, and has a land area of 9 km². Along with Caballo (which lies 2 km south of the "tail's" tip), it partially blocks the entrance to Manila Bay, and thus has strategic importance. It also creates a northern and southern entrance to the bay. Tadpole of Littlejohns Tree Frog (Litoria littlejohni) A tadpole (also known as a pollywog or polliwog) is a larval amphibian, the juvenile form of a frog, toad, newt, salamander, or caecilian. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Caballo is an island in the entrance to the Philippines Manila Bay. ...


Because of its rocky landscape and the fortifications of Fort Mills, the island was also known as "the Rock". Fort Mills (Corregidor, the Philippines) was the location of US Major General George F. Moores headquarters for the Philippine Departments Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays. ...


During the Battle of the Philippines (1941–42), General Douglas MacArthur used Corregidor as Allied headquarters until March 11, 1942. From December 24, 1941 to February 19, 1942, it was also the temporary location of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines — on December 30, 1941, outside the Malinta Tunnel, President Manuel L. Quezon and Vice-President Sergio Osmeña were inaugurated for a second term. The Voice of Freedom, the radio station of the USAFFE (United States Army Forces in the Far East) broadcast from Corregidor, including the famous announcement of the fall of Bataan. Japanese troops forced a surrender of the remaining American and Filipino forces on Corregidor on May 6 after the Battle of Corregidor. Combatants Commonwealth of the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 KIA, 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March, 5,000 wounded, 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed, 500 missing in action, 1,100 wounded The... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Anthem: Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... Sergio Osmeña (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961) was the second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. ... Voice of Freedom is a newsgathering organization and advocacy group that aims to inform citizens about actions by our government that affect our. ... USAFFE (United States Army Forces - Far East) included the Philippine Department, Philippine Army (2 regular and 10 reserve divisions), and the Far East Air Force (formerly, Philippine Army Air Corps). ... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Jonathan Wainwright George M. Parker Edward P. King Masaharu Homma Susumu Morioka Kineo Kitajima Kameichiro Nagano Strength 30,000 U.S. troops 120,000 Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 10,000 killed, 20,000 wounded, 75,000 prisoners 7... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (127th in leap years). ... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George F. Moore Samuel L. Howard Masaharu Homma Kureo Tanaguchi Kizon Mikami Strength 13,000 U.S. and Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 800 killed 1,000 wounded 11,000 POWs 900 killed 1,200 wounded The...

Corregidor
Geography
Location South East Asia
Archipelago Philippine islands
Major islands Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Palawan
Area km²
Administration
Flag of Philippines  Philippines

Contents

Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Philippine islands is a commonly mistaken description for the Philippines. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... Mindoro is the fourth-largest island in the Philippines. ... Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region in Luzon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ...

Geography

Map of Corregidor
Map of Corregidor

Corregidor is a tadpole-shaped island four miles long and about 1.5 miles at its widest point, with a total area roughly about three square miles. Its bulbous head, which points towards the South China Sea rises prominently to a large flat called Topside. This was the nerve center of the Island and here was located the headquarters, barracks for enlisted personnel, officers quarters, underground ordnance shops, the traditional parade grounds, and the bulk of the batteries that constituted the strength of Corregidor. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2165x898, 199 KB)Map of Corregidor, with important events of World War II. This image is a work of a U.S. Army soldier or employee, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2165x898, 199 KB)Map of Corregidor, with important events of World War II. This image is a work of a U.S. Army soldier or employee, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... Tadpole of Littlejohns Tree Frog (Litoria littlejohni) A tadpole (also known as a pollywog or polliwog) is a larval amphibian, the juvenile form of a frog, toad, newt, salamander, or caecilian. ... The South China Sea, showing surrounding countries and neighbouring seas and oceans The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ...

Middleside

Middleside is a small plateau that interrupts the upward slope from Bottomside to Topside, and was the location of barracks for the enlisted men, a hospital, quarters for non-commissioned officers, a service club, and two schoolhouses—one for the children of Filipino soldiers and the other for American children. Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland or chodechugger, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country. ...


