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Encyclopedia > Coronation of the British monarch
British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey.
British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey.

The Coronation of the British Monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other Commonwealth Realms is formally crowned and invested with regalia. It corresponds to the coronation ceremonies which formerly occurred in other European countries which maintain or maintained monarchies; however, all other such countries -- including even the Roman Catholic city state of the Vatican -- have abandoned coronations in favour of more matter-of-fact inaugurations. The coronation usually takes place several months after the death of the previous monarch, for the coronation is considered a joyous occasion that would be inappropriate when mourning still continues. (It also gives planners enough time to complete the elaborate arrangements required.) For example, Elizabeth II was crowned on June 2, 1953, despite having acceded to the throne on February 6, 1952, the instant her father died. British law states that the throne is not left 'vacant' and the new Monarch succeeds the old immediately. The ceremony is performed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the most senior cleric of the Church of England. Many other government officials and guests attend, including foreign heads of state. West view of Westminster Abbey, London. ... West view of Westminster Abbey, London. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... Initiation rites are formalized, ceremonial rites of passage as an individual moves from stage to stage within a social career or formally acquires such status. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

History

The timing of the coronation has varied throughout British history. The first Norman monarch, William I, was crowned on the day he became King—25 December 1066. Most of his successors were crowned within weeks, or even days, of their accession. Edward I was fighting in the Ninth Crusade when he ascended to the throne in 1272; he was crowned soon after his return in 1274. Edward II's coronation, similarly, was delayed by a campaign in Scotland in 1307. Henry VI was only a few months old when he succeeded in 1422; he was crowned in 1429, but did not officially assume the reins of government until he was deemed of sufficient age, in 1437. Under the Hanoverian monarchs in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was deemed appropriate to extend the waiting period to several months. In addition, in the hope of good weather for the Coronation and its processions and other celebrations, it is almost always set for the spring or summer. In the case of every monarch since, and including, George IV, at least one year has passed between accession and coronation, with the exception of George VI, whose predecessor did not die but abdicated. The Coronation date had already been set; planning simply continued with a new monarch. The Norman dynasty is a series of four monarchs, who ruled England from the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066, until 1154. ... William I of England (c. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... This article is about the country. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Since a period of time has often passed between accession and coronation, some monarchs were never crowned. Edward V and Lady Jane Grey were both deposed before they could be crowned, in 1483 and 1553, respectively. Edward VIII also went uncrowned, as he abdicated in 1936 before the customary one-year period could conclude. Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Lady Jane Grey (October 12, 1537 – February 12, 1554), a great-granddaughter of Henry VII of England, was proclaimed Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days in 1553. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20...


The Anglo-Saxon monarchs used various locations for their coronations, including Bath, Kingston upon Thames, London, Oxford and Winchester. The last Anglo-Saxon monarch, Harold II, was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1066; the location was preserved for all future coronations. When London was under the control of the French, Henry III was crowned at Gloucester in 1216; he later chose to have a second coronation at Westminster in 1220. Two hundred years later, Henry VI also had two coronations; as King of England in London during 1429, and as King of France in Paris during 1431. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... Kingston upon Thames, part of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, is an ancient market town where Saxon kings were crowned, and is now a lively suburb of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close Arms of Winchester City Council Winchester is a city in southern England, and the administrative capital of the county of Hampshire, with a population of around 35,000. ... Name Harold Godwinson Lived c. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ... Gloucester (pronounced ) is a city and district in the English county of Gloucestershire, close to the Welsh border. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Following the English Civil War Oliver Cromwell declined the crown but underwent a coronation in all but name when he became Lord Protector in 1653. The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England, Scotland and Ireland into a republican Commonwealth and for the brutal war exercised in his conquest of Ireland. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ...


Coronations may be performed for a person other than the reigning monarch. In 1170, Henry the Young King, heir to the throne, was crowned as a second king of England, subordinate to his father Henry II; such coronations were common practice in medieval France and Germany, but this is the only instance of its kind in England. More commonly, a king's wife is crowned as Queen consort, though the husband of a Queen regnant is never crowned. If the king is already married at the time of his coronation, a joint coronation of both king and queen may be performed. The first such coronation was of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1154; fourteen such coronations have been performed, including that of the co-rulers William III and Mary II, the most recent being that of George VI and the former Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1937. If the king married, or remarried, after his coronation, or if his wife were not crowned with him for some other reason, she might be crowned in a separate ceremony. The first such separate coronation of a Queen consort in England was that of Matilda of Flanders in 1068; the sixteenth and, so far, the last was Anne Boleyn's in 1533. The most recent King (husbands of Queens regnant are not crowned) to wed post-Coronation, Charles II did not have a separate coronation for his bride. Henry, the Young King Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155–June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor dAquitaine in French), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1] –April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002), was the Queen Consort of George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953 was televised by the British Broadcasting Corporation. It was originally thought that cameras would breach the solemnity of the occasion; however, they were permitted after the personal intervention of the Queen, and panned away only for the anointing, as the most sacred moment of the ceremony. It is estimated that over twenty million individuals viewed the programme in the United Kingdom, an audience unprecedented in television history. The coronation greatly increased public interest in televisions. The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...


