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Encyclopedia > Cornwall
Cornwall
Kernow
St Piran's Flag of Cornwall
Flag
Motto of County Council: Onen hag oll (Cornish)
One and all
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
Region South West England
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 12th
3,563 km² (1,375.7 sq mi)
Ranked 9th
3,547 km² (1,369.5 sq mi)
Admin HQ Truro
ISO 3166-2 GB-CON
ONS code 15
NUTS 3 UKK30
Demography
Population
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 39th
526,300
148/km² (383.3/sq mi)
Ranked 23rd
524,200
Ethnicity 99.0% White, 1% Other
Politics

Cornwall County Council
http://www.cornwall.gov.uk/
Executive Liberal Democrats
Members of Parliament
Districts

Cornwall (pronounced /ˈkɔːnwɒl/; Cornish: Kernow ([ˈkɝnəʊ])) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar. The administrative centre and only city is Truro. Cornwall covers an area of 1,376 square miles (3,563 km²), including the Isles of Scilly, located 28 miles (45 km) offshore. Cornwall has a population of 513,528, with a relatively low population density of 144 people/km², or 373/mile². Cornwall is the name of a number of places, though initially that of Cornwall, in the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cornwall. ... Saint Pirans Flag Saint Pirans Flag is the flag of Cornwall. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... map of admin county File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of English administrative division used for the purposes of local government. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... South West England is one of the regions of England. ... Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... This is a List of Ceremonial counties of England by Area. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a List of Administrative shire counties of England by Area, that is to say Administrative counties with a two-tier County council structure, not including Administrative counties which are Unitary Authorities. ... Truro (pronounced ; Cornish: Truru) is a city in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... The ISO 3166-2 codes for the United Kingdom correspond to the nations administrative divisions. ... The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating census and other statistical data. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This is a List of Ceremonial counties of England by Population - 2002 mid-year estimates from the Office for National Statistics, unrounded figures published by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister in the Entitlement Notification Reports for Revenue Support Grants [1]. See also: List of Administrative shire counties of... This is a list of non-metropolitan counties of England by population. ... Image File history File links Cornwall_Crest. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in Great Britain formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long after... This is a list of MPs elected in the UK general election, 2005 to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the United Kingdom general election, 2005, arranged by constituency. ... Colin Edward Breed (born May 4, 1947) British politician. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in Great Britain formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long after... For the Governor of Anguilla of the same name, see Andrew George (governor). ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in Great Britain formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long after... Julia Anne Goldsworthy (born September 10, 1978) is a British politician. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in Great Britain formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long after... Daniel John Rogerson (born July 23, 1975) is the Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for North Cornwall, first elected at the 2005 General election. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in Great Britain formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long after... Matthew Taylor Matthew Owen John Taylor (born 3 January 1963) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in Great Britain formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long after... Image File history File links Districts in Cornwall, with the Isles of Scilly Created from Image:CornwallNumbered. ... Satellite image of the Penwith peninsula farmland in St Buryan parish looking south towards the sea Cattle being raised in the south of the district Aerial photo looking across Lands End to Cape Cornwall Celtic cross near St Loys Cove, St Buryan Rocky cove at St Loy in... Kerrier (Cornish: Keryer) is a local government district in Cornwall, England, UK. It is the most southerly district in the United Kingdom, other than the Isles of Scilly. ... Carrick is a local government district in Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... Restormel is a local government district and borough in Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... Caradon is a local government district in Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... North Cornwall is the largest of the six local government districts of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of English administrative division used for the purposes of local government. ... South West England is one of the regions of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Tamar is a river in south western England, that forms most of the border between Devon (to the east) and Cornwall (to the west). ... A county town is the capital of a county in the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland. ... Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... Truro (pronounced ; Cornish: Truru) is a city in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Cornwall is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its extensive and varied coastline and its mild climate. Also notable is Cornwall's stone age and industrial archaeology, especially its historic mining landscape, a world heritage site. Tourism therefore forms a significant part of the local economy; however, Cornwall is one of the poorest areas in the United Kingdom with the lowest per capita contribution to the national economy. Moorland in the Pennines (England); Coarse grasses and bracken tend to dominate especially in high rainfall areas. ... The Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape is a World Heritage Site in the counties of Cornwall and Devon in the South West of England. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and is also considered one of the six "Celtic nations" by many residents and scholars. Some inhabitants question the present constitutional status of Cornwall and a self-government movement seeks greater autonomy for the county. A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... The flag of Cornwall (Kernow) The constitutional status of Cornwall, in the southwest of United Kingdom is the subject of ongoing debate. ... The Cornish Flag The Cornish self-government movement (sometimes referred to as Cornish nationalism) is a social movement which seeks greater autonomy for the area of Cornwall. ...

Contents

Etymology

"Cornweallas" in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
"Cornweallas" in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The name Cornwall comes from a merger of two different terms from separate languages. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (685 × 985 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Name: Saxon England according to the Saxon Chronicle Cartographer: Unknown Publication date: 1830 Medium: Copper engraved map with recent hand colour Size: 31x22. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (685 × 985 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Name: Saxon England according to the Saxon Chronicle Cartographer: Unknown Publication date: 1830 Medium: Copper engraved map with recent hand colour Size: 31x22. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ...


The Roman term for the Celtic tribe which inhabited what is now Cornwall at the time of Roman rule, Cornovii, came from a Brythonic tribal name which gave modern Cornish Kernow, also known as Corneu to the Brythons.[1] This could be from two sources; the term may be related to the common Celtic root cern, or the Latin cornu, both of which mean "horn" or "peninsula", suggestive of the shape of Cornwall's landmass.[2] The Cornovii were sufficiently established for their territory to be recorded as Cornubia by AD 700, the name meaning "people of the horn", and remained as such into the Middle Ages. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Celtic tribes and associated celtic peoples with their geographical localization. ... History - Ancient history - Ancient Rome This is a List of Ancient Rome-related topics, that aims to include aspects of both the Ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Flag of Cornwall (Kernow) The Cornovii were a Celtic tribe who inhabited the far South West peninsula of Britain, during the Iron Age, Roman and post-Roman periods and gave their name to Cornwall or Kernow. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... Medieval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th century withdrawal of Roman forces from the province of Britannia and the Germanic invasions, until the 16th century Reformations in the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of...


During the 6th and 7th centuries, the name Cornubia became corrupted by extensive changes in the Old English language.[3] The Anglo-Saxons provided the suffix wealas, meaning "foreigners", creating the term Corn-wealas. Some historians note that this was the word for Wales, however it is understood that the term applied instead to all Brythonic peoples and lands, who were considered foreign by the Anglo-Saxons. As Cornwall was known as West Wales and present-day Wales as North Wales during those times, the "Wales" meaning is probable. Old English redirects here. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... This article is about the country. ...


History

Main articles: History of Cornwall and Timeline of Cornish history

The present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last ice age. The pre-Roman inhabitants included speakers of a Celtic language that would develop into Brythonic and Cornish. After a period of Roman rule, Cornwall reverted to independent Celtic chieftains. The first account of Cornwall comes from the Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (c.90 BC–c.30 BC), supposedly quoting or paraphrasing the fourth-century BC geographer Pytheas, who had sailed to Britain: The history of Cornwall begins with the pre-Roman inhabitants, including speakers of a Celtic language that would develop into Brythonic and Cornish. ... This timeline summarizes significant events in the history of Cornwall. ... This article is about the European people. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Pytheas (Πυθέας(Pitheas), ca. ...

The inhabitants of that part of Britain called Belerion (or Land's End) from their intercourse with foreign merchants, are civilised in their manner of life. They prepare the tin, working very carefully the earth in which it is produced…Here then the merchants buy the tin from the natives and carry it over to Gaul, and after travelling overland for about thirty days, they finally bring their loads on horses to the mouth of the Rhône.[4]

The identity of these merchants is unknown. There has been a theory that they were Phoenicians, however there is no evidence for this.[5] (For further discussion of tin mining see the section on the economy below.) Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


There is a theory that once silver was extracted from the copper ores of Cornwall in pre-Roman times, as silver is easily converted to its chloride (AgCl) by surface waters containing chlorine.[6] This article is about the chemical element. ...


In the early Middle Ages Cornwall came into conflict with the expanding kingdom of Wessex. The Annales Cambriae report that in 722 AD the Britons of Cornwall won a battle at Hehil. Annales Cambriae However, it is not stated whether the Cornish fought the West Saxons or some other enemy. In 814 King Egbert laid waste to West Wealas from East to West. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles tells us that in 825 (adjusted date) a battle was fought between the "Welsh", presumably those of Cornwall, and the Men of Devon. Finally, in 838, the Cornish and their Danish allies were defeated by Egbert at Hengestesdune (Anglo-Saxon Chronicles): an unknown location (various places have been suggested over the years from Hengistbury Head in Dorset to Hingston Down in Cornwall). For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Welsh_Annals Annales Cambriae: page view from MS. A Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles deriving ultimately from a text compiled from diverse sources at St Davids in Dyfed, Wales, not... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of (mainly) secondary source documents narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Britain. ...


By the 880s Wessex had gained control of at least part of Cornwall, where Alfred the Great had estates.[7] William of Malmesbury, writing around 1120, says that King Athelstan of England (924–939) fixed the boundary between English and Cornish people at the Tamar, their having until then lived as equals. The chronology of English expansion into Cornwall is unclear, but it had been absorbed into England by the reign of Edward the Confessor (1042–1066), when it apparently formed part of Godwin's and later Harold's earldom of Wessex.[8] For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Athelstan (c. ... The Tamar is a river in south western England, that forms most of the border between Devon (to the east) and Cornwall (to the west). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson); c. ...


