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Encyclopedia > Corporate Average Fuel Economy

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations in the United States, first enacted by Congress in 1975,[1] are federal regulations intended to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) sold in the US in the wake of the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo. Historically, it is the sales-weighted average fuel economy, expressed in miles per gallon (mpg), of a manufacturer's fleet of current model year passenger cars or light trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8,500 pounds (3,856 kg) or less, manufactured for sale in the United States. This system will change with the introduction of "Footprint" regulations for light trucks binding in 2011. Light trucks that exceed 8,500 lbs gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) do not have to comply with CAFE standards; SUVs and passenger vans are exempt up to 10,000 lbs. In 1999, over half a million vehicles exceeded the GVWR and the CAFE standard did not apply to them.[2] In 2011, the standard will change to include many larger vehicles. Look up Act on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Act may refer to: in law, a written document that attests the legality of the transaction. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... Karl Benzs Velo model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race An automobile or motor (usually shortened to just car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... Light truck is a vehicle classification generally used by the United States government for regulating fuel economy and safety. ... “Lorry” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ... This article or section should be merged with 1973 energy crisis On October 16th, 1973, as part of the political strategy that included the Yom Kippur War, OPEC cut production of oil, and placed an embargo on shipments of crude oil to the West, with the Netherlands, specifically targetted. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... MPG or mpg is a three-letter acronym with several meanings, including: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft - The Max Planck society for the advancement of science is an important German non-profit research organisation. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... // Look up fleet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The model year of a product is a number used to describe approximately when a product was produced. ... Restored passenger cars on display at the Mid-Continent Railway Museum in North Freedom, WI. A passenger car is a piece of railroad rolling stock that is designed to carry passengers. ... Light truck is a vehicle classification generally used by the United States government for regulating fuel economy and safety. ... A gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) is the estimated total weight of a road vehicle that is loaded to capacity, including the weight of the vehicle itself plus fuel, passengers, cargo, and other miscellaneous items such as extra aftermarket parts. ... A gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) is the estimated total weight of a road vehicle that is loaded to capacity, including the weight of the vehicle itself plus fuel, passengers, cargo, and other miscellaneous items such as extra aftermarket parts. ... The pound (abbreviations: lb or, sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et...


The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulates CAFE standards and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) measures vehicle fuel efficiency. Congress specifies that CAFE standards must be set at the "maximum feasible level" given consideration for 1) technological feasibility; 2) economic practicality; 3) effect of other standards on fuel economy; and 4) need of the nation to conserve energy. Historically EPA has encouraged consumers to buy more fuel efficient vehicles while NHTSA expresses concerns that smaller more fuel efficient vehicles may lead to increased traffic fatalities. If the average fuel economy of a manufacturer's annual fleet of car and/or truck production falls below the defined standard, the manufacturer must pay a penalty, currently $5.50 per 0.1 mpg under the standard, multiplied by the manufacturer's total production for the U.S. domestic market, a fine which not all car makers avoid. Fuel efficiency is associated with lower traffic safety, intertwining the issues of fuel economy, road-traffic safety, air pollution, global warming and greenhouse gases. [3]. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, often pronounced nit-suh) is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, part of the Department of Transportation. ... EPA redirects here. ... Sanctions are usually monetary fines, levied against a party to a legal action or his attorney, for violating rules of procedure, or for abusing the judicial process. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... Road-traffic safety aims to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) resulting from crashes of road vehicles traveling on public roads. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...

Contents

Impact

Prices inflation adjusted to 1982-1984 prices.
Prices inflation adjusted to 1982-1984 prices.