Hers was also the first coronation where the monarch was crowned as multiple sovereigns in one, being asked: "Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon, and of your Possessions and other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?" [1]


Participants

Clergy

Clergy and officials awaiting the arrival of the monarch.

The Archbishop of Canterbury, who has precedence over all other clergymen and over all laymen except members of the Royal Family, traditionally officiates at coronations; during his absence, another bishop may take his place. There have, however, been several exceptions. William I was crowned by the Archbishop of York, since the Archbishop of Canterbury had been excommunicated by the Pope. Edward II was crowned by the Bishop of Winchester because the Archbishop of Canterbury was not in England at the time. Mary I, a Catholic, refused to be crowned by the Protestant Archbishop Cranmer; the coronation was instead performed by the Bishop of Winchester. When Elizabeth I was crowned, the Bishop of Carlisle performed the ceremony. Finally, when James II was deposed and replaced with William III and Mary II jointly, the Archbishop of Canterbury refused to recognise the new Sovereigns; he had to be replaced by the Bishop of London. Hence, in almost all cases where the Archbishop of Canterbury has failed to participate, his place has been taken by a senior cleric: the Archbishop of York is second in precedence, the Bishop of London third, the Bishop of Durham fourth, and the Bishop of Winchester fifth. Elizabeth I was crowned by the Bishop of Carlisle, to whose see is attached no special precedence, because the senior prelates considered her birth illegitimate. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Arms of the Bishop of Winchester The diocese of Winchester is one of the oldest and most important in England. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. [1] He was an influential theologian who was the co-founder (with Richard Hooker and Matthew Parker) of Anglican theological thought. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Arms of the Bishop of Carlisle The Bishop of Carlisle heads the Anglican Diocese of Carlisle in the Province of York, in England. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ...


Great Officers of State

The Great Officers of State traditionally participate during the ceremony. The offices of Lord High Steward and Lord High Constable have not been regularly filled since the 15th and 16th centuries, respectively; they are, however, revived for coronation ceremonies. The Lord Great Chamberlain enrobes the Sovereign with the ceremonial vestments, with the aid of the Groom of the Robes and the Master (in the case of a King) or Mistress (in the case of a Queen) of the Robes. In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are officers who either inherit their positions or are appointed by the Crown, and exercise certain ceremonial functions. ... The position of Lord High Steward of England, not to be confused with the Lord Steward, a court functionary, is the first of the Great Officers of State. ... The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. ... The Lord Great Chamberlain of England is the sixth of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. ...


The Barons of the Cinque Ports also participated in the ceremony. Formerly, the Barons were the Members of the House of Commons representing the Cinque Ports. Reforms in the nineteenth century, however, integrated the Cinque Ports into a regular constituency system applied throughout the nation. At later coronations, Barons were specially designated from among the city councillors for the special purpose of attending coronations. Originally, the Barons were charged with bearing a ceremonial canopy over the Sovereign.1 The last time the Barons performed such a task was at the coronation of George IV in 1821. The Barons did not return for the coronations of William IV (who insisted on a simpler, cheaper ceremonial) and Victoria. At coronations since Victoria's, the Barons have attended the ceremony, but they have not carried canopies. The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom. ... Flag of the Cinque Ports Formally, in Kent and Sussex there are five Head Ports making up the Confederation of the Cinque Ports, often pronounced as the anglicised sink ports, and meaning five ports (cinque in French means five and ports is to be connected to the Italian word porto... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ...


Other claims to attend the coronation

Many landowners and other persons have honorific "duties" or privileges at the coronation. Such rights are determined by a special Court of Claims, over which the Lord High Steward traditionally presided (though the Lord President of the Council performed the task in 1952). The first recorded Court of Claims was convened in 1377 for the coronation of Richard II. By the Tudor period, the hereditary post of Lord High Steward had merged with the Crown, and so Henry VIII began the modern tradition of naming a temporary Steward for the coronation only, with separate commissioners to carry out the actual work of the court. The Court of Claims in the United Kingdom is a special court established after the accession of a new sovereign to judge the validity of the claims of persons to perform certain honorary services at the coronation of the new monarch. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born in Bordeaux and became his fathers successor when his elder brother died in infancy. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


In 1952, for example, the Court accepted the claim of the Dean of Westminster to advise the Queen on the proper procedure during the ceremony (for nearly a thousand years he and his predecessor abbots have kept an unpublished Red Book of practices), the claim of the Lord Bishop of Durham and the Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells to walk beside the Queen as she entered the Abbey, the claim of the Earl of Shrewsbury in his capacity as Lord High Steward of Ireland to carry a white staff, and the claim of the Queen's Scholars of Westminster School to be the first to acclaim the monarch on behalf of the common people (their shouts of "Vivat! Vivat Regina!" were incorporated into an anthem). The Abbey at night, from Deans Yard. ... Arms of the Bishop of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... The Bishop of Bath and Wells is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Bath and Wells in the Province of Canterbury. ... The Earl of Shrewsbury is the senior Earl on the Roll in the Peerage of England (the more senior Earldom of Arundel being held by the Duke of Norfolk). ... In Ireland, the position of Lord High Steward was sometimes known as the Hereditary Great Seneschal. ... The Royal College of St Peter at Westminster (almost always known as Westminster School) is one of Britains leading boys independent schools and one of the nine public schools set out in the Public Schools Act 1868. ...