The records of Domesday Book show that by this time the native Cornish landowning class had been almost completely dispossessed and replaced by English landowners, the largest of whom was Harold Godwinson himself. After the Norman conquest most of the land was seized and transferred into the hands of a new Norman aristocracy, with the lion's share going to Robert, Count of Mortain, half-brother of King William and the largest landholder in England after the king.[9] Subsequently however, Norman absentee landlords became replaced by a new Cornu-Norman elite. These families eventually became the new Cornish aristocracy (typically speaking Norman French, Cornish, Latin and eventually English). Many becoming involved in the operation of the Stannary Parliament system, Earldom and eventually the Duchy [10]. The Cornish language continued to be spoken and it acquired a number of characteristics establishing its identity as a separate language from Breton. Cornwall showed a very different type of settlement pattern to that of Saxon Wessex and places continued, even after 1066, to be named in the Celtic Cornish tradition with Saxon architecture being uncommon. The earliest record for any Anglo Saxon place names west of the Tamar is around 1040.[11] The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... Robert, Count of Mortain (c. ... William I of England (c. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... Joe Cornish, British TV presenter. ...


Physical geography

Main article: Geology of Cornwall
Satellite image of Cornwall
Satellite image of Cornwall

Cornwall forms the tip of the south-west peninsula of the island Great Britain, and is therefore exposed to the full force of the prevailing winds that blow in from the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is composed mainly of resistant rocks that give rise in many places to impressive cliffs. The Geology of Cornwall (The Cornish peninsula) is mainly comprised of granite. ... Image File history File links Cw2. ... Image File history File links Cw2. ... The prevailing winds are the trends in speed and direction of wind over a particular point on the earths surface. ... Resistance can mean one of: electrical resistance antibiotic resistance resistance to a disease (see related subject immunology) a political resistance movement military resistance against foreign occupation geological resistance fluid resistance thermal resistance This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the...


The north and south coasts have different characteristics. The north coast is more exposed and therefore has a wilder nature. The prosaically-named High Cliff, between Boscastle and Tintagel, is the highest sheer-drop cliff in Cornwall at 735 ft (224 m). However, there are also many extensive stretches of fine golden sand which form the beaches that are so important to the tourist industry, such as those at Bude, St Agnes, St Ives, Perranporth, Porthtowan, Polzeath, Fistral Beach, Lusty Glaze Beach and Watergate Bay, Newquay. The only river estuary of any size on the north coast is the Camel, which provides Padstow and Rock with a safe harbour. The south coast, dubbed the "riviera", is more sheltered and there are several broad estuaries offering safe anchorages, such as at Falmouth and Fowey. Beaches on the south coast usually consist of coarser sand and shingle, interspersed with rocky sections of wave-cut platform. Location within the British Isles Boscastle (Cornish: Kastell Boterel) is a small town on the north coast of Cornwall, in the extreme southwest of Britain. ... Remains of Tintagel Castle Tintagel (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable; Cornish: Dintagell) is a village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, in England, UK. The village and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... For the town in the United States, see Bude, Mississippi. ... St Agnes, in Cornish Breanek, is a village, within a parish of the same name, in Carrick on the north coast of Cornwall, England, UK. Situated half way between the artists colony of St Ives and the surfers paradise at Newquay, it grew up as a fishing and farming community... , St Ives (Cornish: ) is a seaside town, civil parish and port in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... Perranporth is a popular surfing tourist destination on the north coast of Carrick, Cornwall in England, UK, six miles south-west of the surf resorts of Newquay and six miles east of Porthtowan. ... Porthtowan is a small village in the Carrick district of Cornwall, England, UK and is an exclusive Summer tourist destination which lies within the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site. ... Polzeath is a small village on the North coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... Fistral Beach is a major surfing beach of Britain, located in Newquay, Cornwall. ... Watergate Bay is a bay located between Newquay and Padstow in Cornwall. ... , The town should not be confused with New Quay in Wales. ... The River Camel in north Cornwall rises below Hendraburnick Down and empties into the Bristol Channel at Padstow Bay. ... , For the Sydney suburb, see Padstow, New South Wales. ... Rock is a village in Cornwall, England, lying on the North/Western bank of the River Camel, at its estuary. ... Riviera is usually used in reference to a coastal area. ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ... , Fowey (pronounced IPA: (rhymes with boy); Cornish: ) is a small town, civil parish and cargo port at the mouth of the River Fowey in south Cornwall, England, UK. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 2,273. ... The formation of a wave cut platform A wave-cut platform, marine terrace, or shore platform is the narrow flat area often seen at the base of a sea cliff caused by the action of the waves. ...


The interior of the county consists of a roughly east-west spine of infertile and exposed upland, with a series of granite intrusions, such as Bodmin Moor, which contains the highest land within Cornwall. From east to west, and with approximately descending altitude, these are Bodmin Moor, the area north of St Austell, the area around Camborne, and the Penwith or Land's End peninsula. These intrusions are the central part of the granite outcrops of south-west Britain, which include Dartmoor to the east in Devon and the Isles of Scilly to the west, the latter now being partially submerged. For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... The Cheeswring, a granite tor on the southern edge of Bodmin Moor (Photo by Mick Knapton) Bodmin Moor is a granite moorland in northeastern Cornwall, England, 208 km² in size, dating from the Carboniferous period of geological history. ... , St Austell (Cornish: ) is a town in Cornwall, England, UK. St Austell has a population of 22,658 (according to the 2001 census), larger than any other town in Cornwall (including the city of Truro, the countys capital, which has population of 20,920). ... , Not to be confused with Cambourne in Cambridgeshire. ... Satellite image of the Penwith peninsula farmland in St Buryan parish looking south towards the sea Cattle being raised in the south of the district Aerial photo looking across Lands End to Cape Cornwall Celtic cross near St Loys Cove, St Buryan Rocky cove at St Loy in... Lands End shown within Cornwall Lands End, the most westerly point in England The wreck of the RMS Mülheim at Lands End, 2003 This article is about the location at the western tip of Cornwall. ... High Willhays, the highest point on Dartmoor and southern England at 621 m (2037 ft) above sea level, with Yes Tor beyond. ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ...

Ruins of the Poldice Mine in Gwennap
Ruins of the Poldice Mine in Gwennap

The intrusion of the granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks gave rise to extensive metamorphism and mineralization, and this led to Cornwall being one of the most important mining areas in Europe until the early 20th century. It is thought Tin was mined here as early as the Bronze Age, and copper, lead, zinc and silver have all been mined in Cornwall. Alteration of the granite also gave rise to extensive deposits of China Clay, especially in the area to the north of St Austell, and this remains an important industry. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Link: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Link: http://www. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metal. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Ruin of Cornish tin mine Ruins of Poldice Mine in Gwennap Mining in Cornwall has existed from the days of Stone Age man dating back to between 1000 and 2000 B.C. when Cornwall is thought to have been visited by metal traders from the eastern Mediterranean. ... Kaolin redirects here. ... , St Austell (Cornish: ) is a town in Cornwall, England, UK. St Austell has a population of 22,658 (according to the 2001 census), larger than any other town in Cornwall (including the city of Truro, the countys capital, which has population of 20,920). ...


The uplands are surrounded by more fertile, mainly pastoral farmland. Near the south coast, deep wooded valleys provide sheltered conditions for a flora that likes shade and a moist, mild climate. These areas lie mainly of Devonian sandstone and slate. The north east of Cornwall lies on Carboniferous rocks known as the Culm Measures. In places these have been subjected to severe folding, as can been seen on the north coast near Crackington Haven and several other locations. Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The Culm Measures are a geological formation of the Carboniferous period that occur in south-west England, principally in Devon and Cornwall. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


The geology of the Lizard peninsula is unusual, as it is Britain's only example of an ophiolite. Much of the peninsula consists of the dark green and red Precambrian serpentine rock, which forms spectacular cliffs, notably at Kynance Cove, and carved and polished serpentine ornaments are sold in local gift shops. This ultramafic rock also forms a very infertile soil which covers the flat and marshy heaths of the interior of the peninsula. This is home to rare plants, such as the Cornish Heath, which has been adopted as the county flower.[12] The Geology of Lizard (The Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall, United Kingdom) has been the subject of much study. ... Ophiolites are sections of oceanic lithosphere that have been uplifted or emplaced to be exposed within continental crustal rocks. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... For other uses, see Serpentine (disambiguation). ... Kynance Cove is an inlet on the Lizard peninsula in south-west Cornwall and is known for its rugged cliffs, white sand and turquoise water. ... Igneous rock which crystallizes from silicate minerals at the highest temperatures is referred to as ultramafic rock. ... Binomial name Erica vagans L. The Cornish heath (Erica vagans) is a species of heath that bears pink flowers and mid-green foliage. ... A county flower is a flowering plant chosen to symbolise a county. ...


Cornwall is the southernmost part of Britain, and therefore has a relatively warm and sunny climate. Winters are mild, and frost or snow are uncommon apart from in the central upland areas. The average annual temperature for most of Cornwall is 9.8 to 12 degrees Celsius (49.6 to 53.6 °F), with slightly lower temperatures at higher altitude.[13] Cornwall is exposed to mild, moist westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean and has relatively high rainfall, though less than more northern areas of the west coast of Britain, at 1051 to 1290 mm (41.4 to 50.8 in) per year.[14] Most of Cornwall enjoys over 1541 hours of sunshine per year.[15] For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Ecology

Cornwall has varied habitats including terrestrial and marine ecosystems. One of the lower plant forms in decline locally is the Reindeer lichen, which species has been made a priority for protection under the national UK Biodiversity Action Plan. ... Binomial name Cladonia rangiferina Reindeer lichen (c. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ...


Politics and administration

St Ives harbour.
St Ives harbour.
Main article: Politics of Cornwall

Cornwall currently elects five MPs to the British House of Commons, all of whom are Liberal Democrats (2005 general election). New parliamentary boundaries will create a sixth parliamentary constituency in Cornwall which will be fought for the first time at the next British general election. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 170 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 170 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Cornwall is a county in South West England whose politics is influenced by a number of issues that make it distinct from the general political scene in the wider UK, and the political trends of neighbouring counties. ...