The National Academies of Science wrote a report regarding the effect of the CAFE standard.[4] The report concludes, among other things, that the CAFE standard was effective at increasing fuel economy, especially when fuel prices were low in the time between the late 1980s and the mid 2000s. One cost of this was an increase in fatalities, estimated in the same report to be 1,300 to 2,600 increased fatalities in 1993. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 900 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/png) CAFE and CAFE Standard data is from [1] and is without copyright (government genesis). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 900 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/png) CAFE and CAFE Standard data is from [1] and is without copyright (government genesis). ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


A plot of average overall vehicle fuel economy (CAFE) for new model year passenger cars, the required by law CAFE standard target fuel economy value (CAFE standard) for new model year passenger cars, and fuel prices, adjusted for inflation, shows that there has been little variation over the past 20 years. Within this period, there are three distinct periods of fuel economy change. (1) from 1979-1982 the fuel economy rose as the price of fuel rose dramatically (2) from 1984-1986 the fuel economy rose as the CAFE standard rose (3) from 1986-1988 the fuel economy rose even as the price of fuel fell and the CAFE standard is relaxed due to pressure from US automakers [5] before returning to 1986 levels in 1990. These are following by an extended period during which neither the passenger car CAFE standard, the observed average passenger car fuel economy, nor the price of gasoline changed much at all, and finally a period where prices rose dramatically and fuel economy was relatively unchanged.


Simple economics alone would predict that, in the long run, an increase in gasoline prices would lead to an increase in the average fuel economy of the US passenger car fleet, and that a fall in gasoline prices would be associated with a fall in the average fuel economy of the entire US fleet [6]. There is some evidence that this happened with an increase in market share of lower fuel economy light trucks and SUVs and decline in passenger car sales, as a percentage of total fleet sales, as car buying trends changed during the 1990s[7], the impact of which is not reflected in this chart. In the case of passenger cars, US average fuel economy did not fall as economic theory would predict (see graph), suggesting that CAFE standards maintained the higher fuel economy of the passenger car fleet during the long period from the end of the 1979 energy crisis to the rise of gasoline prices in the early 2000s. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ...


It is important to note that the CAFE and CAFE standard shown here only regard new model passenger car fuel economy and target fuel economy rather than the overall US fuel economy average (which tends to be dominated by used vehicles manufactured in previous years), new model light truck CAFE standards, light truck CAFE averages, or aggregate data.[8] [9]


Calculation

For the purposes of CAFE, a manufacturer's car output is divided into a domestic fleet (vehicles with more than 75% U.S., Canadian or—after the passage of NAFTAMexican content) and a foreign fleet (everything else). Each of these fleets must separately meet the requirements. The two-fleet requirement was developed by the United Automobile Workers (UAW) as a means to ensure job creation in the US. The UAW successfully lobbied Congress to write this provision into the enabling legislation. The UAW continues to advocate this position.[10] The two fleet rule for light trucks was removed in 1996. Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Fuel economy calculation for alternative fuel vehicles multiplies the actual fuel used by a "Fuel Content" Factor of 0.15[11] as an incentive to develop alternative fuel vehicles.[12] Dual-fuel vehicles, such as E85 capable models, are taken as the average of this alternative fuel rating and its gasoline rate. Thus a 15 mpg dual-fuel E85 capable vehicle would be rated as 40 mpg for CAFE purposes, in spite of the fact that less than 1% of the fuel used in E85 capable vehicles is actually E85. [4] The definition of Alternative Fuel varies according to the context of its usage. ...


Manufacturers are also allowed to earn CAFE "credits" in any year they exceed CAFE requirements, which they may use to offset deficiencies in other years. CAFE credits can be applied to the three years previous or three years subsequent to the year in which they are earned. The reason for this requirement is so that manufacturers are not penalized for occasionally (due to market conditions, for example) failing the targets, but only for persistent failure to meet them. Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Fleet fuel economy is calculated using a harmonic mean, which results in slightly different values than simple averaging.[2] In mathematics, the harmonic mean (formerly sometimes called the subcontrary mean) is one of several kinds of average. ...


Current standards

Cars and light trucks are considered separately for CAFE and are held to different standards. As of early 2004, the average for cars must exceed 27.5 mpg and the light truck average must exceed 20.7 mpg. Trucks under 8500 lb must average 22.5 mpg in 2008, 23.1 mpg in 2009, and 23.5 mpg in 2010. After this, new rules set varying targets based on truck size "footprint".