As many peers hold such rights, the allocation of roles in the next coronation may be a question of some interest, to be resolved between the Government and the Palace. Given the stress laid in the coronation on the constitutional role of the monarch, it may be thought anomalous to give significant roles to peers whose status is now entirely without rights or duties in the governing of the realm. On the other hand, an Act of Parliament would be required to abrogate the proprietary rights and privileges, and the monarchy itself depends on the maintenance of such rights.


Sovereign's robes

The Sovereign wears a variety of different robes and other garments during the course of the ceremony:

  • Crimson surcoat - the regular dress during most of the ceremony, worn under all other robes. In 1953, Elizabeth II wore a newly-made gown in place of a surcoat.
  • Robe of State of crimson velvet or Parliament Robe - the first robe used at a coronation, worn on entry to the Abbey and later at State Openings of Parliament. It consists of an ermine cape and a long crimson velvet train lined with further ermine and decorated with gold lace.
  • Anointing gown - a simple and austere garment worn during the anointing. It is plain white, bears no decoration and fastens at the back.
  • Colobium sindonis ("shroud tunic") - the first robe with which the Sovereign is invested. It is a loose white undergarment of fine linen cloth edged with a lace border, open at the sides, sleeveless and cut low at the neck. It symbolises the derivation of Royal authority from the people and represents the divestment of vanity and material things.
  • Supertunica - the second robe with which the Sovereign is invested. It is a long coat of gold silk which reaches to the ankles and has wide-flowing sleeves. It is lined with rose-coloured silk, trimmed with gold lace, woven with national symbols and fastened by a sword belt. It derives from the full dress uniform of a consul of the Byzantine Empire.
  • Robe Royal or Pallium Regale - the main robe worn during the ceremony and used during the Crowning. It is a four-square mantle, lined in crimson silk and decorated with silver coronets, national symbols and silver imperial eagles in the four corners. It is lay, rather than liturgical, in nature.
  • Stole Royal or armilla - a gold slik scarf which accompanies the Robe Royal, richly and heavily embroidered with gold and silver thread, set with jewels and lined with rose-coloured silk and gold fringing.
  • Purple surcoat - the counterpart to the crimson surcoat, worn during the final part of the ceremony.
  • Imperial Robe of purple velvet - the robe worn at the conclusion of the ceremony, on exit from the Abbey. It comprises an embroidered ermine cape with a train of purple silk velvet, trimmed with Canadian ermine and fully lined with pure silk English satin. The purple recalls the imperial robes of Roman Emperors.

In contrast to the history and tradition which surround the Regalia, it is customary for most coronation robes to be newly made for each monarch. The present exceptions are the supertunica and Robe Royal, which both date from the Coronation of George IV in 1821 (though he did not wear the supertunica). Both are kept at the Tower of London. In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Coronation Chair and Regalia of England The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at various other state functions. ... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...

The robes of HRH The Duke of Clarence, a Royal Duke (later William IV), included a train borne by a page.
The robes of HRH The Duke of Clarence, a Royal Duke (later William IV), included a train borne by a page.

The Duke of Clarence (later William IV) at the coronation of George IV. By J. Stephanoff (1821). ... The Duke of Clarence (later William IV) at the coronation of George IV. By J. Stephanoff (1821). ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ...

Official costume

Several participants in the ceremony wear special costumes, uniforms or robes. Peers' robes comprise a full-length crimson velvet coat, and an ermine cape. Rows of sealskin spots on the cape designate the peer's rank; dukes use four rows, marquesses three and a half, earls three, viscounts two and a half, and barons and lords of Parliament two. Royal dukes use six rows of ermine, ermine on the front of the cape and long trains borne by pages. Peeresses' ranks are designated not by sealskin spots, but by the length of their trains and the width of the ermine edging on the same. For duchesses, the trains are two yards long, for marchionesses one and three-quarters yards, for countesses one and a half yards, for viscountesses one and a quarter yards, and for baronesses and ladies one yard. The ermine edgings are five inches in width for duchesses, four inches for marchionesses, three inches for countesses, and two inches for viscountesses, baronesses and ladies. The robes of peers and peeresses are used only during coronations.


Crowns and coronets

Peers wear coronets, as do members of the Royal Family; such coronets display heraldic emblems based on rank or association to the monarch. The heir-apparent's coronet displays four crosses-pattée alternating with four fleurs-de-lis, surmounted by an arch. The same style, without the arch, is used for the children and siblings of Sovereigns. The coronets of children of the heir-apparent display four fleurs-de-lis, two crosses-pattée and two strawberry leaves. A fourth style, including four crosses-pattée and four strawberry leaves, is used for the children of the sons and brothers of Sovereigns. The aforementioned coronets are borne instead of any coronets based on peerage dignities. The coronets of dukes show eight strawberry leaves, those of marquesses four strawberry leaves alternating with four raised silver balls, those of earls eight strawberry leaves alternating with eight raised silver balls, those of viscounts sixteen silver balls and those of barons six silver balls. Peeresses use the same design, except that they appear on smaller circlets than the peers' coronets. Coin showing a coronet A coronet is a small crown. ...