The organisation of the local government of the county is presently subject to debate and may change to a unitary system.[16] The county council headquarters are in Truro. There are 82 county council seats, the majority of which are currently held by Liberal Democrats (2005 county council election). There are six districts in Cornwall with a total of 249 council seats. From east to west they are North Cornwall, Caradon, Restormel, Carrick, Kerrier, and Penwith. The numerically largest main groups represented on them are Liberal Democrats, Conservatives, and independents. The Isles of Scilly have in some periods been served by the same county administration as Cornwall, but are today a separate Unitary Authority. However, the Isles of Scilly are still grouped with Cornwall for many ceremonial and administrative purposes, such as NHS Trusts and Devon and Cornwall Police.[17] A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... National Health Service Trusts (NHS Trusts) provide many services of the United Kingdom National Health Service in England and Wales. ...


On 25 July 2007, the bid for Cornwall's unitary authority status was accepted by the government and as such the six districts will be scrapped when the unitary authority comes into force in 2009, despite polls indicating 89% of people were against it.[18] is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The chief registered parties contesting elections in Cornwall are Conservatives, Greens, Labour, Liberal Democrats, Mebyon Kernow, and UKIP.

Hundreds of Cornwall in the early 19th century.
Hundreds of Cornwall in the early 19th century.

An independence movement exists that seeks more autonomy along the lines of the other home Celtic nations. Additionally, some groups and individuals question the present constitutional status of Cornwall and Cornwall's relationship to the Duchy of Cornwall. Image File history File links Kernow_Hundreds. ... Image File history File links Kernow_Hundreds. ... A hundred is a geographic division used in England, Denmark, South Australia and some parts of the USA, Germany, Sweden (and todays Finland) and Norway, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller administrative units. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... The flag of Cornwall (Kernow) The constitutional status of Cornwall, in the southwest of United Kingdom is the subject of ongoing debate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Cornish nationalists have organised into two political parties: Mebyon Kernow, formed in 1951, and the Cornish Nationalist Party. In addition to the political parties, there are various interest groups such as the Cornish Stannary Parliament and the Celtic League. In November 2000, the Cornish Constitutional Convention was formed to campaign for a Cornish assembly. It is a cross-party organisation including representatives from the private, public, and voluntary sectors, of all political parties and none. Between 5 March 2000 and December 2001, the campaign collected the signatures of 41,650 Cornish residents endorsing the declaration for a devolved regional Cornish assembly, along with 8,896 signatories from outside Cornwall. Mebyon Kernow (Cornish for Sons of Cornwall, often abbrieviated MK) is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Saint Pirans Flag The Cornish Nationalist Party (CNP), or Party Kenethlegek Kernow, was a political party led by Dr Whetter campaigning for self-government for Cornwall that split from Mebyon Kernow on May 28, 1975. ... The Stannary Parliaments and Stannary Courts were legislative and legal institutions in Cornwall and in Devon in the Dartmoor area. ... Flag of Cornwall // Overview In July 2000 Mebyon Kernow launched the Declaration for a Cornish Assembly campaign which some three months later led to the creation of The Cornish Constitutional Convention with the objective of establishing a devolved Assembly for Cornwall. ... This article is about the day. ...


Flag

Main article: Saint Piran's Flag

Saint Piran's Flag is regarded by some people, including Cornish nationalists, as the national flag of Cornwall and an emblem of the Cornish people; and by others as the county flag. The banner of Saint Piran is a white cross on a black background. Saint Piran is supposed to have adopted these two colours from seeing the white tin in the black coals and ashes during his supposed discovery of tin. In a history of 1837 Saint Piran's flag was described as the "standard of Cornwall", and another history of 1880 said that: "The white cross of St. Piran was the ancient banner of the Cornish people." The Cornish flag is an exact reverse of the former Breton national flag (black cross) and is known by the same name " Kroaz Du" - . Saint Pirans Flag Saint Pirans Flag is the flag of Cornwall. ... For the coastal town and a municipality in southwestern Slovenia please see Piran (Italian Pirano) Saint Piran or Perran is the patron saint of tin-miners. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


Commonly understood to represent the white tin metal against the black tin ore, the flag symbolically, however, is said to represent the light of truth shining through the blackness/darkness of evil.


Another theory of the black and white colours is that the white cross represents the igneous/metamorphic rocks of colour such as granite and schists (mainly found in the southwest of Cornwall), while the black background represents the weathered Devonian slate and Carboniferous sandstone (both of which are mainly black-greyish in appearance) of the northern part of Cornwall. For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Metamorphic rocks ...


There are claims that the patron saint of Cornwall is Saint Michael or Saint Petroc, but Saint Piran is by far the most popular of the three and his emblem is internationally[19][20] recognised as the flag of Cornwall. St Piran's Day (5 March) is celebrated by the Cornish diaspora around the world. Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... Saint Petroc (sometimes spelt Petrock, also Pedrog in Welsh and Perreux in French) (c. ... Flag of Cornwall St Pirans Day is the national day of the people of Cornwall, held on 5 March every year. ... This article is about the day. ... The Cornish diaspora consists of Cornish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, England, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Mexico. ...


Demographics

Brown Willy on Bodmin Moor
Brown Willy on Bodmin Moor

Cornwall's population is 513,527, and population density 144 people per square kilometre, ranking it 40th and 41st respectively compared to the other 47 counties of England. Cornwall has a relatively high level of population growth, however, at 11.2% in the 1980s and 5.3% in the 1990s, giving it the fifth highest population growth of the English counties.[21] The natural change has been a small population decline, and the population increase is due to immigration into Cornwall.[22] According to the 1991 census, the population was 469,800. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1092 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1092 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Cornwall has a relatively high retired population, with 22.9% of pensionable age, compared to 20.3% for the United Kingdom.[23] This may be due to a combination of Cornwall's rural and coastal geography increasing its popularity as a retirement location, and due to the emigration of younger residents to more economically diverse areas. Migration of pensioners from southern England to Cornwall, and emigration of young Cornish people, is a persistent concern.


Cornwall is sometimes described as being one of six Celtic nations alongside Brittany, Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland and Wales. Just under 7% of the population of Cornwall gave their ethnicity as Cornish in the last census,[24] The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Cornwall

Cornwall is one of the poorest areas in the United Kingdom. The GVA per head was 65% of the UK average for 2004.[25]. The GDP per head for Cornwall and the Scillies was 79.2 of the EU-27 average for 2004, the UK per head average was 123.0 [26] Cornwall is a county in South West England, and one of the poorest areas of the United Kingdom. ...


Historically tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. The first reference to this appears to be by Pytheas: see above. Julius Caesar was the last classical writer to mention the tin trade, which appears to have declined during the Roman occupation.[27]. The tin trade revived in the Middle Ages, and the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 is attributed to tin miners.[28] In the mid-nineteenth century, however, the tin trade again fell into decline. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising in 1497 by the tin miners of Cornwall in the south west of Britain. ...


As Cornwall's reserves of tin began to be exhausted many Cornishmen emigrated to places such as the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa where their skills were in demand. The tin mines in Cornwall are now worked-out (at current prices) but the expertise and culture of the Cornish tin miners lives on in a number of places around the world. It is said that, wherever you may go in the world, if you see a hole in the ground, you will find a Cornishman at the bottom of it (see Cornish emigration). Several Cornish mining words are in use in English language mining terminology, such as costean, gunnies, lode and vug. Flag of Cornwall Cornish emigration consists of Cornish emigrants and their descendants in other parts of Great Britain and in countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Mexico. ... Costeaning is the process by which miners seek to discover metallic lodes. ... Gunnies is a mining term derived from the Cornish language. ... In geology a lode is the metalliferous ore that fills a fissure in a rock or a vein of ore deposited between layers of rock. ... In the lower left, a spherule, or sphere-shaped grain, can be seen penetrating the interior of a small cavity called a vug. ...


Cornwall is one of four UK areas that qualifies for poverty-related grants from the EU: it was granted Objective 1 status by the European Union, followed by a further round of funding known as 'Convergence Funding'. Objective 1 regions are officially designated NUTS level 2 regions within the European Union where per capita GDP is less than 75% of that of the wider union; they also include certain very low population areas in Sweden and Finland and some outlying (i. ...


Today, the Cornish economy depends heavily on its successful tourist industry, which makes up around a quarter of the Cornish economy. The official measures of deprivation and poverty at district and 'sub-ward' level show that there is great variation in poverty and prosperity in Cornwall with some areas among the poorest in England and others are among the top half in prosperity. For example, the ranking of 32,482 sub-wards in England in the index of multiple deprivation ranges from 819th (part of Penzance East) to 30, 899th (part of Saltash Burraton in Caradon), where the lower number represents the most deprivation.[29]


Cornwall's unique culture, spectacular landscape and mild climate make it a popular tourist destination, despite being somewhat distant from the United Kingdom's main tourist centres. Surrounded on three sides by the English Channel and Celtic Sea, Cornwall has miles of beaches and cliffs. Other tourist attractions include moorland, country gardens and wooded valleys. Five million tourists visit Cornwall each year, mostly drawn from within the UK.[30] Visitors to Cornwall are served by airports at Newquay and Plymouth, whilst private jets, charters and helicopters are also served by Perranporth airfield; nightsleeper and daily rail services run between Cornwall, London and other regions of the UK. For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Map of the Celtic Sea, an arm of the Atlantic. ... , The town should not be confused with New Quay in Wales. ... This article is about the city of Plymouth in England. ... Perranporth is a popular surfing tourist destination on the north coast of Carrick, Cornwall in England, UK, six miles south-west of the surf resorts of Newquay and six miles east of Porthtowan. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Newquay and Porthtowan are popular destinations for surfers. In recent years, the Eden Project near St Austell has been a major financial success, drawing one in eight of Cornwall's visitors.[31] , The town should not be confused with New Quay in Wales. ... Porthtowan is a small village in the Carrick district of Cornwall, England, UK and is an exclusive Summer tourist destination which lies within the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site. ... The Eden Project Inside the tropical Biome The Eden Project is a large-scale environmental complex in Cornwall, UK. The project is located in a reclaimed china clay pit, located 1. ... , St Austell (Cornish: ) is a town in Cornwall, England, UK. St Austell has a population of 22,658 (according to the 2001 census), larger than any other town in Cornwall (including the city of Truro, the countys capital, which has population of 20,920). ...