Overall fuel economy for both cars and light trucks in the U.S. market reached its highest level in 1987, when manufacturers managed 26.2 mpg (8.98 L/100 km). The average in 2004 was 24.6 mpg.[13] In that time, vehicles increased in size from an average of 3,220 pounds to 4,066 lb (1,461 kg to 1,844 kg), in part due to an increase in truck ownership during that time from 28% to 53%.


A number of manufacturers choose to pay CAFE penalties rather than attempt to comply with the regulations. As of model year 2002, BMW, DaimlerChrysler (import fleet only), Ferrari, Lotus and Porsche failed the automobile CAFE requirement, while BMW and Volkswagen failed to meet the light truck requirement. The model year of a product is a number used to describe approximately when a product was produced. ... Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), is an independent German company and manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles. ... DaimlerChrysler AG (ISIN: DE0007100000) is a German car corporation and the worlds fifth largest car manufacturer. ... Ferrari Enzo. ... Lotus Cars is a British manufacturer of sports cars and racing cars based in Hethel, Norfolk, formed as Lotus Engineering Ltd. ... This article is about the auto company. ... Volkswagen AG (ISIN: DE0007664005), or VW, is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ...


Future

The CAFE rules for trucks were officially amended at the end of March, 2006. These changes would segment truck fleets by vehicle size and class as of 2011. All SUVs and passenger vans up to 10,000 pounds GVWR[14] now have to comply with CAFE standards regardless of size, but pickup trucks and cargo vans over 8500 pounds gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) would remain exempt. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (2368 × 1492 pixel, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This plot illustrating the effect of Light Truck Footprint Target MPG for the Light Truck CAFE definition is entirely the work of author Jimad for Wikipedia... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (2368 × 1492 pixel, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This plot illustrating the effect of Light Truck Footprint Target MPG for the Light Truck CAFE definition is entirely the work of author Jimad for Wikipedia... A gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) is the estimated total weight of a road vehicle that is loaded to capacity, including the weight of the vehicle itself plus fuel, passengers, cargo, and other miscellaneous items such as extra aftermarket parts. ... Mazda B-Series compact pickup truck with extended cabin and home-made wooden rack. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An exemption is a rule or law which excepts certain things from another rule or law. ...


Under the new final light truck CAFE standard 2008-2011, fuel economy standards are restructured so that they are based on a measure of vehicle size called "footprint," the product of multiplying a vehicle's wheelbase by its track width. A target level of fuel economy is established for each increment in footprint using a continuous mathematical formula. Smaller footprint light trucks have higher fuel economy targets and larger trucks lower targets. Manufacturers who make more large trucks are allowed to meet a lower overall CAFE target, manufacturers who make more small trucks must meet a higher standard. Unlike previous CAFE standards there is no requirement for a manufacturer or the industry as a whole to meet any particular overall actual MPG target, since this will depend on the mix of sizes of trucks manufactured and ultimately purchased by consumers. Some critics point out that this may have the unintended consequence of pushing manufacturers to make ever-larger vehicles to avoid strict economy standards.[15] However, the equation used to calculate the fuel economy target has a built in mechanism that provides an incentive to reduce vehicle size to about 52 square feet (the approximate midpoint of the current light truck fleet.)


