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Encyclopedia > Coronation

A ' asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. Where the monarch is anointed, the ritual may have religious significance. Coronation has been little practiced in recent years, although it remains the norm for the formal installation of the monarch of the Commonwealth Realms. Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... Pope John XXIII after being crowned with the 1877 papal tiara. ... To anoint is to grease with perfumed oil, animal fat, or melted butter, a process employed ritually by many religions and races. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


Formerly, in many kingdoms and empires, the coronation was a highly solemn ceremony in which anointing with holy oil, followed by ratification as the proper occupant of the throne, were important parts. This is still the case in the United Kingdom, one of the few nations that continues formal coronations to this day, and was true for the historical monarchies of France, and many other former kingdoms and empires. For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... Chrism (or holy oil) is a consecrated oil used to anoint confirmandi in the Catholic sacrament of confirmation (or chrismation) and newly ordained priest receiving the Catholic sacrament of Holy Orders. ... The thrones for The Queen of Canada, and the Duke of Edinburgh in the Canadian Senate, Ottawa is usually occupied by the Governor General and her spouse at the annual State Opening of Parliament. ... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ...


The term 'Coronation' is sometimes used in a semi-ironic sense to refer to uncontested party leadership elections, with all potential party leaders choosing back a single candidate or stay silent rather than stand in an election they are likely to lose[1]. This typically happens where there has been a protracted behind-the-scenes attempt to remove the outgoing leader, leading to a significant amount of time to discover who has the most party support before the election proper.

Contents

In Antiquity

The Shahs of the Achaemenid Persian Empire were crowned with the diadem by a high priest of the Zoroastrian religion. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... This article is about a type of crown called a diadem; for alternate meanings, see Diadem. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


The Roman Emperors, traditionally acclaimed either by the senate or by a legion speaking for the armies as a whole, were confirmed by the other body, without a coronation. The Eastern diadem was introduced by Diocletian. In theory, the Imperial crown should be imposed by a representative of those who conferred the sovereign authority that it symbolized; and, in the 4th century, the Prefect Sallustius Secundus crowned Valentinian I (in whose election he had taken the prominent part). But the Emperor seems to have felt some hesitation in receiving the diadem from the hands of a subject, and the selection for the office was likely to cause jealousy. Yet, a formality was necessary. In the 5th century the difficulty was overcome in an ingenious and tactful way. The duty of coronation was assigned to the Patriarch of Constantinople, possibly at the coronation of Marcian (AD 450), but certainly at the coronation of his successor Leo (457).[1] The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Another but lesser Marcian was a son-in-law of Byzantine Emperor Leo I and his queen Verina. ... Leo I coin. ...


Since the feudal age

Coronation of King Alexander III of Scotland on Moot Hill, Scone. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh, the royal poet, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Alban, "God Bless the King of Scotland"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy back to the first ever Scotsman. It was the tradition in Gaelic-speaking societies that the king's legitimacy be established by recitation of the royal pedigree.
Coronation of King Alexander III of Scotland on Moot Hill, Scone. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh, the royal poet, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Alban, "God Bless the King of Scotland"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy back to the first ever Scotsman. It was the tradition in Gaelic-speaking societies that the king's legitimacy be established by recitation of the royal pedigree.

A coronation following the Byzantine formula was instigated with the coronation of King Clovis of the Franks at Rheims (497), in which a dove was made to descend with an ampoule of oil, with which the king was anointed. All succeeding kings of France were anointed — with the same oil, miraculously resupplied[citation needed] — and crowned at Rheims. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. ... Scone (Modern Gaelic: Sgàin; Medieval: Scoine) (pronounced Scoon) is a town in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ...


Coronations are often centuries-old ceremonies with a great many formal and solemn traditions. Usually the climax of the coronation ceremony is the monarch's recital of an oath, followed by a religious leader placing a crown on the monarch's head. Some monarchs have crowned themselves: this was the custom of the Shahs in Iran, the Tsars of Russia and self-proclaimed monarchs like the Bonaparte Emperors of the French. Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of the United States oath of office. ... A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... A self-proclaimed monarchy is a monarchy that is proclaimed into existence, often by an individual, rather than occurring as part of a longstanding tradition. ... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ...

Tsar Nicholas II of Russia after his coronation in May 1896.