Other industries are fishing, although this has been significantly damaged by EU fishing policies, (the Southwest Handline Fisherman's Association has started to revive the fishing industry),[32] and agriculture, which has also declined significantly. Mining of tin and copper was also an industry, but today the derelict mine workings survive only as a World Heritage Site[33] However, the Camborne School of Mines is still a world centre of excellence in its field.[34] and the grant World Heritage status has attracted funding for conservation and heritage tourism.[35] China clay extraction has also been an important industry in the St Austell area, but this sector has been in decline, and this, coupled with increased mechanisation, has led to a decrease in employment in this sector. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Camborne School of Mines (in Cornish, Scoll Balow Cambron), commonly abbreviated to CSM, is a specialist department of the University of Exeter. ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ...


In recent years Cornwall's creative industries have undergone significant growth, thanks in part to Objective One funding. There is now a significant creative industry in Cornwall, encompassing areas like graphic design, product design, web design, packaging design, environmental design, architecture, photography, art and crafts. Objective 1 regions are officially designated NUTS level 2 regions within the European Union where per capita GDP is less than 75% of that of the wider union; they also include certain very low population areas in Sweden and Finland and some outlying (i. ...


Culture

Minack Theatre, carved from the cliffs.
Minack Theatre, carved from the cliffs.
Main article: Culture of Cornwall
sub article: Media in Cornwall

Download high resolution version (1159x752, 239 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1159x752, 239 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Minack Theatre is an open-air theatre, constructed above a gully with a rocky granite outcrop jutting into the sea (minack in Cornish means a stony or rocky place). ... Cornwall, in the United Kingdom, though administratively part of England, has many cultural differences from the culture of England. ... The media in Cornwall has a long and distinct history. ...

Language

Main article: Cornish language

The Cornish language is closely related to Welsh and Breton, and less so to Irish, Scots Gaelic and Manx. A study in 2000 suggested that there were around 300 people who spoke Cornish fluently.[36] Cornish however has no legal status in the UK. Nevertheless, the language is taught in about twelve primary schools, and occasionally used in religious and civic ceremonies.[37] For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Two of the current Members of Parliament (MPs) in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Andrew George, MP for St Ives, and Dan Rogerson, MP for North Cornwall, repeated their Parliamentary oaths in Cornish. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... For the Governor of Anguilla of the same name, see Andrew George (governor). ... St Ives is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Daniel John Rogerson (born July 23, 1975) is the Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for North Cornwall, first elected at the 2005 General election. ... North Cornwall is a county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


Literature in, or about, Cornwall

Cornwall produced a substantial amount of passion plays during the Middle Ages. Many are still extant, and provide valuable information about the Cornish language. Charles Causley, Launceston lad and poet laureate. A Passion play is a dramatic presentation depicting the suffering and death of Jesus. ... Charles Causley, CBE (August 24, 1917 – November 4, 2003) was a Cornish poet and writer. ...


Daphne du Maurier lived in Cornwall and set many of her novels there, including Jamaica Inn, Frenchman's Creek, My Cousin Rachel, and The House on the Strand.[38] She is also noted for writing Vanishing Cornwall. Cornwall provided the inspiration for The Birds, one of her terrifying series of short stories, made famous as a film by Alfred Hitchcock.[39] Hammond Innes' novel, The Killer Mine,[40] Charles de Lint's novel The Little Country,[41] Winston Graham's series Poldark, Kate Tremayne's Adam Loveday series, Susan Cooper's novels Over Sea, Under Stone[42] and Greenwitch, Mary Wesley's The Camomile Lawn and Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta The Pirates of Penzance are all set in Cornwall. Also the trilogy by Monica Furlong, "Wise Child", "Juniper", and "Colman" take place in medieval Cornwall. Conan Doyle's The Adventure of the Devil's Foot featuring Sherlock Holmes is set in Cornwall.[43] Dame Daphne du Maurier DBE (13 May 1907–19 April 1989) was a famous British novelist best known for her short story The Birds and her classic novel Rebecca, published in 1938. ... Jamaica Inn is a novel by the Cornish writer Daphne du Maurier, first published in 1936. ... Frenchmans Creek is a 1942 historical novel by Daphne du Maurier. ... My Cousin Rachel is a 1952 mystery film/romance film directed by Henry Koster and starred Olivia de Havilland, Richard Burton, Audrey Dalton, Ronald Squire, George Dolenz and John Sutton. ... The House on the Strand is a novel by Daphne du Maurier, first published in 1969 and thus one of her later works. ... {{Infobox short story | | name = The Birds | author = Daphne du Maurier | pub_date = 1963 | published_in = The Birds and Other Stories | country = UK | language = English | publisher = Penguin Books | media_type = Print | publication_type = Anthology | genre = Suspense/Survival/Horror Nat Hocken notices an unusual number of birds flying about and behaving strangely along the Peninsula where... Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE (August 13, 1899 â€“ April 29, 1980) was an iconic and highly influential British-born film director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... Hammond Innes (July 15, 1914 – June 10, 1998) was an English author who wrote over thirty novels, as well as childrens and travel books. ... Charles de Lint (born December 22, 1951) is a Canadian fantasy author and Celtic folk musician. ... Winston Graham (June 30, 1908-July 10, 2003) was an English novelist, best known for the Poldark series of historical novels. ... Poldark is a series of historical novels by Winston Graham, and a popular BBC television series of the 1970s based on the books. ... Kate Tremayne is the name of a British novelist. ... Adam Loveday is a fictional novel written by Kate Tremayne, and is the first in the Loveday series of books. ... Susan Mary Cooper (born May 23, 1935) in Burnham, Buckinghamshire, England is a British author. ... Mary Aline Mynors Farmar (June 24, 1912 - December 30, 2002), better known as Mary Wesley, was a British novelist. ... Produced by Channel 4 Television Corporation in 1992 this was a vivid and lively television drama of wartime London and Cornwall as seen through the eyes of five cousins. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... Drawing of the Act I finale The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... Monica Furlong (January 17, 1930 – January 14, 2003) was a British author, journalist, and activist. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Colman may refer to: Colman, South Dakota, United States Colmans, a British mustard manufacturer Eddie Colman, British footballer George Colman the Elder, English dramatist George Colman the Younger, English dramatist Olivia Colman, British actress Ronald Colman, English actor Saint Colman, the name of several Irish saints Samuel Colman, American... ... The Adventure of the Devils Foot, one of the 56 Sherlock Holmes short stories written by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is one of eight stories in the cycle collected as His Last Bow. ... A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ...


The Nobel-prizewinning novelist William Golding was born in St Columb Minor in 1911, and returned to live near Truro from 1985 until his death in 1993.[44] The Scottish poet W. S. Graham lived in West Cornwall from 1944 until his death in 1986.[45] The late Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman was famously fond of Cornwall and it featured prominently in his poetry. He is buried in the churchyard at St Enodoc Church near Trebetherick.[46] Sir William Gerald Golding (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, poet and Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. ... The text of the following account was adapted from:- The Parish Church History and Calendar blotter of 1939-40. ... Truro (pronounced ; Cornish: Truru) is a city in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... William Sydney Graham (November 19, 1918 - January 9, 1986) was a Scottish poet who is often associated with Dylan Thomas and the neo-romantic group of poets. ... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events. ... A collection of Betjemans poetry, published by John Murray in January 2006 Sir John Betjeman CBE (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was an English poet, writer and broadcaster who described himself in Whos Who as a poet and hack. He was born to a middle-class family... St Enodocs church, Trebetherick. ... Remains of a shipwreck on the rocks at Trebetherick Point. ...


Prolific writer Colin Wilson, best known for his debut work The Outsider (1956) and for The Mind Parasites (1967), lives in Gorran Haven, a little village on the southern Cornish coast, not far from Mevagissey and St Austell. For other uses, see Colin Wilson (disambiguation). ... The Outsider is a non-fiction book by Colin Henry Wilson first published in 1956. ... The Mind Parasites is a science fiction horror novel by author Colin Wilson. ... , Gorran Haven is a small fishing village situated about 12 miles from St Austell, and 3 miles from Mevagissey, Cornwall, UK. It is well known for its sandy beaches (especially the nearby Vault Beach, popular with nudists) stunning scenery and popularity with holiday makers and divers during the summer period. ... Mevagissey harbour Mevagissey (Cornish: ) is a village and fishing port situated six miles south of St Austell in Cornwall, England, UK. In recent years tourism has passed fishing as the dominant industry in the village. ... , St Austell (Cornish: ) is a town in Cornwall, England, UK. St Austell has a population of 22,658 (according to the 2001 census), larger than any other town in Cornwall (including the city of Truro, the countys capital, which has population of 20,920). ...


Religion

Many place names in Cornwall are associated with Christian missionaries described as coming from Ireland and Wales in the fifth century AD and usually called saints (See List of Cornish saints). The historicity of some of these missionaries is problematic[47] and it has been pointed out by Doble that it was customary in the Middle Ages to ascribe such geographic origins to saints.[48] Some of these saints are not included in the early lists of saints.[49] This is a list of saints connected with Cornwall Saint Austell Saint Blaze Saint Breaca Saint Constantine Saint Erc Saint Gerren Geraint of Dumnonia Saint Just Saint Keyne Saint Levan Saint Marwenna Saint Menfre Saint Meriasek Saint Morwenna Saint Ouine Saint Petroc Saint Piran St. ... Gilbert Hunter Doble (26 November 1880 – 15 April 1945) was an Anglican priest and Cornish hagiographer. ...