Bottomside

Bottomside in 1982

Bottomside is the lower part of the island and is the neck that connects the tail and head of the island. South of Bottomside is Barrio San Jose (near what was Navy Beach); on the north is what was Army Dock, with its three large piers, and, east of Bottomside, is Malinta Tunnel. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2890x1870, 1520 KB)ID: DNST8601669 Service Depicted: Other Service Aerial view of a portion of the island. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2890x1870, 1520 KB)ID: DNST8601669 Service Depicted: Other Service Aerial view of a portion of the island. ...

Early Corregidor

Under the Spanish era, Corregidor served not only as a fortress of defense and a penal institution, but also as a signal outpost to warn Manila of the approach of hostile ships, and as a station for Customs inspection. Corregidor comes from the Spanish word corregir, meaning "to correct." One story states that, due to the Spanish system wherein all ships entering Manila Bay were required to stop and have their documents checked and corrected, the island was called Isla del Corregidor (literally, Island of Correction). Another version claims that the island was used a penitentiary or correctional institution by the Spanish and came to be called El Corregidor.[1] Nickname: Pearl of the Orient, City by the Bay, Distinguished and Ever Loyal City Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government... Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ...


In 1902, the island was organized as an American military reservation. In 1903, a convalescent hospital was established by the US Army. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


In 1908, a Regular Army post was established on the island, designated as Fort Mills, in honor of Brigadier General Samuel M. Mills, Chief of Artillery of the US Army from 1905 to 1906. By early 1909, H Company of the 2nd Battalion of the Corps of Engineers was assigned to Corregidor and started on the construction of concrete emplacements, bomb-proof shelters, and trails at various parts of the island. This pioneer engineer company left Fort Mills on March 15, 1912. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The defense of Corregidor was the immediate responsibility of the Philippine Coast Artillery Command under Major General George F. Moore. Stationed on the island were the following regular units: Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...

  • 60th Coast Artillery AA (US Regular Army)
  • 91st Coast Artillery (Philippine Scouts)
  • 59th Coast Artillery (US Regular Army)
  • 92nd Tractor Drawn Coast Artillery (Philippine Scouts)
  • Headquarters, Harbor Defenses of Manila and the Seaward Defense Command.

Before the outbreak of World War II, the island was reinforced by the 4th Marine Regiment and by mobilized Philippine Army troops which were sent to reinforce the island's beach defenses. The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... This page is about the military unit. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... Military branches  Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps and Coast Guard), Air Force Military manpower - military age  18 years of age (2001) Military manpower - availability  males age 15-49: 22,435,982 (2004 est. ...


The Army post on Corregidor was named Fort Mills, that on Caballo Island, Fort Hughes, on El Fraile, Fort Drum, and on Carabao Island, Fort Frank. According to the war plan, these forts were supposed to be able to make a six-month stand, after which aid would presumably come from the United States. The fortifications on Corregidor were designed solely to beat off a sea-borne attack. When American military planners realized that airplanes would one day render Fort Mills obsolete, the United States was restricted from improving the fortifications by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. After this, U.S. Army constructed the Malinta Tunnel, with its series of related laterals, to protect its military stores and vital installations in the event of war. Caballo is an island in the entrance to the Philippines Manila Bay. ... Fort Hughes (Caballo, the Philippines) was part of the US Armys, Philippine Departments, Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays. ... Manila Bay is the harbor which serves the port of Manila (on Luzon), in the Philippines. ... Carabao Island is an island in the province of Romblon in the Philippines. ... The Washington Naval Treaty limited the naval armaments of its five signatories: the United States, the British Empire, the Empire of Japan, the French Third Republic, and Italy. ...


The island, which sheltered Fort Mills, was a prized piece of real estate. Its defense installations had cost the U.S. Government more than 150 million dollars. This amount did not include the expenditure for fortifying the neighboring islands of Caballo, Carabao, and El Fraile, on which were established forts Hughes, Frank, and Drum, respectively. Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... ...