Aside from the monarch, the only individuals authorised to wear crowns are the three Kings of Arms, the senior officials of the College of Arms, the heraldic authority of England, Wales and Northern Ireland (Scotland has a separate authority, the Lyon Court). The Garter Principal King of Arms, the most senior King of Arms, wears a gold crown; the Clarenceaux King of Arms (who has authority over southern England) and the Norroy and Ulster King of Arms (who has authority over northern England and Northern Ireland) both wear silver gilt crowns. Their coronets consist of sixteen acanthus leaves alternating in height, and inscribed with the words Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam misericordiam tuam (i.e., Have mercy on me O God according to Thy great mercy). When this coronet is shown in pictorial representations, only nine leaves and the first three words are shown. The entrance of the College of Arms. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ... Arms of the Office of the Lord Lyon The Lord Lyon King of Arms, the head of Lyon Court, is the most junior of the Great Officers of State in Scotland and is the Scottish official with responsibility for regulating heraldry in that kingdom, issuing new grants of arms, and...


Other participants

Along with persons of nobility, the coronation ceremonies are also attended by a wide range of political figures, including all members of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, all Prime Ministers and Governors General of the Commonwealth Realms, all Governors of British Crown Colonies, as well as the Heads of State of other independent nations of the Commonwealth. Dignitaries and representatives from other nations are also customarily invited, especially the Monarchs of all the Royal Houses of Europe. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... A Governor-General (in Canada always, and frequently in Pakistan/India prior to the abolition of the last monarchy, Governor General) is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors [1]. The most common contemporary usage of the term is to refer to... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Recognition and oath

George IV's train was borne by eight eldest sons of peers and by the Master of the Robes. From left to right: The King, Earl of Surrey, Marquess of Douro, Viscount Cranborne, Earl of Brecnock, Earl of Uxbridge, Earl of Rocksavage, Earl of Rawdon, Viscount Ingestre and Lord Francis Conyngham.

The Sovereign enters Westminster Abbey wearing the crimson surcoat and the Robe of State of crimson velvet. George IV at his coronation. ... George IV at his coronation. ... Henry Charles Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk, KG, PC (12 August 1791 – 18 February 1856) was an English politician. ... The Most Noble Arthur Richard Wellesley, 2nd Duke of Wellington (3 February 1807 - 13 August 1884) was the son and successor to Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... James Brownlow William Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury (17 April 1791 - 12 April 1868) was an English statesman. ... The Most Honourable Sir Henry Paget, 2nd Marquess of Anglesey (July 6, 1797–February 7, 1869) was the son of Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey. ... George Horatio Cholmondeley, 2nd Marquess of Cholmondeley PC (16 January 1792-8 May 1870), known as Viscount Malpas from 1792 to 1815 and as Earl of Rocksavage from 1815 to 1827, was a British peer and Tory Member of Parliament. ... The Most Honourable Francis Nathaniel Conyngham, 2nd Marquess Conyngham, KP, PC (11 June 1797 – 17 July 1879) was the son of Henry Conyngham, 1st Marquess Conyngham. ...


Once the Sovereign takes his or her seat on the Chair of Estate, the Garter Principal King of Arms, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Great Chamberlain, the Lord High Constable and the Earl Marshal go to the east, south, west and north of the Abbey. At each side, the Archbishop calls for the Recognition of the Sovereign, with the words, "Sirs, I here present unto you ..., your undoubted King. Wherefore all you who are come this day to do your homage and service, are you willing to do the same? " After the people acclaim the Sovereign at each side, the Archbishop administers an oath to the Sovereign. The oath has varied over the years; at Elizabeth II's coronation, the exchange between the Queen and the Archbishop was as follows: The Colleges own coat of arms was granted in 1484. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... The Lord Great Chamberlain of England is the sixth of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. ... The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal. ... Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal or Marischal) is an ancient chivalric title used separately in England, Ireland and the United Kingdom. ...

The Archbishop of Canterbury: "Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon, and of your Possessions and other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?"
The Queen: "I solemnly promise so to do."
The Archbishop of Canterbury: "Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgments?"
The Queen: "I will."
The Archbishop of Canterbury: "Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolable the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England? And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?"
The Queen: "All this I promise to do. The things which I have here before promised, I will perform, and keep. So help me God."

The monarch additionally swears an oath to preserve Presbyterian church government in the Church of Scotland. This part of the oath is taken before the coronation. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... This article is about the country on the southern tip of the African continent. ... Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ...


Once the taking of the oath concludes, an ecclesiastic presents a Bible to the Sovereign, saying "Here is Wisdom; This is the royal Law; These are the lively Oracles of God." The Bible used is a full King James Bible, including the Apocrypha[citation needed]. At Elizabeth II's coronation, the Bible was presented by the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Once the Bible is presented, the Holy Communion is celebrated, but the service is interrupted after the Nicene Creed. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... The standard of the Moderator The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is an honorary role, held for 12 months. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ...