See also: List of Cornish saints

St Piran, after whom Perranporth is named, is generally regarded as the patron saint of Cornwall.[50] This is a list of saints connected with Cornwall Saint Austell Saint Blaze Saint Breaca Saint Constantine Saint Erc Saint Gerren Geraint of Dumnonia Saint Just Saint Keyne Saint Levan Saint Marwenna Saint Menfre Saint Meriasek Saint Morwenna Saint Ouine Saint Petroc Saint Piran St. ... Saint Piran is the patron saint of tin-miners. ... Perranporth is a popular surfing tourist destination on the north coast of Carrick, Cornwall in England, UK, six miles south-west of the surf resorts of Newquay and six miles east of Porthtowan. ...


In the sixteenth century there was some violent resistance to the replacement of Catholicism with Protestantism in the 1549 uprising.[51] From the eighteenth to the mid-twentieth century Methodism was the leading form of Christianity in Cornwall but is now in decline.[52] The Anglican Diocese of Truro was created in 1877.[53] The Prayer Book Rebellion or Western Rebellion occurred in the southwest of England in 1549. ... The Diocese of Truro forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ...


Cornwall and the South-west of England in general is also home to the largest number of Buddhists in Europe. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


Visual art

Since the 19th century, Cornwall, with its unspoilt maritime scenery and strong light, has sustained a vibrant visual art scene of international renown. Artistic activity within Cornwall was initially centred on the art-colony of Newlyn, most active at the turn of the century,[54] and associated with the names: Stanhope Forbes, Elizabeth Forbes,[55] Norman Garstin and Lamorna Birch.[56] Modernist writers such as D.H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf lived in Cornwall between the wars,[57] and Ben Nicholson, the painter, having visited in the 1920s came to live in St Ives with his then wife, the sculptor Barbara Hepworth, at the outbreak of the second world war.[58] They were later joined by the Russian emigrant Naum Gabo,[59] and other artists. These included Peter Lanyon, Terry Frost, Patrick Heron, Bryan Wynter and Roger Hilton. St Ives also houses the Leach Pottery, where Bernard Leach, and his followers championed Japanese inspired studio pottery.[60] Much of this modernist work can be seen in Tate St Ives.[61]. The Newlyn Society and Penwith Society of Arts continue to be active, and contemporary visual art is documented in a dedicated online journal [2]. Newlyn Map sources for Newlyn at grid reference SW461284 Newlyn (Cornish: Lulynn) is a town in southwest Cornwall, UK. The town forms a small conurbation with neighbouring Penzance, and part of the civil parish of Penzance. ... Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A., (18 November 1857, Dublin - March 2, 1947 Newlyn, Cornwall), was an artist and member of the then influential Newlyn school of painters. ... D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was one of the most important, certainly one of the most controversial, English writers of the 20th century, who wrote novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Benjamin Lauder Nicholson OM, (10 April 1894 – 6 February 1982), known as Ben Nicholson, was an English abstract painter Born at Denham, Buckinghamshire, Nicholson was the son of the painter Sir William Nicholson and the brother of Nancy Nicholson. ... Hepworths Family of Man in bronze, 1970, at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park. ... Naum Gabo KBE (August 5, 1890 - August 23, 1977) was a prominent Russian sculptor in the Constructivism movement and a pioneer of Kinetic Art. ... Peter Lanyon (1918-1964) was a painter of landscapes leaning heavily towards abstraction. ... Sir Terry Frost (born Terence Ernest Manitou Frost) (October 13, 1915 - September 1, 2003) was a British artist noted for his abstracts. ... Patrick Heron (January 30, 1920 – March 20, 1999),[1] was an English painter, writer and designer, based in St. ... Bryan Wynter (1915-1975) was one of the St. ... Roger Hilton was one of the pioneers of abstract art in post-war Britain. ... Bernard Howell Leach CH (January 5, 1887 – May 6, 1979), a British studio potter. ... Porthmeor Beach, St Ives with the entrance to the Tate gallery on the right. ... The Penwith Society of Arts is an art group formed in St Ives, Cornwall, UK in early 1949 by abstract artists who broke away from the more conservative St Ives Society of Artists. ...


Music and festivals

Cornwall has a rich and vibrant folk music tradition which has survived into the present. Cornwall is well known for its unusual folk survivals such as Mummers Plays, the Furry Dance in Helston, and Obby Oss in Padstow. Folk song redirects here. ... Mummers Plays (also known as mumming) are seasonal folk plays performed by troupes of actors known as mummers or guisers (or by local names such as rhymers, pace-eggers, soulers, tipteerers, galoshins and so on), originally in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales (see wrenboys), but later in other parts of... The Furry Dance - also known as the Flora or Flora Dance, and incorrectly as The Floral Dance (see below) - takes place in Helston, Cornwall, and is one of the oldest customs still practised in the British Isles. ... , Helston (Cornish: ) is a small town and civil parish in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, at the northern end of the Lizard Peninsula. ... A hobby-horse is childs toy horse popular during the days before cars. ... , For the Sydney suburb, see Padstow, New South Wales. ...


As with other former mining districts of Britain, Male voice choirs and Brass Bands [62] are still very popular in Cornwall. A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ...


Cornish players are regular participants in inter-Celtic festivals, and Cornwall itself has several lively inter-Celtic festivals such as Perranporth's Lowender Peran folk festival.[63] Perranporth is a popular surfing tourist destination on the north coast of Carrick, Cornwall in England, UK, six miles south-west of the surf resorts of Newquay and six miles east of Porthtowan. ...


On a more modern note, contemporary musician Richard D James (also known as Aphex Twin) grew up in Cornwall, as did Alex Parks winner of Fame Academy 2003. Roger Taylor, the drummer from the band Queen was also raised in the county, and currently lives not too far from Falmouth. The American Singer/Songwriter Tori Amos now resides predominantly in North Cornwall not far from Bude with her family. Richard D. James, aka Aphex Twin Aphex Twin (born Richard David James, August 18, 1971, Ireland) is a UK-based electronic music artist, credited with pushing forward the genres of techno, ambient, IDM, acid, drum and bass (specifically drill n bass). ... Aphex Twin (born Richard David James on August 18, 1971 in Limerick, Ireland) is a Cornish electronic music artist, credited with pushing forward the genres of techno, ambient, acid and drum and bass. ... Alexandra Rebecca Parks (born 26 July 1984, in Mount Hawke, Cornwall) is an English singer-songwriter. ... Fame Academy is the name of televised competition to search for and educate musical talents. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ... Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ...


The Cornwall Fiddle Orchestra[3] are a large group of string players who perform traditional fiddle music of the Celtic nations - Scotland, Ireland, Cornwall and Brittany.


Sports and games

Among Cornwall's native sports are a distinctive form of wrestling related to Breton wrestling, and hurling, a kind of mediaeval football played with a silver ball (distinct from Irish Hurling). The latter sport now takes place at St. Columb Major and St Ives although hurling of a silver ball is part of the beating the bounds ceremony at Bodmin every five years. Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... For the Irish sport of hurling, see Hurling Hurling the silver ball (Cornish: Hurlian) is an old sport found still in some parts of Cornwall, England. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... Location within the British Isles St Columb Major (Cornish: Sen Kolomm Veur) is a town in Cornwall, England, to the west of Wadebridge and south of Newquay. ... , St Ives (Cornish: ) is a seaside town, civil parish and port in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... Rogation days are the three days immediately before Ascension Thursday in the Christian liturgical calendar. ... Bodmin (Cornish: Bosvenegh) is a town in Cornwall, England, UK, with a population of 12,778 (2001 census). ...


Though rugby is thought to have originated from Rugby School in the early 19th century, Richard Carew described in his 1602 work, 'Survey of Cornwall' a game which is rather similar to rugby yet distinct from hurling. Cornish 'hurlers' travelled to London to player 'demonstration matches' of the sport several times in the seventeenth century. Rugby union has the largest following in Cornwall (more so than football), with two teams in national league 1, Cornish Pirates (recently renamed from Penzance & Newlyn RFC) and Launceston RFC "the Cornish All Blacks" (who were promoted to national league 1 in the 06/07 season). Redruth R.F.C. "the Reds" are also in the national league 2 and get good support. Penzance based Mounts Bay are the newest national league team, being promoted as champions from South West 1 in 2007. Both Mounts Bay (EDF Intermediate Cup) and the Cornish Pirates (EDF National Trophy) were successful at Twickenham in 2007. A view of Rugby School from The Close, the playing field where according to legend Rugby was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in England and is one of the major co-educational boarding schools in the country. ... Richard Carew (1555 - 1620) was a Cornish translator and antiquary. ... For the Irish sport of hurling, see Hurling Hurling the silver ball (Cornish: Hurlian) is an old sport found still in some parts of Cornwall, England. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Soccer redirects here. ... The Cornish Pirates are a professional rugby union team who play in National Division One, and are the premier Cornish rugby club. ... Redruth RFC in a Rugby Union team from Cornwall // Redruth RFC was founded in 1875 when two local men returned from college to their homes in West Cornwall bringing with them the new fangled game of rugby football. ...


The Cornish rugby team (dubbed Trelawny's Army) used to draw large crowds of supporters to its matches in the county championship, especially if they have progressed to a Twickenham final. London Cornish are an exiles team along the lines of London Irish, London Scottish and London Welsh. Flag of Cornwall The Cornwall Rugby Football Union (CRFU) was formed in 1883. ... Sir Jonathan Trelawny, 3rd Baronet (March 24, 1650 – July 19, 1721, Chelsea, Middlesex) was Bishop of Bristol, Bishop of Exeter and Bishop of Winchester. ... Official website www. ... London Scottish Football Club is a Rugby Union team in England. ... At senior lever, London Welsh has played rugby in England since 1885 when it was originally formed. ...