The crown is not the only item bestowed on a sovereign at his or her coronation. Usually there is an orb and sceptre and — depending on the country — other items from the crown jewels, all highly charged with historic, religious, and territorial symbolism. Nicholas II of Russia after his coronation in 1894. ... Nicholas II of Russia after his coronation in 1894. ... Nicholas II of Russia (Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov) (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Queen Elizabeth II held a globus cruciger, called the Sovereigns Orb, for her coronation portrait in 1953. ... A sceptre or scepter is a symbolic ornamental staff held by a ruling monarch, a prominent item of kingly regalia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The ceremony usually takes place in the premier cathedral or most holy basilica of a country, often in the present or former monarchical and/or ecclesiastical capital. In the United Kingdom, the coronation ceremony takes place in Westminster Abbey, with the monarch seated on the ancient St. Edward's Chair, or Coronation chair, (which then again includes the Scottish Stone of Scone). The French monarchs were crowned at Notre-Dame de Reims. For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... St. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... King Edwards Chair, sometimes known as St. ... The Stone of Scone, (pronounced scoon) also commonly known as the Stone of Destiny or the Coronation Stone (though the former name sometimes refers to Lia Fáil) is a block of sandstone historically kept at the now-ruined abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. ... Façade of the Notre-Dame de Reims The Notre-Dame de Reims (Our Lady of Rheims) is the Cathedral of Reims, where the kings of France were once crowned. ...


A coronation ceremony is generally religious in character, because from the earliest times it was believed that monarchs were chosen by God, in accordance with the Divine Right of Kings; hence, the crown was bestowed by God himself. While this belief is now not generally held, many sovereigns are still proclaimed as Monarch "By Grace of God", even though legally nearly all are subject to the constitution, some even subject to parliamentary sanction. The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ...

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom receiving homage from the peerage at her coronation.Westminster Abbey, 1953.
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom receiving homage from the peerage at her coronation.Westminster Abbey, 1953.

Before 1917, many Russian peasants, unofficially, prayed to God and the Tsar[citation needed]; while in Japan the Emperor was believed to be a descendant of Amaterasu the sun goddess. Hence, the concept of monarch, coronation, and God are inexorably linked. Image File history File links Queencrown. ... Image File history File links Queencrown. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ...


A monarch succeeding by right (e.g. hereditarily) does not have to undergo the ceremony of coronation to ascend the throne and execute the duties of the office. King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, for example, did not reign long enough for a coronation ceremony to occur before he abdicated, yet he was unquestionably the King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India during his brief reign. This is because in Great Britain, the law stipulates that the moment one monarch dies, the new monarch assumes the throne, so that there is no time at which the throne is vacant. The British Monarch is usually proclaimed in an outdoor ceremony at St. James's Palace within hours of the death of his predecessor. In France, the new monarch ascended the throne when the coffin of the previous monarch descended into the vault at Saint Denis Basilica, and the Duke of Uzes proclaimed 'Le Roi est mort, vive le Roi' (French: 'The [old] king is dead; long live the [new] King!') Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time for which it is held. ... A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy. ... Uzès is a picturesque town and commune in the Gard département, Languedoc, about 15 miles north-northeast of Nîmes. ... The King is dead. ...


From 1305 to 1963 the Popes were crowned with the Papal Tiara in a coronation ceremony in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Following the decision of the last crowned Pope, Paul VI, to lay the Papal tiara on the high altar of the basilica as a symbol of humility, the next three popes declined to wear it, and thus had a ceremony of papal inauguration rather than coronation, as the placing of a crown or coronet of some description upon the head is a requisite of a coronation ceremony. While John Paul I, John Paul II (who also completely abandoned the use of the sedia gestatoria, a portable throne) and Benedict XVI opted for an inauguration instead of an old-fashioned coronation, a future pope can, in theory, opt for the coronation ceremony. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the Triregnum, and in Italian as the Triregno, is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown, supposedly of Byzantine and Persian origin, that is a prominent symbol of the papacy. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter, officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly called Saint Peters Basilica, is one of four major basilicas of Rome (St. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) is crowned at the last papal coronation to date, in 1963. ... Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as... Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/2/26/A022ht_5_SedeGest. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

King Charles IV of Hungary, Queen Zita and Crown Prince Otto.Official coronation portrait, Budapest, December 1916.
King Charles IV of Hungary, Queen Zita and Crown Prince Otto.
Official coronation portrait, Budapest, December 1916.