Battle of Corregidor

For main article see Battle of Corregidor Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George F. Moore Samuel L. Howard Masaharu Homma Kureo Tanaguchi Kizon Mikami Strength 13,000 U.S. and Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 800 killed 1,000 wounded 11,000 POWs 900 killed 1,200 wounded The...


The Battle for Corregidor was the culmination of the Japanese campaign for the conquest of the Philippines. The fall of Bataan in April 9, 1942 ended all organized opposition by the U.S. Army Forces – Far East (USAFFE) to the invading Japanese forces on Luzon in the northern Philippines. The island bastion of Corregidor, with its network of tunnels and formidable array of defensive armament, along with the fortifications across the entrance to Manila Bay, was the remaining obstacle to the 14th Japanese Imperial Army of Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma. The Japanese had to take Corregidor; as long as the island remained in American hands, they would be denied the use of the Manila Bay, the finest natural harbor in the Orient. Masaharu Homma (本間雅晴 Honma Masaharu, 1888 in Sado, Niigata Prefecture, Japan - April 3, 1946 in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, also known as the Poet General, was the Japanese General in charge of the troops and actions that created the Bataan death march in Philippines during 1942 and the bombing of...


Return to Corregidor

For main article see Battle of Corregidor (1945) Combatants United States Japan Commanders George M. Jones Edward M. Postlethwait Rikichi Tsukada Strength 7,000 U.S. troops 6,700 Japanese troops Casualties 207 killed 684 wounded 6,600 killed 50 wounded 19 prisoners The Battle for the Recapture of Corregidor, from 16 February to 26 February 1945, by...


The Battle for the Recapture of Corregidor, from 16 February to 26 February 1945, by American liberation forces against the defending Japanese garrison on the island fortress used by the USAFFE, which was the last bastion to surrender to invading Japanese forces in 1942.


Fortifications

There were 23 batteries installed on Corregidor, consisting of 56 Coastal guns and mortars. In addition, Corregidor had 13 anti-aircraft artillery batteries with 76 guns (28 3-inch and 48 50-caliber) and 10 60-inch Sperry searchlights.


The longest-range coastal pieces were the two 12-inch guns of Batteries Hearn and Smith, with a horizontal range of 29,000 yards. Although capable of an all around traverse, these guns, due to their flat trajectories, were not effective for use against targets on Bataan. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bataan Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: Balanga City Founded: —1754 Population: 2000 census—557,659 (46th largest) Density—406 per km² (12th highest) Area: 1,373. ...


During the siege, the island had ample armor-piercing ammunition but very little of the anti-personnel type, which then was of greatest demand for use against land targets on Bataan. In fact, most of the anti-personnel shells were only for the 12-inch mortars of Batteries Way and Geary.


Battery Way

Main article: Battery Way
One of the two 12-inch guns on Corregidor, 2005.
One of the two 12-inch guns on Corregidor, 2005.

Battery Way was named in honor of a hero of the Coast Artillery Corps of the U.S. Army, and along with Battery Gear, was the mainstay of the Corregidor Garrison during the Japanese invasion. Its mortars, capable of a 360-degree traverse, could fire on land targets at Bataan. They brought the most destruction on Japanese positions during the attempted landings on the southwest coast of Bataan late in January to the middle of February 1942. These mortars were silenced by enemy shelling in May 1942. A battery in military terms normally refers to a group of guns placed together in a given area. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x856, 713 KB) Summary American 12 Inch Gun Corregidor, taken 2005 W N Mansfield Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x856, 713 KB) Summary American 12 Inch Gun Corregidor, taken 2005 W N Mansfield Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Battery Geary

Battery Geary was a battery of six 13-ton, 12-inch mortars. This battery, when pinpointed by the Japanese, was subjected to heavy shelling. One direct hit by a 240 mm shell, which detonated the magazines of this Battery in May 1942, proved to be the most crippling shot during the entire siege of Corregidor. This shelling tossed the mortars around, one to a distance of 150 yards, another was blown through three feet of reinforced concrete wall into the adjoining powder magazine of Battery Crockett. Large chunks of steel were blown as far as the Malinta Tunnel, while 27 of the battery crew were killed instantly.