Despite playing just over the border in Devon, Plymouth Argyle F.C. attract a lot of supporters from Cornwall. The Cornish Football Association was founded in 1889. The highest ranked, and arguably most popular football team in Cornwall is Truro City F.C., which, in 2007, became the first Cornish team to play at Wembley, where they won the FA Vase. Cornwall is one of the few English counties never to have hosted senior football, and has not yet even had a football club play in the Conference. In 1966, Cornishman Mike Trebilcock scored two goals for Everton in the FA Cup Final. John Gilbert Jack Cock DCM MM (14 November 1893 - 19 April 1966) was a Cornish footballer who played for various English club sides as a striker. He also had the distinction of being the first Cornishman to play, and score, for the England national team. He was a decorated World War I soldier, and an actor. Chris Morris represented the Republic of Ireland at the 1990 World Cup & the 1988 European Championships. In 1901 Cornish miners founded the first football team in Mexico, Club de Futbol Pachuca. Originally, they practised only as a pastime during their free time they had while working at the mines. From 1917 to 1920, Pachuca was champion of the league under Cornish born coach Alfred Crowle. For details of the current season, see Plymouth Argyle F.C. season 2007-08 Plymouth Argyle Football Club (commonly known as the Pilgrims, the Greens, the Green Army or simply Argyle) are an English football team, playing in the Football League Championship. ... Truro City F.C. are a football club based in Truro, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... The Football League is an organisation representing 72 professional football clubs in England and Wales, and runs the oldest professional football league competition in the world. ... The Football Conference is a football league at the top of the National League System of non-League football in England. ...


The Cornwall Cougars basketball team are the only National League representatives from the county, based in St Austell, though Devon-based professional club Plymouth Raiders, of the top-tier British Basketball League, pull in many supporters from Cornwall. This article is about the sport. ... , St Austell (Cornish: ) is a town in Cornwall, England, UK. St Austell has a population of 22,658 (according to the 2001 census), larger than any other town in Cornwall (including the city of Truro, the countys capital, which has population of 20,920). ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... The Plymouth Raiders, officially called Kularoos Plymouth Raiders by sponsorship, is South-west Englands leading basketball team. ... “BBL” redirects here. ...


From 2001 until 2003, the only fully professional sports team in Cornwall were the Trelawny Tigers speedway team, who raced at the Clay Country Moto Parc in the clay pits near St Austell. The team took over from the St Austell Gulls who were an amateur speedway team which operated from 1997 to 2000. The Gulls also operated at Par Moor in the 1950's. Trelawny Tigers operated as a British Premier League Speedway team during the 2001-2003 seasons at the Clay Country Moto Parc. ... Motorcycle speedway, normally referred to as Speedway, is a motorcycle sport that involves usually 4 and sometimes up to 6 riders competing over 4 laps of an oval circuit. ...


One of the earliest references to cricket in Cornwall is 1816 and Sir William Pratt Call of Whiteford house in Stoke Climsland, organised a match against the Plymouth Garrison, and noted:- tea and a meal in a marquee at 6 o'clock. Cornwall County Cricket Club competes in the Minor Counties Championship, the second tier National County structure. Talented players, produced by the vigorous County league sides, have frequently found employment in the First Class Counties and two have gone on to represent England. This article is about the sport. ... Sir William Pratt Call, 2nd Bt. ... Stoke Climsland is a village in the River Tamar Valley, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... This article is about the city of Plymouth in England. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Cornwall County Cricket Club is one of the county clubs which make up the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Cornwall and playing in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy. ...


Due to its large coastline, various maritime sports are popular in Cornwall, notably sailing and surfing. International events in both are held in Cornwall. Cornwall hosted the Inter-Celtic Watersports Festival in 2006. Surfing in particular is very popular, as locations such as Bude and Newquay offer some of the best surf in the UK. Pilot gig rowing has been popular for many years and the World championships takes place annually on the Isles of Scilly. For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation). ... Water sport most commonly refers to a sport which is played in the water. ... For the town in the United States, see Bude, Mississippi. ... , The town should not be confused with New Quay in Wales. ... The colourful lignup of gigs on St. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ...


Rock climbing on the sea cliffs and inland cliffs has been popular since the pioneering work of A. W. Andrews and others in the early 1900s, and is now highly developed. Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... A. W. Andrews was a British rock-climber and mountaineer. ...


Euchre is a popular card game in Cornwall, it is normally a game for four players consisting of two teams. Its origins are unclear but some claim it is a Cornish game. There are several leagues in Cornwall at present. Euchre (IPA: ) is a trick-taking card game most commonly played with four people in two partnerships with a deck of 24 standard playing cards. ... For the game on The Price Is Right, see Card Game (pricing game). ...


A recent application for a place in the 2006 Commonwealth Games was refused by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF). The Cornwall Commonwealth Games Association claimed that Cornwall should be recognised with a team, in the way that other sub-state entities such as England, Guernsey and the Isle of Man are. However, the CGF noted that it was not their place to make political decisions on whether or not Cornwall is a separate nation.[64] The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne, Australia between March 15 and March 26, 2006. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation The Commonwealth Games is a multi-sport event held every four years involving the elite athletes of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Cornwall Commonwealth Games Association Logo The Cornwall Commonwealth Games Association (CCGA) is a pressure group, set up in a bid to have a team from Cornwall at future Commonwealth Games, as opposed to competing in the England team. ...


On September 2, 2007, 300 surfers arrived at Polzeath beach, Cornwall to set a new world record for the highest number of surfers riding the same wave (as part of the Global Surf Challenge and part of a project called Earthwave to raise awareness about global warming). The official world record stands at 44, set by Lahinch surf school in Ireland (unofficially the highest figure is 73, held by the Kahuna Surfing Academy in South Africa).[65] See World Wide Web for surfing the web; see also Wind surfing Surfing at Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. ... Polzeath is a small village on the North coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... A world record is the best performance in a certain discipline, usually a sports event. ... Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... Look up surf on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference R134877 Statistics Province: Munster County: Population (2002) 625  Website: www. ... Kahuna is a Hawaiian word, defined in the Pukui & Elbert Dictionary as Priest, sorcerer, magician, wizard, minister, expert in any profession. ...


On September 2, 2007, in Brazil, 84 surfers caught the same wave (from Australia, South Africa, Portugal, Britain and the US, to beat the former record of 73 surfers on a wave). But while 300 turned up in Cornwall and Capetown, the Brazilian waxheads won. With only 120 people, surfers in Santos, south-east of Sao Paulo, smashed the South African record.[66] See World Wide Web for surfing the web; see also Wind surfing Surfing at Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. ... Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope Cape Town (Afrikaans, Dutch: Kaapstad; Xhosa: eKapa or SaseKapa), is one of South Africas three capital cities serving as the legislative capital (executive capital and Bloemfontein the judicial capital). ... Santos, originally Portuguese or Spanish for Saints (singular Santo), may mean a great number of different things: // Santos is a common surname in Spanish, as well as Portuguese. ... This article is about the Brazilian state, São Paulo. ...


Food and drink

Cornwall has a strong gastronomic heritage. Surrounded on three sides by the sea amid fertile fishing grounds, Cornwall naturally has fresh seafood readily available; Newlyn is the largest fishing port in the UK by value of fish landed.[67] Television chef Rick Stein has long operated a fish restaurant in Padstow for this reason, and Jamie Oliver recently chose to open his second restaurant, Fifteen, in Watergate Bay near Newquay. Masterchef host and founder of Smiths of Smithfield, John Torode, in 2007 purchased Seiners in Perranporth. In St Ives Porthminster Cafe is a renowned beach restaurant as is The Boardroom at The Blue Bar in Porthtowan. One famous local fish dish is Stargazy pie, a fish-based pie in which the heads and tails of the fish stick through the pasty crust, as though "star-gazing". The pie is cooked as part of traditional celebrations for Tom Bawcocks Eve. Newlyn Map sources for Newlyn at grid reference SW461284 Newlyn (Cornish: Lulynn) is a town in southwest Cornwall, UK. The town forms a small conurbation with neighbouring Penzance, and part of the civil parish of Penzance. ... For other uses, see Chef (disambiguation). ... Christopher Richard (Rick) Stein OBE (born January 4, 1947) is an English chef, restaurateur and television presenter. ... , For the Sydney suburb, see Padstow, New South Wales. ... This article is about the TV chef. ... Fifteen is a restaurant in London, owned and run by the celebrity chef Jamie Oliver. ... Watergate Bay is a bay located between Newquay and Padstow in Cornwall. ... , The town should not be confused with New Quay in Wales. ... Masterchef is a BBC television cookery game show. ... John Torode is an Australian chef based in the UK but specialising in Australasian food. ... Perranporth is a popular surfing tourist destination on the north coast of Carrick, Cornwall in England, UK, six miles south-west of the surf resorts of Newquay and six miles east of Porthtowan. ... , St Ives (Cornish: ) is a seaside town, civil parish and port in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... Porthtowan is a small village in the Carrick district of Cornwall, England, UK and is an exclusive Summer tourist destination which lies within the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site. ... Stargazy pie is a Cornish dish made of baked pilchards covered with a pastry crust. ... Tow Bawcocks eve is a festival held on the 23rd of December in Mousehole, Cornwall, UK. The festival is held in celebration and memorial of the efforts of Mousehole resident Tom Bawcock to lift a famine from the village. ...


Cornwall is perhaps best known though for its pasties, a savoury dish made from pastry containing suet. Today's pasties usually contain a filling of beef steak, onion, potato and swede with salt and white pepper, but historically pasties had a variety of different fillings. For instance, the licky pasty contained mostly leeks, and the herb pasty contained watercress, parsley, and shallots.[68] Pasties are often locally referred to as oggies or Teddy Oggies. Historically, pasties were also often made with sweet fillings such as jam, apple and blackberry, plums or cherries.[69] Recently the origin of the Cornish pasty has been challenged, with neighbouring county Devon claiming to have the oldest known recipe.[70] This article is about the popular English pastry. ... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ...


The wet climate and relatively poor soil of Cornwall make it unsuitable for growing many arable crops. However, it is ideal for growing the rich grass required for dairying, leading to the production of Cornwall's other famous export, clotted cream. This forms the basis for many local specialities including Cornish fudge and Cornish ice cream. Cornish clotted cream is protected under EU law[71] and cannot be made anywhere else. Its principal manufacturer is Rodda's based at Scorrier. Clotted cream on scones with jam, also called Cream Tea. ... For other uses, see Fudge (disambiguation). ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Protected designation of origin (PDO) and protected geographical indication (PGI) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG) are geographical indications defined in European Union Law to protect regional foods. ...