Many European monarchies have dispensed with the ceremony of coronation altogether. In Norway, the coronation was abolished in 1908 and the king was thereafter only required by law to go through the taking of the oath in the Storting, but when Olav V was to be crowned in 1958 he still wanted the church's blessing for his reign and the benediction was introduced. This ceremony is much simpler than the previous coronation, but continues the element of blessing and the Crown of Norway is displayed on the high altar rather than placed on the king's head. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway received the benediction in 1991 and although the ceremony is not required it is expected to be used by future monarchs as well. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Karl I, a. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... His Highness the Archduke of Austria Otto von Habsburg (as citizen of Germany) or Otto Habsburg-Lothringen (as citizen of Austria), sometimes known as Archduke Otto of Austria (Franz Josef Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xavier Felix René Ludwig Gaetano Pius Ignazius von Habsburg-Lothringen), born November... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Storting main building The Storting, or Stortinget, (the Great Assembly), is the parliament of Norway, and is located in Oslo. ... His Majesty King Olav V (July 2, 1903 - January 17, 1991) reigned as King of Norway from 1957 to 1991. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The crown jewels, or royal regalia, of Norway include nine regalias: The kings crown, the kings sceptre, the kings orb, the queens crown, the queens sceptre, the queens orb, the crown of the crown prince, the sword and the anointing horn. ... Harald V, King of Norway (born February 21, 1937) is the monarch of Norway. ... Queen Sonja of Norway (née Sonja Haraldsen, born July 4, 1937 in Oslo) is the queen consort of Norway, wife of King Harald V of Norway. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands had an oath-taking and induction ceremony rather than a coronation; and in Sweden, no king has been crowned since Oscar II in 1873. In Spain, although the crown is present and evident at the ceremony it is never actually placed on the monarch's head. Today's coronations of constitutional monarchs are more akin to political inaugurations. Belgium actually never had a crown (except as a 'virtual' heraldic emblem), the formal installation is a solemn oath on the constitution in parliament, symbolic of the restricted rule of the king under the then cutting-edge constitution of 1831. Beatrix (born January 31, 1938 as Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, Prinses der Nederlanden, Prinses van Oranje-Nassau, Prinses van Lippe-Biesterfeld) has been the queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands since April 30, 1980. ... Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik) (January 21, 1829 – December 8, 1907) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1872 until his death. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ...

King Haakon VII and Queen Maud of Norway.They were photographed wearing their coronation crowns and robes in 1906.
King Haakon VII and Queen Maud of Norway.
They were photographed wearing their coronation crowns and robes in 1906.

Among the last grand coronation ceremonies the world saw were those of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran in 1967 and that of the Central African Republic's president Bokassa in 1977. Bokassa crowned himself Emperor in an imitation of Napoleon I's pomp. Furthermore, grand ceremonial is still customary in some South East Asian monarchies, notably for the King of Thailand, the Sultan of Brunei and King of Malaysia, where every five years one of the continental state monarchs (Sultans and one Radja) is crowned Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Paramount Ruler), i.e. elective head of state of the federation. Also, upon the death of Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales, will almost certainly have an extremely grand coronation, in keeping with British Imperial tradition, and because he may at the same time receive the title of Head of the Commonwealth (subject to agreement of the member states of the Commonwealth). The Coronation of Haakon VII and Queen Maud of Norway File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Coronation of Haakon VII and Queen Maud of Norway File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until... Jean-Bédel Bokassa (February 22, 1921 – November 3, 1996) was the military ruler of the Central African Republic from January 1, 1966 until his overthrow as Emperor on September 20, 1979. ... Flag of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ...


References

  1. ^ Bury, J.B. History of the Later Roman Empire (1923), Chap. 1—The Constitution of the Monarchy, accessed 2007-06-18.

See also

Royal coronations in Poland: This is a list of royal coronations in Poland. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... This footprint carved into the rock on Dunadd, in Argyll, is linked to the crowning of the Scots kings of Dál Riata. ...

External links

  • Royal Passion Bearer detailed description of the coronation of the Tsar begins on p. 4.

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Coroner Home Page - Swiss Metal Band (259 words)
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This reflects the role of a coroner, to determine the cause of death of a deceased in cases where the death was sudden, unexpected, occurred abroad, was suspicious in any way or happened while the person was under the control of central authority (e.g., in police cells).
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