There are a large number of technologies that manufacturers can apply to improve fuel efficiency short of implementing hybrid or plug-in hybrid technologies. Applied aggressively, at a cost of several thousand dollars per vehicle, the National Trasportation Board of the National Academy of Sciences estimates that these technologies can almost double MPG.[16] [17]


Some technologies, such as four valves per cylinder, are already widely applied in cars but not trucks. Manufacturers dispute how effective these technologies are, their retail price, and how willing customers are to pay for these improvements. Payback on these improvements is highly dependent on gas prices.[18]


CAFE standards may receive their first overhaul in over 20 years, in June 2007 the Senate passed a new standard requiring 35 mpg for cars, SUVs, and light trucks by 2020. Before this standard becomes law it must be passed in the House of Representatives. As of August 2007, the House has failed to reach a consensus on CAFE standards, the House energy bill is not likely to contain any fuel economy provision. The final result will be determined largely by negotiations when the House and Senate bills are reconciled in conference. Politicians are facing increased public pressure to raising CAFE standards as a recent July 2007 poll in 7 states revealed 84-90% in favor of legislating mandatory increases. [19]


Active debate

CAFE advocates claim that most of the gains in fuel economy over the past 30 years can be attributed to the standard itself[20], while others point to largely economic force for fuel economy gains, where higher fuel prices drove customers to seek more fuel efficient vehicles[21]. CAFE standards have come under attack by some conservative think tanks, along with safety experts, car and truck manufacturers, some consumer and environment groups, and organized labor.[22] Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... This article is about the institution. ...


Increased traffic deaths

One of the cheapest way for automotive manufacturers to increase mileage is to reduce vehicle weight, which might lead to weight disparities in the vehicle population and, increased danger for occupants of lighter vehicles. [citation needed] A National Research Council report found that the standards implemented in the 1970s and 1980s "probably resulted in an additional 1,300 to 2,600 traffic fatalities in 1993."[23] A Harvard Center for Risk Analysis study found that CAFE standards led to "2,200 to 3,900 additional fatalities to motorists per year.[24] Insurance Institute of Highway Safety data 2007 shows a correlation of about 250-500 fatalities per year per MPG. [25] Proponents of higher CAFE standards argue that it is the "Footprint" model of CAFE for trucks that encourages production of larger trucks increasing weight disparities and point out that some small cars (Mini Cooper, Toyota Matrix) are four times safer than some SUVs (Chevy Blazer 2dr),[25] arguing that it is the quality of the engineering design that matters most, not the mass of the vehicle. In a 1999 based on 1995 IIHS report, USA Today said that most deaths (56%) occurring in small cars were due to single vehicle crashes, not due to being hit by larger cars. The percentage of deaths attributed to those in small cars being hit by larger cars was 1%.[26] In comparison in a 2005 article IIHS says that a large pickup truck or SUV striking a car is about 2.5X more likely to kill the car driver, with 16% of deaths ocurring in car-to-car crashes, 18% in car-to-truck [27] and in 2006 tests found that some of the smallest cars have good crash safety, while others do not: it depends on the engineering design.[28] In 2007 analysis IIHS found that 50% of fatalities in small 4-door vehicles were single vehicle crashes compared to 83% in very large SUVs. The Mini Cooper had a fatality rate of 68 per million vehicle-years, compared to 115 for the Ford Excursion.[25] The National Research Council (NRC) of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of Engineering, carrying out most of the studies done in their names. ... Minis The Mini is the name of a small car produced from 1959 to 2000, and the name of its replacement (known as New MINI) launched in 2001. ... The Toyota Matrix is a car manufactured by Toyota in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada and sold in North America. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ...


Increased oil and automobile usage

Critics point out that as fuel efficiency rises, people drive their cars more, which offsets some of the gains that might be had in carbon dioxide emissions from the higher standards. While driving more results from the increased economic benefit to consumers of higher efficiency vehicles, the National Academies Report (Page 19) [4]estimates this "rebound effect" as reducing the gains from increased fuel economy by only 10-20%. The Heritage Foundation says that oil imports have not decreased as a result of the program and have instead greatly increased (from 35% of oil used to 52%) since the standards were first implemented in the 1970s.[26]


Some argue that because higher-efficiency vehicles are more expensive, auto buyers may choose to keep their older, heavier, less efficient vehicles for longer before making a new purchase.[22]


Some standard proponents argue that associated costs, such as increased deaths, will be more than offset by savings on a global scale, because increased CAFE standards reduce reliance on increasingly expensive and unreliable sources of imported petroleum[29] and lower the probability of catastrophic global climate change by reducing US emissions of carbon dioxide. In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ...


