The anatomical position is a schematic convention for describing the relative morphology of the human body. All terms in the study of anatomy refer to when the body is in this position.
The person is oriented Morphology is the following: In linguistics, morphology is the study of the structure of word forms. ...
Human anatomy or anthropotomy is a special field within anatomy. ...
- in an erect standing position
- eyes and head facing forward
- feet forward and perpendicular to the body
- arms close to the sides and palms of the hands facing forward with fingers extended.
It should be noted that this is not the normal position that arms rest in.
Median and sagittal plane
The body in anatomical position may be divided conceptually by planes. The median plane passes from the top to the bottom of the body and separates the left and the right sides of the body in equal halves.
Positions toward the median plane are called medial, and positions away from the median plane are called lateral.
A sagittal plane is any plane parallel to the median and hence the median plane is also called the midsagittal plane. A sagittal slice or section that is not on the median plane is also referred to as a parasagittal section.
The frontal or coronal plane essentially separates the body into the forward half and the back half. This plane is perpendicular to the median and also passes from the top to the bottom along the long axis of the body. The term posterior refers to objects on the back half of the body, behind the coronal plane and the term anterior refers to objects in front of this plane.
The horizontal or transverse plane is perpendicular to both of these planes and is the plane which divides the body into an upper and a lower half. Positions above the transverse plane are called superior, and positions below the transverse plane are called inferior. In comparative anatomy, superior may be called the rostral (beak) or cranial (head) end. Inferior may be referred to as the caudal (tail) or dorsal (back) ends. Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in organisms. ...
A rostrum (Latin beak) is an anatomical structure resembling a birds beak, such as part of the carapace of a crustacean. ...
Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ...
In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ...
The word dorsal can refer to many different things. ...
Planes in between these three are known as oblique planes.
All acts of movement are considered to be a mixture or a single contribution of the following movement terms:
- Flexion - where there is a reduction in the angle between bones or parts of the body. This term applies only to movement along the sagittal or median plane. An example of arms flexing is lifting a dinner plate. When applied to the trunk of the body, this term means bowing forwards.
- Extension - is the opposite of flexion, and there is an increase in the angle. This term applies only to movement along the sagittal or median plane. With the trunk of the body, this movement is bowing backwards.
- Adduction - where there is a reduction in the angle between bones or parts of the body. This only applies to movement along the coronal plane. An example of this is where extending arms outwards as if to fly.
- Abduction - the exact opposite, with an increase in the angle. Also only applies to movement along the coronal plane.
- Rotation - is rotation of an entire limb clockwise (laterally) or anticlockwise (medially).
- Pronation - this is the rotation of the hand so that the palm faces posteriorly. This is not medial rotation as this must be performed when the arm is half flexed. Prone means the hand is facing posteriorly.
- Supination - the roation of the hand so that the palm faces anteriorly. The hand is supine (facing anteriorly) in the anatomical position.
- Protrusion - is the anterior movement of an object. This term is often applied to the jaw.
- Retrusion - the opposite of protrusion.
- Elevation - superior movement. This term is often applied to the shoulders (eg shrugging shoulders is elevation)
- Depression - inferior movement, opposite of elevation.
- Circumduction - is a special case of movement involving adduction, flexion, extension and abduction. The resulting movement creates a circular path of movement. The only joint in the human body capable of circumduction is the shoulder.
In human anatomy, the shoulder joint is composed of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone) (see diagram). ...
There are several cases where the meaning of these planes are sighlty different. Hence new definitions for movement applies. This is apparent in the foot, the tongue, the hand, the penis, the brain and sometimes and the perineum (often by professionals). The muscles of the male perineum In anatomy, the perineum is the region between the genital area and the anus in both sexes. ...
Foot and hand
Since the foot is discontiguous with the coronal plane, it is described by analogy and with embryological consdierations, with the hand. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...
An analogy is a comparison between two different things, in order to highlight some form of similarity. ...
The hand (med. ...
The palm (adj palmar) of the hand corresponds to the sole (adj plantar) of the foot, and the dorsum (back) of the hand corresponds to the dorsum (top) of the foot.
From this, the term dorsiflexion means to flex upwards (true flexion) and the term plantarflexion, meaning to extend downwards (true extension) are derived.
The foot is also capable of movement along another axis due to the flexibility of the ankle joint. These movements are The bones in the foot In anatomy, the ankle is the part of the lower limb that is located between the foot and the leg. ...
- Eversion - the movement of the sole of the foot away from the median plane.
- Inversion - the movement of the sole towards the median plane. (same as when an ankle is twisted).
The position of the hand in anatomical position is considered supine, such that rotation of the hand so that the palm faces backwards is called pronation and the reverse action, supination.
In the anatomical position, the penis is considered to be erect and pointing upwards, i.e. the dorsal side of the penis is what one would normally call its top side. Penis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...
The tongue has a dorsal side which is facing upwards (the side that tastes and licks). Many animals have longer and more flexible tongues than humans. ...
The perineum is a special place for obstetricians and gynecologists. The professions regard the perineal body in the perinuem to be the center of everything and an important landmark. A lot of anatomy is based on relations to this body and so the terminology is affected. The muscles of the male perineum In anatomy, the perineum is the region between the genital area and the anus in both sexes. ...