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Encyclopedia > Coronavirus
Coronavirus

Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Coronavirus

Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae.[1] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 16 to 31 kilobases, extraordinarily large for an RNA virus. The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona, meaning crown, as the virus envelope appears under electron microscopy (E.M.) to be crowned by a characteristic ring of small bulbous structures. This morphology is actually formed by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism. Coronaviruses are grouped in the order Nidovirales, named for the Latin nidus, meaning nest, as all viruses in this order produce a 3' co-terminal nested set of subgenomic mRNA's during infection. Image File history File links Coronavirus. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Families Arteriviridae Coronaviridae Roniviridae The Nidovirales are an order of viruses with vertebrate hosts. ... Genera Coronavirus Torovirus // Coronaviruses are enveloped, single stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses (27-31kb) with club-shaped surface about 120-160 nm in diameter that resemble a “corona”. Both 5 and 3 ends of the genome have a cap and poly (A) tract respectively. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Genera Coronavirus Torovirus // Coronaviruses are enveloped, single stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses (27-31kb) with club-shaped surface about 120-160 nm in diameter that resemble a “corona”. Both 5 and 3 ends of the genome have a cap and poly (A) tract respectively. ... Enveloped viruses have a lipid-based membrane surrounding the protein capsid. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Host tropism is the name given a process that determines which cells can become infected by any given pathogen. ... Families Arteriviridae Coronaviridae Roniviridae The Nidovirales are an order of viruses with vertebrate hosts. ...


Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of SARS (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[2] A Nucleocapsid is the genome (DNA or RNA) of a virus and the protein coat surrounding it (the capsid). ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Angiotensin converting enzyme Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE, EC 3. ...

Contents

Diseases of coronavirus

SARS-CoV Particles
SARS-CoV Particles

Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. Four to five different currently known strains of coronaviruses infect humans. The most publicized human coronavirus, SARS-CoV which causes SARS, has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and can also cause gastroenteritis. Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults. Coronaviruses cause colds in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses as causative agents of the common cold are hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are difficult to grow in the laboratory. A coronavirus that may cause SARS. From the CDC http://www. ... A coronavirus that may cause SARS. From the CDC http://www. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... See also: Progress of the SARS outbreak and Severe acute respiratory syndrome. ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus. ... Gastroenteritis involves diarrhea or vomiting, with noninflammatory infection of the upper small bowel, or inflammatory infection of the colon, both part of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ...


Coronaviruses also cause a range of diseases in farm animals and domesticated pets, some of which can be serious and are a threat to the farming industry. Economically significant coronaviruses of farm animals include porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis, TGE) and bovine coronavirus, which both result in diarrhea in young animals. Feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous mutation of this virus can result in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease associated with high mortality. There are two types of canine coronavirus (CCoV), one that causes mild gastrointestinal disease and one that has been found to cause respiratory disease. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice. Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro as well as at the molecular level. Some strains of MHV cause a progressive demyelinating encephalitis in mice which has been used as a murine model for multiple sclerosis. Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases. Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of about 24 medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... FIP-infected kidney showing inflammatory response Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, incurable disease that affects cats. ... Canine coronavirus is a virus of the family Coronaviridae that causes a highly contagious intestinal disease in dogs. ... Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) infection was originally called this because of their potential to induce hepatitis, MHV is now more correctly called Mouse Coronavirus Infection. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Viral pathogenesis is the study of how biological viruses cause diseases in their target hosts, usually carried out at the cellular or molecular level. ... Virology is the study of viruses and their properties. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ...


Replication of Coronaviruses

Replication of Coronavirus begins with entry to the cell takes place in the cytoplasm in a membrane-protected microenvironment, upon entry to the cell the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm. The Coronavirus genome has a 5’ methylated cap and a 3’polyadenylated-A tail to make it look as much like the host RNA as possible. This also allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation. Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be translated into RNA through using the host cells machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made as once the gene encoding the replicase is translated the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript, where the transcript only encodes one gene- it is monocistronic. The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein called a protease which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus allowing it to encode the most amounts of genes in a small amount of nucleotides. Organelles. ...