Economic arguments

In 2007-5-6 (Show #1118) edition of Autoline Detroit, Bob Lutz asserted that the CAFE standard was a failure and said it was like trying to fight obesity by requiring tailors to make only small-sized clothes.[30] Proponents of higher gas mileage counter that NHTSA prevents importation of three dozen such small-sized vehicles from Europe. [31] Proponents also argue that automobile-purchasing decisions that may have global effects should not be left entirely up to individuals operating in a free market.[32] Robert Bob A. Lutz (born February 12, 1932, in Zurich, Switzerland) is the General Motors Vice Chairman of Product Development and Chairman of GM North America. ...


Automakers have said that small, fuel-efficient vehicles cost the auto industry billions of dollars. They cost almost as much to design and market but cannot be sold for as much as larger vehicles such as SUVs; consumers expect small cars to be inexpensive.[26]


Consumers' point of view

Automakers and conservative groups do not believe consumers want higher gas mileage. Eron Shosteck, a spokesman at the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, claimed automakers produce more than 30 models that are rated at 30 mpg, and they are poor sellers. CAFE also does not directly offer incentives for customers to choose fuel efficient vehicles, nor does it directly affect fuel prices. Rather, it attempts to accomplish these goals indirectly by making it more expensive for automakers to build inefficient vehicles by introducing penalties, and since the US represents such a large fraction of world consumption, reducing US fuel consumption indirectly reduces worldwide gasoline prices.[4] Charles Amann, retired from GM, said statistically the consumers do not pick the weak-performing vehicle when given a choice of engines.[33]


The conservative Heartland Institute contends that CAFE standards do not work economically to consumers' benefit, that supposedly smaller cars are more likely to be damaged in a collision, and that insurance policies for them are higher than for many larger cars.[22] However, the Insurance Companies' Highway Loss Data Institute publishes data showing the opposite: that larger vehicles are more expensive to insure.[34]


USAToday also claimed that small cars also tend to depreciate faster than larger cars, so they are worth less in value to the consumer over time.[26] However Edmonds Depreciation data shows that some small cars are among the best in holding their value: it is the quality of the vehicle design that matters, not its size.[35] Automakers also claimed that they couldn't lobby for the repeal of CAFE standards, or consumers will learn that small cars are unsafe and not buy them or try to sue the manufacturers.[26] However, recent history in the NHTSA public record has shown the opposite: that automakers are quite willing to publicly express opposition to CAFE increases.[8]


SUVs and minivans created due to original mandate

The definitions for cars and trucks are not the same for fuel economy and emission standards. For example, a PT Cruiser is defined as a car for emission purposes and a truck for fuel economy purposes. [4] Under the current light truck fuel economy rules, the PT Cruiser will have a higher fuel economy target (28.05 mpg beginning in 2011) than it would if it were classified as a passenger car.[36] CAFE standards signaled the end of the traditional long station wagon, but Chrysler's Lee Iacocca developed the idea of the minivan, which would fit into the separate truck category and allow automakers to comply with emissions standards. Eventually, this same idea led to the development of the SUV.[37][38] The Chrysler PT Cruiser is a retro-styled wagon from DaimlerChrysler. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ... Lido Anthony Lee Iacocca (born October 15, 1924) is an American industrialist most commonly known for his revival of the Chrysler brand in the 1980s when he was the CEO. Among the most widely recognized businessmen in the world, he was a passionate advocate of U.S. business exports during... Lloyd LT 600, a vintage minivan 05 Mercury Monterey minivan Buick GL8, sold exclusively in China A minivan, multi-purpose vehicle, people-carrier, people-mover or multi-utility vehicle is a type of automobile similar in shape to a van that is designed for personal use and has between four... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ...