Anointing and crowning

The 1st Marquess of Anglesey carried St Edward's Crown at George IV's coronation.
The 1st Marquess of Anglesey carried St Edward's Crown at George IV's coronation.

After the Communion service is interrupted, the Sovereign removes the crimson robe, puts on the anointing gown and proceeds to King Edward's Chair, which has been set in a most prominent position. (In 1953 it stood atop a dais of several steps.) This ancient medieval chair has a slot in the base into which the Stone of Scone is fitted for the ceremony. Also known as the "stone of destiny", it was used for ancient Scottish coronations until brought to England by Edward I. It has been used for every coronation at Westminster Abbey since. Until 1996 the stone was kept with the chair in Westminster Abbey between coronations; but it was returned that year to Scotland, where it will remain on display in Edinburgh Castle until it is needed for a coronation. St Edwards Crown at George IVs coronation. ... St Edwards Crown at George IVs coronation. ... Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey (17 May 1768–29 April 1854) was a British military leader and politician, now chiefly remembered for leading the charge of the heavy cavalry against dErlons column during the Battle of Waterloo. ... King Edwards Chair, sometimes known as St Edwards Chair or The Coronation Chair, is the throne on which the British monarch sits for the coronation. ... The Stone of Scone, (pronounced scoon) also commonly known as the Stone of Destiny or the Coronation Stone (though the former name sometimes refers to Lia Fáil) is a block of sandstone historically kept at the now-ruined abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and...


Once seated in this chair, a canopy is held over the monarch's head for the anointing. The duty of acting as pallbearers was performed in recent coronations by four Knights of the Garter; namely: The Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes under a canopy of estate, on a dais: there is a cushion under his feet Margaret Beaufort, Queen Mother, at prayer, by an anonymous artist, about 1500 Engraving of the Gnadenaltar in the Vierzehnheiligen Basilica, Bad Staffelstein, Bavaria. ... To anoint is to grease with perfumed oil, animal fat, or melted butter, a process employed ritually by many religions and races. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ...

This element of the coronation service was considered so sacred in 1953 that it was not televised. 2 The Dean of Westminster pours consecrated oil from an eagle-shaped ampulla into a spoon; the Archbishop of Canterbury then anoints the Sovereign on the hands, breast, and head. The filigreed spoon is the only part of the mediæval crown jewels which survived the commonwealth. The Archbishop concludes by stating a blessing. William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire (c. ... The Most Noble Sir Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (c. ... Francis-Seymour Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford (July 5, 1718 – June 14, 1784) was born in Chelsea, England, and died in Surrey, England. ... James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave KG PC FRS (4 March 1715–13 April 1763) was a British statesman. ... Henry Charles Somerset, 6th Duke of Beaufort KG MA (December 22, 1766–December 2, 1835) was a British peer, the son of Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort. ... John Jeffreys Pratt, 2nd Earl and 1st Marquess Camden (11 February 1759-8 October 1840), only son of the 1st Earl, was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. ... One of the most significant figures in the history of cricket was George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea (1752 – 1826). ... Lord Castlereagh Foreign Secretary 1812–1822 Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry, KG, GCH, PC (18 June 1769 in Dublin – 12 August 1822 at Loring Hall, Kent), known until 1821 by his courtesy title of Viscount Castlereagh, was an Anglo-Irish politician born in Dublin who represented the United Kingdom... The Most Noble George William Frederick Osborne, 6th Duke of Leeds KG (July 21, 1775–July 10, 1838) was the son of Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds. ... The Most Honourable Brownlow Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Exeter KG PC (July 2, 1795–January 16, 1867) was the son of Henry Cecil, 1st Marquess of Exeter. ... The Most Noble John Henry Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland (January 4, 1778 – 1857) was the son of Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland. ... Walter Francis Montagu-Douglas-Scott, 5th Duke of Buccleuch, 7th Duke of Queensberry (25 November 1806 - 16 April 1884) was a British politician and nobleman. ... Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey (17 May 1768–29 April 1854) was a British military leader and politician, now chiefly remembered for leading the charge of the heavy cavalry against dErlons column during the Battle of Waterloo. ... George Henry Cadogan, 5th Earl Cadogan, KG, PC (12 May 1840 – 6 March 1915) was a British Conservative politician. ... The 16th Earl of Derby Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, KG, GCB, GCVO, PC (15 January 1841 – 14 June 1908), known as Frederick Stanley until 1886 and as The Lord Stanley of Preston between 1886 and 1893, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who served... Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, KG, PC (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister, also known as Archibald Primrose (1847-1851) and Lord Dalmeny (1851-1868). ... John Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer John Poyntz Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer, KG (27 October 1835 – 13 August 1910) (known as the Red Earl because of his distinctive long red beard) was a British Liberal Party politician under and close friend of British prime minister William Ewart Gladstone. ... Robert Offley Ashburton Crewe-Milnes, 1st and last Marquess of Crewe (12 January 1858–20 June 1945) was an English statesman and writer. ... In 1885, as Middletons chief of staff Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, KG, PC, 4th Earl of Minto (June 9, 1845 – March 1, 1914), known between 1859 and 1891 as Viscount Melgund, was an English politician, Governor General of Canada, and Viceroy of India. ... James Albert Edward Hamilton, 3rd Duke of Abercorn (November 30, 1869 - September 12, 1953) was a British Unionist politician and nobleman who became the first Governor of Northern Ireland. ... The Most Honourable Charles Stewart Henry Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 7th Marquess of Londonderry (1878-1949) had careers in both Irish and British politics. ... Victor Alexander George Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC, DL (1876–1947) was a British politician. ... James Richard Stanhope, 13th Earl of Chesterfield and 7th Earl Stanhope (1880-1967) was a British politician in the late 1930s as The Earl Stanhope. ... Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington, KG (August 21, 1885 - January 4, 1972) was a British diplomat. ... William Arthur Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 7th Duke of Portland (1893-1977) was the 2nd Chancellor of the University of Nottingham. ... The Right Honourable Sir Hugh William Fortescue, 5th Earl Fortescue KG PC (June 14, 1888–June 14, 1958) was a British peer, the son of Hugh Fortescue, 4th Earl Fortescue. ... Wentworth Henry Canning Beaumont, 2nd Viscount Allendale KG MC JP BA (6 August 1890–16 December 1956) was a British peer. ... Filigree (formerly written filigrann or filigrane) is a jewel work of a delicate kind made with twisted threads usually of gold and silver. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395...