Coronavirus transcription involves a discontinuous RNA synthesis (template switch) during the extension of a negative copy of the subgenomic mRNAs. Basepairing during transcription is a requirement. Coronavirus N protein is required for coronavirus RNA synthesis, and has RNA chaperone activity that may be involved in template switch. Both viral and cellular proteins are required for replication and transcription. Coronaviruses initiate translation by cap-dependent and cap-independent mechanisms. Cell macromolecular synthesis may be controlled after Coronavirus infection by locating some virus proteins in the host cell nucleus. Infection by different coronaviruses cause in the host alteration in the transcription and translation patterns, in the cell cycle, the cytoskeleton, apoptosis and coagulation pathways, inflammation, and immune and stress responses.[3] Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... Coagulation is a complex process by which blood forms solid clots. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


Severe acute respiratory syndrome

Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome Severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus. ...


In 2003, following the outbreak of Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus. ... “WHO” redirects here. ... See also: Progress of the SARS outbreak and Severe acute respiratory syndrome. ...


The SARS epidemic resulted in over 8000 infections, about 10% of which resulted in death.[2] X-ray crystallography studies performed at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have begun to give hope of a vaccine against the disease "since [the spike protein] appears to be recognized by the immune system of the host."[4] X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... The Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California is a synchotron light source. ... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


Recent discoveries of novel human coronaviruses

Following the high-profile publicity of SARS outbreaks, there has been a renewed interest in coronaviruses in the field of virology. For many years, scientists knew only about the existence of two human coronaviruses (HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43). The discovery of SARS-CoV added another human coronavirus to the list. By the end of 2004, three independent research labs reported the discovery of a fourth human coronavirus. It has been named NL63, NL or the New Haven coronavirus by the different research groups.[5] The naming of this fourth coronavirus is still a controversial issue, because the three labs are still battling over who actually discovered the virus first and hence earns the right to name the virus. Early in 2005, a research team at the University of Hong Kong reported finding a fifth human coronavirus in two pneumonia patients, and subsequently named it HKU1. Virology, often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology, is the study of organic viruses: their structure and classification, their ways to infect and exploit cells to reproduce and cause disease, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Species

Note: As of March 2005, most virologists who study coronaviruses would classify SARS-CoV as under Group 2 or as closely related to Group 2 coronaviruses. Canine coronavirus is a virus of the family Coronaviridae that causes a highly contagious intestinal disease in dogs. ... FIP-infected kidney showing inflammatory response Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, incurable disease that affects cats. ... Human Coronavirus NL63 or HCoV-NL63 is a virus that was identified in 2003 in a child with bronchiolitis in the Netherlands. ... Canine coronavirus is a virus of the family Coronaviridae that causes a highly contagious intestinal disease in dogs. ... Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) infection was originally called this because of their potential to induce hepatitis, MHV is now more correctly called Mouse Coronavirus Infection. ... Avian infectious bronchitis virus is a virus that infects poultry. ... See also: Progress of the SARS outbreak and Severe acute respiratory syndrome. ...


References

  1. ^ Thiel V (editor). (2007). Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology, 1st ed., Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-16-5 . 
  2. ^ a b Li, Fang, et. al. (2005). "Structure of SARS Coronavirus Spike Receptor-Binding Domain Complexed with Receptor". Science 309: 1864–1868. 
  3. ^ Enjuanes et al (2008). "Coronavirus Replication and Interaction with Host", Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6. 
  4. ^ Learning How SARS Spikes Its Quarry. Press Release PR-HHMI-05-4. Chevy Chase, MD: Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Retrieved on September 16, 2005.
  5. ^ van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, et al. (2004). "Identification of a new human coronavirus". Nat Med 10 (4): 368–73. 
  6. ^ Woo PC, Lau SK, Chu CM, et al. (2005). "Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia". J Virol 79: 884–95. 
  7. ^ Vabret A, Dina J, Gouarin S, et al. (2006). "Detection of the new human coronavirus HKU1: a report of 6 cases". Clin Infect Dis 42: 634–9. 

is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Coronavirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (690 words)
Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae.
The name "coronavirus" draws reference to the "corona" -- the "ring-like radiating structure" formed by the outermost part of the atmosphere of the sun.
Feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous mutation of this virus can result in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease associated with high mortality.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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