Local desserts include Saffron Cake, Cornish Heavy (Hevva) Cake, Cornish fairings Biscuits, Figgy 'obbin, and Whortleberry Pie. A Saffron bun is a rich yeast dough bun that is flavored with saffron and cinnamon or nutmeg and contains currants. ... Heavy cake (Cornish Hevva) cake is a cake made from flour, lard, butter, sugar and raisins common in Cornwall, UK. Its name is derived from the Pilchard industry in Cornwall prior to the 20th century when a huer (cliff top lookout) helped locate shoals of fish, when located the huer... Cornish fairings are a type of ginger biscuit commonly found in Cornwall, UK. Their name is said to orginate from sweet biscuits that were sold at feast and fair days in Cornwall. ...


There are also many types of beers brewed in Cornwall — the St Austell Brewery is the best-known — including a stout, and there is some small scale production of wine, mead, and cider. This article is about the drink; for the village in Devon England, see Beer, Devon. ... The St Austell Brewery was founded in 1851 by a young Cornish man named Walter Hicks. ... Bottles of Imperial Stout Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ...


Settlements and communication

Truro, Cornwall's administrative centre
Truro, Cornwall's administrative centre

Cornwall's only city, and the home of the county council, is Truro. Nearby Falmouth is notable as a port, while the ports at Penzance, the most westerly town in England, St Ives and Padstow have declined. Newquay on the north coast is famous for its beaches and is a popular surfing destination, as is Bude further north. St Austell is Cornwall's largest town, and a centre of the china clay industry. Redruth and Camborne is the largest urban area in Cornwall, and both were significant as the centre of the global tin mining industry. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (529 × 711 pixel, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (529 × 711 pixel, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Truro (pronounced ; Cornish: Truru) is a city in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... Truro (pronounced ; Cornish: Truru) is a city in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ... Penzance Harbour and surrounding area as seen from the air Penzance (Cornish: Pensans) is a civil parish and port town in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, UK. Granted various Royal Charters from 1512 onwards and incorporated in 1614,[2] it has a population of 21,168[1] people and... , St Ives (Cornish: ) is a seaside town, civil parish and port in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... , For the Sydney suburb, see Padstow, New South Wales. ... , The town should not be confused with New Quay in Wales. ... For the town in the United States, see Bude, Mississippi. ... , St Austell (Cornish: ) is a town in Cornwall, England, UK. St Austell has a population of 22,658 (according to the 2001 census), larger than any other town in Cornwall (including the city of Truro, the countys capital, which has population of 20,920). ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... Map sources for Redruth at grid reference SW700420 Redruth (Cornish: Rysrudh) is a town in the south-west of Cornwall, Britain. ... , Not to be confused with Cambourne in Cambridgeshire. ...


Cornwall borders the county of Devon at the River Tamar. Major road links between Cornwall and the rest of Great Britain are the A38 which crosses the Tamar at Plymouth via the Tamar Bridge and the town of Saltash, the A39 road (Atlantic Highway) from Barnstaple, passing through North Cornwall to end eventually in Falmouth, and the A30 which crosses the border south of Launceston. A car ferry also links Plymouth with the town of Torpoint on the opposite side of the Hamoaze. A rail bridge, the Royal Albert Bridge, built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1859) provides the only other major transport link. Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... A38 passing under M50 in Worcestershire The A38 is a major trunk road in England. ... This article is about the city of Plymouth in England. ... The Tamar Bridge during widening and strengthening work, 1999 The Tamar Bridge is a major road bridge in southwest England carrying traffic between Devon and Cornwall. ... Location within the British Isles Saltash (Cornish: Essa) is a town in Cornwall, UK. It has a population of about 16,000. ... The A39 is a major road in south west England. ... Statistics Population: 34,000 (April 2006 Est. ... North Cornwall is the largest of the six local government districts of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ... The A30 is an old trunk road (main road) which runs from central London to Lands End, the westernmost point of the mainland of England (though not of mainland Great Britain), and is sometimes called the Great South West Road. ... Launceston (pronounced Lanson, Larnson or Lawnson by the Cornish, but Lawnston by most other people) is a town in the north of Cornwall, England, with a population of approximately 7,000. ... One of the new ferries in 2005 Lynher in 2005 The Torpoint Ferry is a car and pedestrian chain ferry crossing the Hamoaze, a stretch of water at the mouth of the River Tamar, between Devonport in Plymouth and Torpoint in Cornwall. ... This article is about the city of Plymouth in England. ... Torpoint (Cornish: Penntorr) is a town in the far South East of Cornwall, United Kingdom, separated from the City of Plymouth by a stretch of water referred to as the Hamoaze, which itself is the mouth of the River Tamar. ... Devonport Dockyard and the Hamoaze from the Rame Peninsula, Cornwall The Hamoaze (IPA: in Cornish) is an estuarine stretch of water at the point where the tidal River Tamar, the River Tavy, and the River Lynher enter Plymouth Sound. ... {{, Brunel truss bridge, and lenticular truss The Royal Albert bridge in 1859 The Royal Albert bridge seen from Saltash railway station Royal Albert Bridge seen from the Tamar Bridge. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ...


Newquay Airport shares RAF St. Mawgan's runways and facilities and connects Cornwall to the rest of the UK and Ireland. However, the future for the airport is uncertain, as the Ministry of Defence has announced that military flights from RAF St Mawgan will cease from August 2008. The handover of the runways will depend on funding being available to maintain the airport at civil aviation standards once the current military facilities are withdrawn. Newquay Cornwall International Airport (IATA: NQY, ICAO: EGDG) is a commercial airport located a few kilometers northeast of Newquay in England. ... RAF St. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... Civil airliner - Air India Boeing 747-400 Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-Military aviation, both private and commercial. ...


Cardiff and Swansea, across the Bristol Channel, are connected to Cornwall by ferry, usually to Padstow. Swansea in particular has several boat companies who can arrange boat trips to north Cornwall, which allow the traveller to pass by the north Cornish coastline, including Tintagel Castle and Padstow harbour. Very occasionally, the Waverley and Balmoral paddle steamers cruise from Swansea or Bristol to Padstow. The last time the Waverly visited Padstow was Whitsun Bank Holiday 2004, sailing right into Padstow habour with passengers from the Mumbles, near Swansea.[citation needed] This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Remains of Tintagel Castle Tintagel (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable; Cornish: Dintagell) is a village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, in England, UK. The village and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... PS Waverley steaming down the Firth of Clyde - additional views at Image:PS Waverley off Brodick castle 1989. ... // Places There are several places named Balmoral. ... , For the Sydney suburb, see Padstow, New South Wales. ...


The Isles of Scilly are served by ferry (from Penzance), helicopter (Penzance Heliport) and fixed wing aeroplane (Land's End Aerodrome, near St Just). Further flights to St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly, are available from Exeter International Airport in Devon. St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... Penzance Harbour and surrounding area as seen from the air Penzance (Cornish: Pensans) is a civil parish and port town in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, UK. Granted various Royal Charters from 1512 onwards and incorporated in 1614,[2] it has a population of 21,168[1] people and... Penzance Heliport (IATA: PZE, ICAO: EGHK) is located 0. ... Lands End shown within Cornwall Lands End, the most westerly point in England The wreck of the RMS Mülheim at Lands End, 2003 This article is about the location at the western tip of Cornwall. ... Aerodrome can mean: An Austrian music festival: Aerodrome A series of aircraft constructed by Samuel Pierpont Langley. ... St. ...


Famous People from Cornwall

Note: This list includes persons born in the County of Cornwall in the United Kingdom and also persons of long-term residence or strong connections with the county. ...

See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Cornwall. ... This is a list of topics related to Cornwall, UK. The Cornwall category contains a more comprehensive selection of Cornish articles. ... The history of Cornwall begins with the pre-Roman inhabitants, including speakers of a Celtic language that would develop into Brythonic and Cornish. ... This timeline summarizes significant events in the history of Cornwall. ... The Kingdom of Kernyw existed during the Dark Ages in Britains southwestern peninsula. ... Hundreds of Cornwall in the early 19th century, (formerly known as Cornish Shires). ... Cornwall played a significant role in the English Civil War, as it was a Royalist enclave in the generally Parliamentarian south-west. ... The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising in 1497 by the tin miners of Cornwall in the south west of Britain. ... The Prayer Book Rebellion or Western Rebellion occurred in the southwest of England in 1549. ... Duke of Cornwall here refers to the legendary dukes of Cornwall in Celtic Britain as established by such pseudo-historical authors as Nennius, Gildas, and above all Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... Satellite image of the Penwith peninsula farmland in St Buryan parish looking south towards the sea Cattle being raised in the south of the district Aerial photo looking across Lands End to Cape Cornwall Celtic cross near St Loys Cove, St Buryan Rocky cove at St Loy in... Kerrier (Cornish: Keryer) is a local government district in Cornwall, England, UK. It is the most southerly district in the United Kingdom, other than the Isles of Scilly. ... Carrick is a local government district in Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... Restormel is a local government district and borough in Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... Caradon is a local government district in Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... North Cornwall is the largest of the six local government districts of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... This is a list of all the towns and villages in the county of Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... The Geology of Cornwall (The Cornish peninsula) is mainly comprised of granite. ... The following is a list of Special Areas of Conservation in Cornwall Breney Common and Goss and Tregoss Moors Carrine Common Crowdy Marsh Fal and Helford Godrevy Head to St Agnes Isles of Scilly Complex Lower Bostraze and Leswidden Newlyn Downs Penhale Dunes Phoenix United Mine and Crow`s Nest... Cornwall is a county in South West England whose politics is influenced by a number of issues that make it distinct from the general political scene in the wider UK, and the political trends of neighbouring counties. ... The ceremonial county of Cornwall, which includes the Isles of Scilly, is divided into 5 Parliamentary constituencies. ... The Cornish Flag The Cornish self-government movement (sometimes referred to as Cornish nationalism) is a social movement which seeks greater autonomy for the area of Cornwall. ... The flag of Cornwall (Kernow) The constitutional status of Cornwall, in the southwest of United Kingdom is the subject of ongoing debate. ... Flag of Cornwall // Overview In July 2000 Mebyon Kernow launched the Declaration for a Cornish Assembly campaign which some three months later led to the creation of The Cornish Constitutional Convention with the objective of establishing a devolved Assembly for Cornwall. ... Mebyon Kernow (Cornish for Sons of Cornwall, often abbrieviated MK) is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Ruin of Cornish tin mine Ruins of Poldice Mine in Gwennap Mining in Cornwall has existed from the days of Stone Age man dating back to between 1000 and 2000 B.C. when Cornwall is thought to have been visited by metal traders from the eastern Mediterranean. ... Cornwall, in the United Kingdom, though administratively part of England, has many cultural differences from the culture of England. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... Saint Pirans Flag Saint Pirans Flag is the flag of Cornwall. ... Gorseth Kernow is a Cornish organization, which exists to maintain the national Celtic spirit of Cornwall. ... The opening verses of Origo Mundi, the first play of the Ordinalia (the magnum opus of mediaeval Cornish literature), written by an unknown monk in the late 14th century Cornish literature refers to written works in the Cornish language. ... Flag of Cornwall The Cornwall Rugby Football Union (CRFU) was formed in 1883. ... Cornwall has been historically Celtic, though Celtic-derived traditions had been moribund for some time before being revived during a late 20th century roots revival. ... Note: This list includes persons born in the County of Cornwall in the United Kingdom and also persons of long-term residence or strong connections with the county. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Diocese of Truro forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ... Flag of Cornwall Cornish emigration consists of Cornish emigrants and their descendants in other parts of Great Britain and in countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Mexico. ... This is a list of topics related to Cornwall, UK. The Cornwall category contains a more comprehensive selection of Cornish articles. ...