Other Facts

Before the war and during the siege, Corregidor depended mostly for its potable water on Bataan. For this purpose, barges were used to haul water either from Mariveles or Cabcaben, Bataan. Mariveles is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bataan, Philippines. ...


There were 65 miles of paved roads and trails on the island and 19.5 miles of electric railroad track. The latter were used largely to haul heavy equipment and ammunition from Bottomside to the different Batteries.


Also on the island was Kindley Airfield. It was named in honor of an early hero of the U.S. Army Air Corps. It was a pre-war installation developed in the early-1920's and was rendered useless by hostile aerial bombardment in the early days of the war. 1. ...


The lighthouse is one of the oldest landmarks in Corregidor. A lighthouse with a beam range of 33 miles. It was first built by the Spaniards in 1836 and was replaced with a better one in 1853. The second lighthouse was further improvied in 1892 and was reduced to ruins during the siege of Corregidor. This rehabilitated lighthouse stands on the same spot where the second lighthouse stood before. A HDR image of a traditional lighthouse For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ...


Pacific War Memorial

Marker of the Pacific War Memorial; 2006
Marker of the Pacific War Memorial; 2006

After the War, many people, most of them veterans, visited the island because of its history. Today, Corregidor is a historic monument as well as a tourist destination. Many travel companies offer day tours on the island featuring military installations used during World War II. Most of the war ravaged buildings have not been restored, but have instead been left in reverence to the Filipino and American soldiers who died there. Standing on the highest part of Corregidor's west side is the Pacific War Memorial, which was built by the United States Government to honor the Filipino and American soldiers who participated in World War II. It was completed in 1968 at the cost of three million dollars. Image File history File linksMetadata OutsideMarker. ... Image File history File linksMetadata OutsideMarker. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ...


The Malinta Tunnel, which is the last stronghold of the joint Philippine and American military prior to the Japanese takeover during the last world war, is now home to an audio-visual presentation of the events that took place on the island, including the reluctant departure of General Douglas MacArthur and the evacuation of the Philippine president Manuel L. Quezon and his family to unoccupied areas of the Philippines and then to exile in the United States. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ...


One of the most recent additions to Corregidor is the Filipino Heroes Memorial. This 6,000-square meter complex has 14 murals depicting heroic battles fought by Filipinos from the 15th century up to the present day. It was designed by Architect Francisco Mañosa, while the murals and a statue of a Filipino guerrilla were sculpted by Manuel Casas. The complex was inaugurated by President Fidel V. Ramos on August 28, 1992. Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928) was the 12th President of the Philippines. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...

Reference

Gerez, M. B. The story of Corregidor.


See also

The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area of 300,000 km². The 11 largest islands contain 94% of the total land area. ... Fort Drum (El Fraile Island), also known as the “concrete battleship,” was a heavily fortified island fortress situated at the mouth of Manila Bay in the Philippines, due south of Corregidor Island. ... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George F. Moore Samuel L. Howard Masaharu Homma Kureo Tanaguchi Kizon Mikami Strength 13,000 U.S. and Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 800 killed 1,000 wounded 11,000 POWs 900 killed 1,200 wounded The...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Corregidor

  Results from FactBites:
 
Corregidor (409 words)
Corregidor is a small rocky island in the Philippines about 48 kilometers west of Manila which is stragetically located at the entrance of Manila Bay.
Corregidor became the headquarters of the Allied forces and also the seat of the Philippine Commonwealth government.
It was from Corregidor that Philippine President Manuel Quezon and General MacArthur left for Australia in February 1942, leaving behind Lt. Gen.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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