The Sovereign is then enrobed in the colobium sindonis, over which is placed the supertunica.


The Lord Great Chamberlain presents the spurs, which represent chivalry. The Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by other bishops, then presents the Sword of State to the Sovereign. The Sovereign is then further robed, this time putting the Robe Royal and Stole Royal on top of the supertunica. The Archbishop then delivers several Crown Jewels to the Sovereign. First, he delivers the Orb, a hollow golden sphere set with numerous precious and semi-precious stones. The Orb is surmounted by a cross, representing the rule of Jesus over the world; it is returned to the Altar immediately after being received. Next, the Sovereign receives a ring representing the "marriage" between him or her and the nation. The Sceptre with the Dove (so called because it is surmounted by a dove representing the Holy Spirit) and the Sceptre with the Cross (which incorporates Cullinan I, the largest cut diamond in the world) are delivered to the Sovereign. As the Sovereign holds the two sceptres, the Archbishop of Canterbury places St Edward's Crown (brought to him by the Lord High Steward) on his or her head. All cry "God Save the King [Queen]", placing their coronets and caps on their heads. Cannon are fired from the Tower of London. A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Coronation Chair and Regalia of England The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at various other state functions. ... Queen Elizabeth II holding the Orb The Sovereigns Orb is a type of regalia known as a globus cruciger and is one of the British Crown Jewels. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Sceptre with the Dove, also known as the Rod with the Dove or the Rod of Equity and Mercy, is a sceptre of the British Crown Jewels. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit... Queen Elizabeth II holding the Sceptre with the Cross The Sceptre with the Cross, also known as the St Edwards Sceptre, the Sovereigns Sceptre or the Royal Sceptre, is a sceptre of the British Crown Jewels. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Coronation Chair and Regalia of England St Edwards Crown is one of the British Crown Jewels used primarily in the coronation of a new monarch. ...


End of the ceremony

Elizabeth I wore the crown and held the sceptre and orb at the end of her coronation.
Elizabeth I wore the crown and held the sceptre and orb at the end of her coronation.

The Sovereign is then borne into the Throne. The Archbishops and Bishops swear their fealty, saying "I, N., Archbishop [Bishop] of N., will be faithful and true, and faith and truth will bear unto you, our Sovereign Lord [Lady], King [Queen] of this Realm and Defender of the Faith, and unto your heirs and successors according to law. So help me God." The peers then proceed to pay their homage, saying "I, N., Duke [Marquess, Earl, Viscount, Baron or Lord] of N., do become your liege man of life and limb, and of earthly worship; and faith and truth will I bear unto you, to live and die, against all manner of folks. So help me God." Formerly, each peer paid homage individually, but Edward VII abbreviated the ceremony. Now, the clergy pay homage together, led by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Next, members of the Royal Family pay homage individually. The peers are led by the premier peers of their rank: the Dukes by the Premier Duke, the Marquesses by the Premier Marquess, and so forth. Download high resolution version (529x700, 80 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (529x700, 80 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ...


If there is a Queen Consort, she is crowned in a very simple ceremony immediately before homage is paid.3 A Queen Regnant's husband, however, is not separately crowned. The Communion ceremony interrupted earlier is resumed and completed. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ...


The Sovereign then exits the Coronation Theatre, entering St Edward's Chapel (also within the Abbey), preceded by the bearers of the Sword of State, the Sword of Spiritual Justice, the Sword of Temporal Justice and the Sword of Mercy (the last has a blunt tip). The Crown and Sceptres worn by the Sovereign, as well as all other regalia, are laid at the Altar; the Sovereign removes the Robe Royal and Stole Royal, exchanges the crimson surcoat for the purple surcoat and is enrobed in the Imperial Robe of purple velvet. He or she then wears the Imperial State Crown and takes into his or her hands the Sceptre with the Cross and the Orb and leaves the chapel while all present sing the National Anthem. A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). ... A sceptre or scepter is a symbolic ornamental staff held by a ruling monarch, a prominent item of kingly regalia. ... The Imperial State Crown is one of the British Crown Jewels. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ...