References

  1. ^ Britain's Heritage and History - Cornwall. Camelot International. Retrieved on 2007-12-01.
  2. ^ Celtic Museum. Michael Newton/Saorsa Media (1991). Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  3. ^ Kingdoms of British Celts - Cornubia. The History Files. Retrieved on 2007-12-01.
  4. ^ Halliday. F.E. A History of Cornwall, Duckworth, 1959, ISBN 1-84232-123-4, p51.
  5. ^ Halliday, p52.
  6. ^ Metallurgy in Archaeology, R.F. Tylecote, 1962
  7. ^ Simon Keynes and Michael Lapidge (tr.), Alfred the Great - Asser's Life of King Alfred and other contemporary sources, London, Penguin, 1983, p175; cf. ibid, p89.
  8. ^ Michael Swanton (tr.), The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, (2nd ed.) London, Phoenix Press, 2000, p177. The Old English word translated by Swanton as "Cornwall" is "Wealas", which some translations render as "Wales". However, in the Anglo-Saxon period this terminology was applied equally to all Brythonic people and their lands, not specifically to Wales and the Welsh in the modern sense. Since this reference concerns a parcel of adjoining territories contiguous with Cornwall but not with Wales, and since Wales was not under English rule at this date whereas the evidence of Domesday Book indicates that Cornwall was, it may reasonably be concluded that the land in question was "West Wales" (ie. Cornwall), not "North Wales".
  9. ^ Ann Williams and G.H. Martin, (tr.) Domesday Book - a complete translation, London, Penguin, 2002, pp341-357
  10. ^ Cornwall, Peyton, 1998, pp100-108
  11. ^ Philip Payton. (1996). Cornwall. Fowey: Alexander Associates - Cornwall - 1996
  12. ^ Cornwall County Council, "The County Flower."
  13. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average temperature for the United Kingdom.
  14. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average rainfall for the United Kingdom.
  15. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average sunshine for the United Kingdom.
  16. ^ BBC. "County's unitary bid goes forward", 2007-03-27. Retrieved on 2007-03-28. 
  17. ^ http://www.devon-cornwall.police.uk/v3/about/index.htm
  18. ^ BBC. "Cornwall super-council go-ahead", 2007-07-25. Retrieved on 2007-07-25. 
  19. ^ Cornwall (United Kingdom)
  20. ^ British Flags (United Kingdom) from The World Flag Database
  21. ^ Office for National Statistics, 2001. Population Change in England by County 1981-2000.
  22. ^ Office for National Statistics, 2001. Births, Deaths and Natural Change in Cornwall 1974 – 2001.
  23. ^ Office for National Statistics, 1996. % of Population of Pension Age (1996).
  24. ^ London School of Economics - Cornish ethnicity data from the 2001 Census
  25. ^ ONS December 2006
  26. ^ Eurostat
  27. ^ Halliday, p69.
  28. ^ Halliday, p182.
  29. ^ Poverty and deprivation in Cornwall (June 2006)and Poverty and neighbourhood renewal in west Cornwall (January 2002)PDF (756 KiB)
  30. ^ Cornwall Tourist Board, 2003. The total number of visitors to the County includes those on business and visiting relatives and therefore greatly exaggerates the actual numbers. The 5 million quoted is an exaggerated estimate for 2003? The County has suffered from a declining visitor market since 2003. This in part is a result of Tourist Board policy coupled with increasing overseas low cost competition. The 2007 season is seen by many in the industry as one of the worse visitor seasons for many years and will result in further damage to the local economy. Tourism in CornwallPDF (206 KiB).
  31. ^ Scottish Executive, 2004. A literature review of the evidence base for culture, the arts and sport policy.
  32. ^ http://www.linecaught.org.uk/links.htm
  33. ^ . UNESCO Page on the Cornwall & West Devon application
  34. ^ http://www.uec.ac.uk/csm/
  35. ^ http://www.cornish-mining.org.uk/
  36. ^ http://www.gosw.gov.uk/gosw/docs/254795/mode_of_use.doc
  37. ^ Cornish in United Kingdom. European Commission. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  38. ^ Daphne du Maurier. DuMaurier.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  39. ^ The Birds. MovieDiva.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  40. ^ The Killer Mine. BoekBesprekingen.nl. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  41. ^ The Little Country. Amazon.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  42. ^ Over Sea, Under Stone. Powell's Books. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  43. ^ The Adventure of the Devil's Foot. WorldwideSchool.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  44. ^ Biography of William Golding. William-Golding.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  45. ^ William Sydney Graham. CPRW.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  46. ^ St Enodoc Church. RockInfo.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  47. ^ ORME Nicholas(2000) The saints of Cornwall, see also Article on "Saint Uny" at http://www.lelant.info/uny.htm. The patron Saint of Wendron Parish Curch, "Saint Wendrona" is another example.
  48. ^ DOBLE GH (1960) The saints of Cornwall
  49. ^ see for example absences from OLSON B and PADEL OJ (1986) 'A tenth century list of Cornish parochial saints' in Cambridge medieval Celtic studies 12; and Nova legenda Angliae by John of Tynemouth and CAPGRAVE John
  50. ^ St. Piran - Sen piran. St-Piran.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  51. ^ The Prayer Book Rebellion 1549. TudorPlace.com.ar. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  52. ^ Methodism. Cornish-Mining.org.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  53. ^ Truro Cathedral website - History page. TruroCathedral.org.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  54. ^ Newlyn. Cornwalls.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  55. ^ Elizabeth Adela Forbes. PenleeHouse.org.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  56. ^ Samuel John Lamorna Birch. HayleGallery.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  57. ^ Virginia Woolf. NYTimes.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  58. ^ Ben Nicholson. StormFineArts.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  59. ^ Naum Gabo. Artnet.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  60. ^ Bernard Leach and the Leach Pottery. Studio-Pots.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  61. ^ Tate St Ives. Tate.org.uk. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  62. ^ Brass on the Grass concerts during the summer at Constantine
  63. ^ An-Daras.com
  64. ^ BBC News Online, 2006. "Cornish out of running for Games."
  65. ^ BBC NEWS, Surfers aim to break world record
  66. ^ SMH, Record breakers: Ready, set - now pucker up for Bosnia
  67. ^ Objective One media release [1]
  68. ^ http://www.alanrichards.org/cornish3.htm - Cornish recipe site
  69. ^ Martin, Edith (1929). Cornish Recipes, Ancient & Modern. 22nd edition, 1965. 
  70. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/cornwall/6144460.stm
  71. ^ Official list of British protected foods

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... Philip John Payton is professor of Cornish and Australian Studies at the University of Exeter and Director of the Institute of Cornish Studies. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wendron is a village and civil parish in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Constantine is a village and civil parish in Cornwall. ...

Bibliography

  • Halliday, Frank Ernest (2001.). History of Cornwall, 2nd edition. Main text same as 1959 edition but with afterword by Halliday's son.. Thirsk, North Yorkshire: House of Stratus. ISBN 0-7551-0817-5. 

Further reading

  • Price,J. H., Hepton, C.E.L. and Honey, S.I. 1979. The inshore benthic biota of the Lizard Peninsula, south west Cornwalll !. the marine algae: History; Chlorophyta; Phaeophyta. Cornish Studies. 7: 7 - 37.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cornwall
  • Cornwall County Council
  • Campaign for a Cornish Assembly
  • This is Cornwall, local news
  • Cornwall 24 - Cornwall's independent news and discussion site

Coordinates: 50.3° N 4.9° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cornwall GenWeb (4687 words)
Cornwall is a royal duchy, settled by act of parliament upon the eldest son of the king.
Cornwall has few branches of manufacture, except such as relate to the smelting and preparation of its metallic ores; there is a carpet-manufactory at Truro; and coarse woollen cloths are made at Truro and Perran-Arwortbal.
Cornwall abounds with rude monuments of its aboriginal inhabitants, much resembling those found in Ireland, Wales, and North Britian, consisting of large unwrought stones placed erect, either singly or in circles, or with others laid across; and barrows and tumull; the numerous circles of erect stones are generally termed Dawns-mén, the stone dance.
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