The states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut and California disagreed with the NHTSA statement in the 2008-2011 Light Truck standard which claimed preemption of the state greenhouse gas regulations on the basis that fuel economy and carbon dioxide emissions are one and the same thing. The EPA[39] claims, contrary to NHTSA, that the use of alternative fuels allows greenhouse gas emissions to be controlled somewhat independent of fuel efficiency. Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Calculations of MPG overestimated

The EPA laboratory measurements of MPG have consistently overestimated fuel economy. This results in a shortfall of about 15% in actual vs. measured CAFE goals. Starting with vehicles in model year 2008, the EPA is improving their estimates of MPG.[40] This change does not affect CAFE ratings, only Consumer Guide values will change to reflect more realistic fuel efficiencies. [41]


The NHTSA spends a third of one percent of its budget on CAFE or 0.0004% of US gasoline expenditures.[42] [43]


Other arguments in favor

Other conservative ps support higher gas mileage on the basis of national security, such as Set America Free[44] or on the basis of stewardship of God's creations.[45]


See also

Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... The Toyota RAV4 EV was powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices. ... California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the clean air agency of the state of California in the United States. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ... Fuel efficiency sometimes means the same as thermal efficiency, that is, the efficiency of converting energy contained in a carrier fuel to kinetic energy or work. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... A Toyota Prius, one example of a hybrid electric vehicle. ... The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, often pronounced nit-suh) is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, part of the Department of Transportation. ... Hybrids Plus PHEV Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electrical power source. ... Road-traffic safety aims to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) resulting from crashes of road vehicles traveling on public roads. ... EPA redirects here. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ CAFE Overview: "What is the origin of CAFE?". NHTSA. Retrieved on May 27, 2007.
  2. ^ a b CAFE Overview. NHTSA. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  3. ^ Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (February 25 2006). "How vehicle weight, driver deaths, and fuel consumption relate". Status Report 41 (2): 1-8. Retrieved on June 20, 2007. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Board On Energy and Environmental Systems (2002). "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards (2002)". The National Academies. Retrieved on March 9, 2007.
  5. ^ Kara Kockelman (January 2000). "To LDT or Not to LDT: An Assessment of the Principal Impacts of Light-Duty Trucks Light Truck Rule". Transportation Research Board.
  6. ^ Paul R. Portney, Ian W.H. Parry, Howard K. Gruenspecht, and Winston Harrington (November 2003). "The Economics of Fuel Economy Standards". Resources For The Future. Retrieved on March 12, 2007.
  7. ^ CAFE (Fuel Efficiency) Standards for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks. Retrieved on March 9, 2007.
  8. ^ a b NHTSA. Vehicles and Equipment. Retrieved on June 6, 2007.
  9. ^ NHTSA. "Average Fuel Economy Standards for Light Trucks Model Years 2008-2011". Retrieved on June 6, 2007.
  10. ^ Alan Reuther (May 3 2006). "Testimony Before The U. S. House Of Representatives Committee On Energy And Commerce". Retrieved on March 9, 2007.
  11. ^ U.S. Congress (June 2006). "49 USC 39205(a),(b),(c),(d)". U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Office of the Chief Counsel.
  12. ^ U.S. Congress (June 2006). "49 USC 39204(a)(2)(B)(iii)". U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Office of the Chief Counsel.
  13. ^ Automotive Fuel Economy Program. Retrieved on March 9, 2006.
  14. ^ National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. "Average Fuel Economy Standards For Light Trucks, Model Year 2008-2011, Final Rule (Light Truck Rule).". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved on March 9, 2007.
  15. ^ Compliance Question: Will automakers build bigger trucks to get around new CAFE regulations?. AutoWeek. Retrieved on April 7, 2006.