Music

Music played at coronations is primarily classical and religiously inspired. The most oft-used piece is Zadok the Priest, a religious composition by George Frideric Handel based on texts from the Bible. The work was commissioned for George II's coronation in 1727, and has featured in every coronation since, an achievement unparalleled by any other piece. Hubert Parry's I Was Glad was written as the entrance anthem for the coronation of Edward VII, and contains a bridge section partway through so that the King's or Queen's Scholars of Westminster School can exercise their right to be the first commoners to acclaim the sovereign, shouting their traditional "vivat"s as he or she enters the coronation theatre. This anthem and Charles Villiers Stanford's Gloria in Excelsis have also been used regularly in recent coronations, as has the national anthem, God Save the Queen (or King). Other composers whose music featured in Elizabeth II's coronation include Sir George Dyson, Gordon Jacob, Sir William Henry Harris, Herbert Howells, Sir William Walton, Samuel Sebastian Wesley, Ralph Vaughan Williams and the Canadian-resident but English-born Healey Willan. It was the determined wish of Queen Elizabeth II that there be greater congregational participation in the service than at previous coronations, consistent with the decision that the service be televised. Accordingly, Ralph Vaughan Williams recast his 1928 setting of the English metrical version of Psalm 100, the Jubilate Deo ("All people that on earth do dwell") for congregation, organ and orchestra: the setting has become ubiquitous at festal occasions in the anglophone world. Zadok the Priest being performed at the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne in 2005 Zadok the Priest is a coronation anthem composed by George Frideric Handel (1685–1759) using texts from the King James Bible. ... George Frideric Handel, 1733 George Frideric Handel (23 February 1685 – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (February 27, 1848 – October 7, 1918) was an English composer, probably best known for his setting of William Blakes poem, Jerusalem. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... The Royal College of St Peter at Westminster (almost always known as Westminster School) is one of Britains leading boys independent schools and one of the nine public schools set out in the Public Schools Act 1868. ... Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (September 30, 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... Scientific historian, author of Project Orion: The Atomic Spaceship 1957-1965. ... Gordon Percival Septimus Jacob (July 5, 1895 – June 8, 1984) was an English composer. ... Sir William Henry Harris (March 28, 1883 - September 6, 1973) was an English organist and composer. ... Herbert Norman Howells CH (17 October 1892 – 23 February 1983) was an English composer, organist, and teacher. ... Sir William Turner Walton, OM (March 29, 1902–March 8, 1983) was a British composer whose style was influenced by the works of Stravinsky, Sibelius and jazz. ... Samuel Sebastian Wesley (14 August 1810 — 19 April 1876) was an English organist and composer. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Healey Willan, CC (October 12, 1880 - February 16, 1968) was a Canadian organist and composer. ...


Coronation banquet

Traditionally, the coronation was immediately followed by a banquet, held in Westminster Hall in the Palace of Westminster (which also serves as the home to the Houses of Parliament). The King's Champion (the office being held by the Dymoke family in connection with the Manor of Scrivelsby) would ride into the hall on horseback, wearing a knight's armour, with the Lord High Constable riding to his right and the Earl Marshal riding to his left. A herald would then proclaim, Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... Dymoke, the name of an English family holding the office of kings champion. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...

"If any person, of what degree soever, high or low, shall deny or gainsay our Sovereign Lord ..., King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, son and next heir unto our Sovereign Lord the last King deceased, to be the right heir to the Imperial Crown of this Realm of Great Britain and Ireland, or that he ought not to enjoy the same; here is his Champion, who saith that he lieth, and is a false traitor, being ready in person to combat with him; and in this quarrel will adventure his life against him, on what day soever he shall be appointed."

The King's Champion would then throw down the gauntlet; the ceremony would be repeated at the centre of the hall and at the High Table (where the Sovereign would be seated). The Sovereign would then drink to the Champion from a gold cup, which he would then present to the latter. The bishops and peers would then cheer the Sovereign, and would proceed to eat numerous dishes. Their families, however, did not participate, instead just looking on from the side galleries.


The offices of Chief Butler of England, Grand Carver of England and Master Carver of Scotland were also associated with the Coronation Banquet. The Chief Butler of England is an office of Grand Sergeanty associated with the feudal Manor of Kenninghall in Norfolk. ... An hereditary office of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of England and later the United Kingdom, held in gross. ... The Master Carver is a member of the Royal household in Scotland. ...


Banquets have not been held since the coronation of George IV in 1821. George IV's coronation was the most elaborate in history; his brother and successor William IV eliminated the banquet, and William's desire to eliminate the costly banquet has now apparently become the custom. A banquet was considered in 1902 for Edward VII but his sudden illness put a stop to the plans. Nevertheless, the well known recipe for Coronation Chicken was created as the informal meal served to the guests in 1953. Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Coronation chicken is a dish generally used to fill sandwiches and rolls in the United Kingdom. ...


Dates of recent coronations

George III (succeeded October 25, 1760, crowned September 22, 1761) October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


George IV (succeeded January 29, 1820, crowned July 19, 1821) January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


William IV (succeeded June 26, 1830, crowned September 8, 1831) is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Victoria (succeeded June 20, 1837, crowned May 18, 1838) is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Edward VII (succeeded January 22, 1901, crowned August 9, 1902; originally set for June 26, 1902, postponed due to King's illness) January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


George V (succeeded May 6, 1910, crowned June 22, 1911) is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Edward VIII (succeeded January 20, 1936, no coronation) January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


George VI (succeeded December 11, 1936, crowned May 12, 1937) December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Elizabeth II (succeeded February 6, 1952, crowned June 2, 1953) February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

For earlier coronations and other details, see List of coronations of British monarchs.

This is a list dates of Coronations of British monarchs. ...

Enthronement as Emperor

Victoria assumed the title Empress of India in 1877. Neither she nor her successor, Edward VII, were specifically crowned with this title. George V, however, visited India to be enthroned along with his wife in 1911. The Durbar, or Imperial Court, was for political reasons held not at the capital, Calcutta, but in Delhi. Since it was deemed inappropriate for the Christian anointing and coronation to take place in a Hindu nation, George V was not crowned in India; instead, he wore a crown as he entered the Durbar. British law prohibited the removal of the British Crown Jewels from the nation; therefore, a separate crown, known as the Imperial Crown of India, was created for George V. The Emperor was enthroned, and the Indian princes paid homage to him. Thereafter, certain political decisions, such as the decision to move the capital from Calcutta to Delhi, were announced at the Durbar. The Durbar was in reality held in order to announce these political changes, and to display the power of the Emperor, rather than to celebrate George V's accession. The ceremony was not repeated, and the imperial title was abandoned by George VI in 1948 (though India had become independent a year earlier). Pictures and text from a book published for the ceremony are available at Coronation Durbar of 1911. New Crowns for Old depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Victoria an Imperial crown in exchange for a Royal one. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... , Delhi (Hindi: , Punjabi: , Urdu: ) sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Artists painting of the Imperial Crown of India eThe Imperial Crown of India is housed with but not part of the British Crown Jewels. ...


Notes

1. At George IV's coronation, however, the Barons bore the canopy behind the King rather than over him; various accounts explain the irregularity. Henry Rivington Hill writes, "His Majesty's reason for walking before the canopy appears to have been that the people at the top of the houses might be able to see him, as he frequently looked up almost perpendicularly." One anonymous account suggests, "At first all seems to have gone well, but on returning to Westminster Hall, the elderly bearers began to tire at their task, causing the canopy to sway from side to side. The King feeling nervous that it would descend on his head, thought it safer to walk slightly in front of it. This however, did not suit the stout hearts, though weak bodies, of the Barons, whose privilege and duty it was to bear the canopy exactly over the King, so they hastened their steps, the canopy swaying more and more with the increased pace. The King now became genuinely alarmed, and though of portly habits quickened his pace, and, as the canopy surged after him, at last broke into a somewhat unseemly jog trot, and in this manner they all arrived at Westminster Hall."
2. According to one popular legend associated with the anointing, the Virgin Mary miraculously appeared before St. Thomas à Becket and gave him a vessel of holy oil to be used for anointing. The myth was most likely invented to rival a similar French legend that the Holy Spirit descended from Heaven, bringing a vessel containing anointing oil for a coronation.
3. George IV was estranged from his wife, Queen Caroline, at the time of his coronation. He not only refused to allow her to be crowned at the ceremony, but also excluded her from the entire coronation itself. She appeared at the doors, demanding to be let in. According to contemporary accounts, she could have entered as a spectator, but she demanded to be crowned with her husband and was excluded

Our Lady redirects here. ... (St. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (later Queen Caroline; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was the queen consort of George IV of the United Kingdom from 29 January 1820 to her death. ...

See also

The British monarchy is a shared monarchy; this article describes the monarchy from the perspective of the United Kingdom. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... The intended meaning of the term civil religion often varies according to whether one is a sociologist of religion or a professional political commentator. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... Coronation Chair and Regalia of England The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at various other state functions. ... This is a list dates of Coronations of British monarchs. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ...

External links

Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Leo John Genn (August 9, 1905 – January 26, 1978) was an English actor on stage and in films. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Crowned.eu (1217 words)
A coronation is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head.
A coronation ceremony is generally religious in character, because from the earliest times it was believed that monarchs were chosen by God, in accordance with the Divine Right of Kings; hence, the crown was bestowed by God himself.
In Norway, the coronation was abolished in 1908 and the king was thereafter only required by law to go through the taking of the oath in the Storting, but when Olav V was to be crowned in 1958 he still wanted the church's blessing for his reign and the benediction was introduced.
Coronation - Search Results - MSN Encarta (197 words)
Coronation, ceremony having as its central act the placing of a crown on the head of a monarch.
A coronation is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head.
The Coronation of the British Monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other Commonwealth Realms is formally...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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