  16. ^ Union of Concerned Scientists. Protecting families from global warming using today's technologies and fuels. Retrieved on June 20, 2007.
  17. ^ Image:AutomobileMPGImprovementTechnologies.pdf
  18. ^ Greene, David (April 19, 2007). The President’s State of the Union Fuel Economy Plan: How I know it will work. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved on June 27, 2007.
  19. ^ http://www.greencarcongress.com/2007/07/survey-finds-st.html
  20. ^ Questions and Answers on Fuel Economy. Retrieved on March 12, 2007.
  21. ^ One Third of Consumers Looking at More Fuel-Efficient Cars. Retrieved on March 12, 2007.
  22. ^ a b c [hhttp://www.heartland.org/Article.cfm?artId=9732 Congress debates CAFE moratorium again]. 'Environment News'. Retrieved on June 22, 2007.
  23. ^
  24. ^ Road Regs. National Review. Retrieved on June 22, 2007.
  25. ^ a b c Insurance Institute of Highway Safety (April 19, 2007), "Driver Deaths By Make and Model", Status Report 42 (4): 1-8
  26. ^ a b c d e James R. Healey (July 2, 1999), Death By the Gallon, USA Today
  27. ^ Insurance Institute of Highway Safety (April 28, 2005), "In Collisions with Cars, SUVs are Incompatible", Status Report 42 (4): 1-8
  28. ^ Insurance Institute of Highway Safety (December 19, 2006), "Minicars First Test Results", Status Report 41 (10): 1-8
  29. ^ Ronald R. Cooke (September 28, 2006). Oil Shortages? It's Happened Before and It Will Happen Again. EnergyPulse. Retrieved on March 9, 2007.
  30. ^ Autoline Detroit. Retrieved on May 6, 2007.
  31. ^ VCACarFuelData. Vehicles with 120g/km CO2 or less.
  32. ^ Board On Energy and Environmental Systems (2002). "Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards (2002)". The National Academies. Retrieved on March 9, 2007.
  33. ^ John DeGaspari (April 4, 2004). Retooling Cafe. Mechanical Engineering Magazine. Retrieved on March 9, 2007.
  34. ^ Highway Loss Data Institute. Auto Insurance Loss Facts. Retrieved on June 26 2007.
  35. ^ Edmonds. Depreciation Ratings. Retrieved on June 26 2007.
  36. ^ "Chrysler PT Cruiser - Official Site [wheelbase * avg track = 41.73 Footprint"]. Retrieved on June 23 2007.
  37. ^ Greenhouse Real Wheels. Washington Post. Retrieved on June 22, 2007.
  38. ^ The Station Wagon Stealthily Returns. Washington Post. Retrieved on June 22, 2007.
  39. ^ Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Expanded Renewable and Alternative Fuels Use. EPA. Retrieved on June 3, 2007.
  40. ^ New MPG Ratings. EPA. Retrieved on June 3, 2007.
  41. ^ New MPG Ratings. EPA. Retrieved on June 3, 2007.
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Corporate Average Fuel Economy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (930 words)
The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations in the United States, first enacted by Congress in 1975, exist to regulate and improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) sold in the US in the wake of the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo.
It is the sales-weighted average fuel economy, expressed in miles per gallon (mpg), of a manufacturer's fleet of passenger cars or light trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8,500 pounds (3,856 kg) or less, manufactured for sale in the United States, for any given model year.
Both groups cite a correlation between increased CAFE standards and increased highway deaths, as well as independent studies which attest that there are "7,700 deaths for every mile per gallon gained in fuel economy standards".
Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (1404 words)
To improve a car's fuel economy, one of two things must happen: The efficiency of the powertrain must be increased through new technologies, or the amount of work required by the engine to move the car must be lowered, usually by lessening wind resistance or by reducing the car's size and weight.
CAFE standards require that the average fuel efficiency for domestic and imported fleets be calculated separately, with domestic fleets being defined as models that are made with at least 75 percent domestic parts.
Despite its flaws, the CAFE program has significantly reduced U.S. gasoline consumption by first contributing to a rise in fuel economy and, in recent years, by maintaining fuel economy levels, even during periods when oil prices were dropping and demand for fuel-efficient cars and trucks was low, the committee said.
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